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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 57835 matches for " Alzheimer's disease "
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Cognitive assessment in Alzheimer’s disease  [PDF]
Mario A. Parra
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2013.24016
Abstract: Cognitive assessment in Alzheimer’s disease
Letter to the Editor  [PDF]
Lin Shi
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2013.23010
Abstract: Letter; Alzheimer’s Disease
The role of APP in Alzheimer’s disease  [PDF]
Leland Pung, Xingjun Wang, Min Li, Lei Xue
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2013.22008
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most significant neurodegenerative disorders in terms of both severity and cost. Despite being defined over a century ago, there is currently no cure to this disease that affects an increasing elderly population. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been shown to play an important role in AD progression. The amyloid β peptide (Aβ), which accumulates in senile plaques, a central etiological AD factor, is a proteolytic product from APP by the enzymatic action of β- and γ-secretases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the processing and physiological functions of APP, and the involvement of APP and Aβ in AD.
Prevalence of Wild-Type Butyrylcholinesterase Genotype in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia  [PDF]
Beate Mueller, Georg Adler
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.53019
Abstract: Approximately, two-thirds patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are reported to have homozygous wild-type butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) gene expression. It is associated with a higher rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, which ultimately leads to increase in the levels of BuChE in advanced stages of the disease. Rivastigmine, a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, might be of additional benefit in patients with AD with wild-type BuChE allele.
A Prospective, Open-Label, 12 Week Trial of S-adenosylmethionine in the Symptomatic Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Maja L. Rudolph, Michael Rabinoff, Bruce L. Kagan
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.23030
Abstract: Objective: To determine if treatment with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e) might lead to cognitive and behavioral improvement in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interventions: We conducted a prospective, open-label study of six subjects who were given oral SAM-e over 12 weeks and measured the effects on cognition and behavior. Outcome measures: Outcome measures of cognition and behavior included the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Behave-AD, Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), informant version, Blessed Dementia Scale to assess activities of daily living (ADL), the Physical Self-Maintainance Scale (PSMS), and the Lawton-Brody IADL Scale to measure instrumental activities of daily living. Results: At study completion, two subjects were “moderately improved” and 4 were “minimally improved” on the CGI. Five subjects improved on the ADAS-Cog by an average of 20%. No significant side effects were reported. Conclusions: In this small open label study, SAM-e appeared to have a beneficial effect in patients with AD, but the small subject number didn’t provide enough power to show statistical significance. Controlled trials with adequate statistical power to investigate its utility in AD are warranted.
Depression and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Alzheimer's Disease  [PDF]
James R. Hall, Sid E. O'Bryant, Leigh Johnson, Robert C. Barber
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.21006
Abstract: Background: Depression is often viewed as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however little is known regarding the underlying biological mechanisms linking these two diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to both cognitive impairment and depression in past research; however few studies have ex-amined this relation in a sample of Alzheimer's patients. The present study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the relation between serum BDNF levels and depression assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in a group of patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Participants included 169 individuals diagnosed with Probable AD enrolled in the TARC Longitudinal Research Cohort with available BDNF levels and GDS scores. The participants were divided into Depressed (N = 20) and Not Depressed (N = 149) based on GDS scores. Re-sults: BDNF levels significantly predicted level (High vs. Low) of depression (β = 0.066, SE = 0.031, p = 0.034). BDNF levels for the Depressed group were significantly higher than those observed in the Not Depressed group (p. > 0.036). Conclusions: These findings suggest that an upregulation of BDNF possibly exists among depressed AD patients as a response to the chronic inflammatory processes that occur in depression. This upregulation of BDNF appears to persist at least into early stages of Alzheimer's.
DTI and Structural MRI Classification in Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Lilia Mesrob, Marie Sarazin, Valerie Hahn-Barma, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Bruno Dubois, Patrick Gallinari, Serge Kinkingnéhun
Advances in Molecular Imaging (AMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ami.2012.22003
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a fully automated method to individually classify patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and elderly control subjects based on diffusion tensor (DTI) and anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We propose a new multimodal measure that combines anatomical and diffusivity measures at the voxel level. Our approach relies on whole-brain parcellation into 73 anatomical regions and the extraction of multimodal characteristics in these regions. Discriminative features are identified using different feature selection (FS) methods and used in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) for individual classification. Fifteen AD patients and 16 elderly controls were discriminated using mean diffusivity alone, combination of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, and multimodal measures in the 73 ROIs and the overall accuracy obtained was 65.2%, 68.6% and 72% respectively. Overall accuracy reached 99% in multimodal measures when relevant regions were selected.
