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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 891 matches for " Alon Unger "
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Slum Health: From Understanding to Action
Alon Unger ,Lee W Riley
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040295
Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations
Lee W Riley, Albert I Ko, Alon Unger, Mitermayer G Reis
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-7-2
Abstract: Unlike what occurs with refugee populations, the formal health sector becomes aware of the health problems of slum populations relatively late in the course of their illnesses. As such, the formal health sector inevitably deals with the severe and end-stage complications of these diseases at a substantially greater cost than what it costs to manage non-slum community populations. Because of the informal nature of slum settlements, and cultural, social, and behavioral factors unique to the slum populations, little is known about the spectrum, burden, and determinants of illnesses in these communities that give rise to these complications, especially of those diseases that are chronic but preventable. In this article, we discuss observations made in one slum community of 58,000 people in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil, to highlight the existence of a spectrum and burden of chronic illnesses not likely to be detected by the formal sector health services until they result in complications or death. Lack of health-related data from slums could lead to inappropriate and unrealistic allocation of health care resources by the public and private providers. Similar misassumptions and misallocations are likely to exist in other nations with large urban slum populations.Continued neglect of ever-expanding urban slum populations in the world could inevitably lead to greater expenditure and diversion of health care resources to the management of end-stage complications of diseases that are preventable. A new approach to health assessment and characterization of social-cluster determinants of health in urban slums is urgently needed."Migrants from impoverished hinterlands, living without security, public health, and, often, clean water in the shantytowns of S?o Paulo, Lagos, Karachi, Dhaka, and Jakarta, have as much in common with each other as "People Like Us"–the global class of businessmen, journalists, academics, and anti-terrorism experts–do among themselves." –Pa
An Intriguing Correlation between the Distribution of Star Multiples and Human Adults in Household  [PDF]
Alon Retter
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.32017

It is a known fact that like people, some stars are singles, many others tend to couple in binaries, and fewer are in triples etc. The distribution of multiplicity in the 4559 brightest nearby stars was matched with that of human adults in household in six countries, in which this information could be dug and estimated. A strong resemblance between the two curves is evident. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that this result is significant at a confidence level higher than 98%. Apparently, there should be no connection between the two populations, thus this striking result may supply some clues about the way Nature works. It is noted that extended versions of this work were proposed three years ago, and two predictions of this absurd model have already been verified.

Spelling Accuracy of Consonants in Arabic among Negev Bedouin Students  [PDF]
Alon Fragman
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.34042

This study explored spelling development of the written form of Arabic among native Bedouin Arabic (BA) speakers in second, fourth, and sixth grades (N = 347) from two recognized authorities in south Israel. Specifically, this study focused on guttural (\"\"), uvular-velar (/q/ and \"\" ), emphatic ( \"\" ,\"\" , and \"\"), and dental (/t/) consonants. Three tasks were constructed for this study: real word dictation, pseudo-word dictation, and real word recognition. The results for the real word task, pseudo-word task, and the word recognition task indicated significant improvement in spelling accuracy of the consonants targeted among fourth graders, however there was no additional improvement among the students in the sixth grade. It was also found that with emphatic phonemes accuracy is significantly lower than with all other phonemic groups at all elementary grades. In addition, gender differences were observed with significantly higher scores for girls in all grades targeted for all tasks. Pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed.

Influences on the Marking of Examinations  [PDF]
Christina Bermeitinger, Benjamin Unger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.52014

In the present work, we examined a phenomenon highly relevant in the educational field for assessing or judging performance, that is, the question how the second examiner’s marking is influenced by the evaluation of the first examiner. This phenomenon is known as anchoring in cognitive psychology. In general, in anchoring effects numeric information (i.e., the anchor) pulls estimations or judgments towards the anchor. One domain which is highly important in real life has been investigated only occasionally, that is, the marking of examinations. In three experiments, participants were asked to evaluate a written assignment. The mark (either good or bad) of a ficticious first examiner was used as the anchor. We found clear anchoring effects that were unaffected by feedback in a preceding task (positive, neutral, negative) or the expert status of the presumed first examiner. We discussed the problems related to this effect.