Biomarkers and Depressive Symptoms in Older Women with and without Cognitive Impairment  [PDF]
James R. Hall, Leigh A. Johnson, Hoa T. Vo, Robert C. Barber, A. Scott Winter, Sid E. O’Bryant
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.22031
Abstract: A number of biological markers have been implicated in late life depression with inconsistent results. The present study examined the relationship between several serum based biomarkers and symptoms of depression in a sample of elderly women with AD or cognitively intact. Methods 171 females (58 with AD and 113 cognitively intact) were recruited from the Longitudinal Research Cohort of the Texas Alzheimer’s Research and Consortium (TARC). Stepwise regressions were conducted with GDS total and subscales and a panel of biomarkers (CRP, IL-10, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, BDNF, and MIF). ApoE4 status was coded (carrier or non-carrier), and the results were analyzed by cognitive status (AD or controls). Results: None of the biomarkers significantly predicted total GDS score for AD cases, controls or sample as a whole. For the Controls, ICAM significantly predicted Dysphoria and level of Apathy. Among AD patients, MIF, ICAM, and CRP, were significantly associated with Apathy. MIF and ICAM were inversely associated with reported Apathy. CRP was positively associated with Apathy. CRP was also positively related to level of perceived Cognitive Impairment. Conclusions: The present study was one of the first to examine biomarkers related to depression symptoms in elderly women with AD and normal controls. For Controls ICAM alone predicted level of apathy. In the AD group, MIF, CRP, and ICAM were significantly associated with apathy. More research examining the relationship between biomarkers and depression is needed in older patients with and without cognitive impairment across genders.
Neural correlates of focused attention in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease  [PDF]
Jennifer R. Bowes, Patrick Stroman, Angeles Garcia
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.24034
Abstract: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is characterized by an early and significant memory impairment, and progresses to affect other cognitive domains. Impairments in Focused Attention (FA) have been observed in patients diagnosed with mild AD. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Stroop paradigm with verbal responses was used to investigate the neural correlates of FA in AD patients. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with mild AD performed a verbal Stroop—fMRI paradigm. Colour words were printed in an incongruent ink colour. Series 1 consisted of four blocks “Read the word” followed by four blocks “Say the colour of the ink”; Series 2 alternated between the two conditions. Functional data were analyzed using SPM5 to detect anatomical areas with significant signal intensity differences between the conditions. Within-group analyses of the colour minus word contrast yielded significant activation in the following left hemisphere regions: precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area (p < 0.05, uncorrected). Relative to cognitively normal older adults who underwent the same experimental task, Stroop performance was significantly worse in AD patients. The fMRI task yielded similar activated brain regions between the two groups. The use of verbal responses in this novel fMRI Stroop task avoids the confusion and memorizing of button locations seen with the manual response modality, allowing the neural correlates of FA to be investigated in AD patients.
Comparison of protein concentrations in serum versus plasma from Alzheimer’s patients  [PDF]
Ryan M. Huebinger, Guanghua Xiao, Kirk C. Wilhelmsen, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Fan Zhang, Sid E. O'Bryant, Robert C. Barber
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2012.13007
Abstract: Background: There is great interest in developing blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, there is no consensus as to what blood fraction is most appropriate for analyzing particular markers. The current study provides empirical evidence regarding how blood-based proteins vary depending on whether they are assayed in serum or plasma. Methods: Weanalyzed concentrations of 100 proteins in matched samples of serum and plasma from 39 Caucasian AD participants from the Texas Alzheimer’s Research and Care Consortium bymultiplex immunoassay. Results: Concentrations of 40 proteins were highly correlated (r2≥ 0.75) between plasma and serum while the remaining proteins were moderately to weakly correlated (r2< 0.75). Discussion: Whether plasma vs. serum is assayed can have a large impact on the observed concentration of some proteins, including several proteins that are of great interest to AD pathophysiology. The current findings may explain the significant discrepancies often times reported in the AD biomarker field.
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