Factors associated with mortality in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis
Payam Nahid, Leah G Jarlsberg, Irina Rudoy, Bouke C de Jong, Alon Unger, L Masae Kawamura, Dennis H Osmond, Philip C Hopewell, Charles L Daley
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-1
Abstract: Retrospective chart review of patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis reported to the San Francisco Tuberculosis Control Program from 1990-2001.Of 565 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 37 (6.6%) died during the study period. Of 37 deaths, 12 (32.4%) had tuberculosis listed as a contributing factor. In multivariate analysis controlling for follow-up time, four characteristics were independently associated with mortality: HIV co-infection (HR = 2.57, p = 0.02), older age at tuberculosis diagnosis (HR = 1.52 per 10 years, p = 0.001); initial sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli (HR = 3.07, p = 0.004); and experiencing an interruption in tuberculosis therapy (HR = 3.15, p = 0.002). The association between treatment interruption and risk of death was due to non-adherence during the intensive phase of treatment (HR = 3.20, p = 0.001). The median duration of treatment interruption did not differ significantly in either intensive or continuation phases between those who died and survived (23 versus 18 days, and 37 versus 29 days, respectively). No deaths were directly attributed to adverse drug reactions.In addition to advanced age, HIV and characteristics of advanced tuberculosis, experiencing an interruption in anti-tuberculosis therapy, primarily due to non-adherence, was also independently associated with increased risk of death. Improving adherence early during treatment for tuberculosis may both improve tuberculosis outcomes as well as decrease mortality.Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) over 1.7 million people with tuberculosis died in 2008 [1]. Advanced age, male gender, delays in diagnosis and treatment, drug resistance, and co-morbid conditions including HIV co-infection, diabetes, renal disease and COPD, have been associated with increased risk of death in patients with active tuberculosis [2-8]. A substantial proportion of deaths occur during tuberculosis treatment despite patient
Estudios constitucionales , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-52002009000200012
Abstract: intended as an interim solution the german constitution, the basic law, has been in force for sixty years. having gained reputation on a national and international level this article analyzes the emergence and development of the basic law, the reason for its success, the role of the federal constitutional court and its contemporary status.
Uncovering undetected hypoglycemic events
Unger J
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S29367
Abstract: covering undetected hypoglycemic events Review (4519) Total Article Views Authors: Unger J Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 57 - 74 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S29367 Received: 21 December 2011 Accepted: 08 February 2012 Published: 08 March 2012 Jeff Unger Catalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USA Abstract: Hypoglycemia is the rate-limiting factor that often prevents patients with diabetes from safely and effectively achieving their glycemic goals. Recent studies have reported that severe hypoglycemia is associated with a significant increase in the adjusted risks of major macrovascular events, major microvascular events, and mortality. Minor hypoglycemic episodes can also have serious implications for patient health, psychological well being, and adherence to treatment regimens. Hypoglycemic events can impact the health economics of the patient, their employer, and third-party payers. Insulin treatment is a key predictor of hypoglycemia, with one large population-based study reporting an overall prevalence of 7.1% (type 1 diabetes mellitus) and 7.3% (type 2 diabetes mellitus) in insulin-treated patients, compared with 0.8% in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with an oral sulfonylurea. Patients with type 1 diabetes typically experience symptomatic hypoglycemia on average twice weekly and severe hypoglycemia once annually. The progressive loss of islet cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a higher risk of both symptomatic and unrecognized hypoglycemia over time. Patients with diabetes who become hypoglycemic are also more susceptible to developing defective counter-regulation, also known as hypoglycemia awareness autonomic failure, which is life-threatening and must be aggressively addressed. In patients unable to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms, frequent home monitoring or use of continuous glucose sensors are critical. Primary care physicians play a key role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, particularly in those requiring intensive insulin therapy, yet physicians are often unaware of the multitude of consequences of hypoglycemia or how to deal with them. Careful monitoring, adherence to guidelines, and use of optimal treatment combinations are all important steps toward improving care in patients with diabetes. The most important goals are for primary care physicians to recognize that every patient treated with antihyperglycemic medications is at risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia and to ask patients about hypoglycemia at every visit.
Insulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician
Unger J
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S14653
Abstract: sulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician Review (4857) Total Article Views Authors: Unger J Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 253 - 261 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S14653 Jeff Unger Catalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. All patients with the disease require treatment to achieve and maintain the target glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) level of 6.5%–7%. Pharmacological management of T2DM typically begins with the introduction of oral medications, and the majority of patients require exogenous insulin therapy at some point in time. Primary care physicians play an essential role in the management of T2DM since they often initiate insulin therapy and intensify regimens over time as needed. Although insulin therapy is prescribed on an individualized basis, treatment usually begins with basal insulin added to a background therapy of oral agents. Prandial insulin injections may be added if glycemic targets are not achieved. Treatments may be intensified over time using patient-friendly titration algorithms. The goal of insulin intensification within the primary care setting is to minimize patients' exposure to chronic hyperglycemia and weight gain, and reduce patients' risk of hypoglycemia, while achieving individualized fasting, postprandial, and A1C targets. Simplified treatment protocols and insulin delivery devices allow physicians to become efficient prescribers of insulin intensification within the primary care arena.
Was bedeutet Adoleszenz, und wie kann man sie erforschen? What does Adolescence Mean, and How to Best Study It?
Susanne Unger
querelles-net , 2003,
Abstract: Vera Kings Buch besch ftigt sich mit der Frage, wie die Adoleszenz in westlichen modernisierten Gesellschaften am besten theoretisch zu verstehen und zu untersuchen sei. In ihrer Analyse der Bedeutung und des Verlaufs der Adoleszenz berücksichtigt King stets die unterschiedlichen Bedingungen und Faktoren, welche auf die Adoleszenz einwirken, so u.a. die Generationszugeh rigkeit, Geschlecht und sozialer Hintergrund bzw. soziale Ungleichheit. W hrend sich der erste Teil des Buches mit wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen und methodologischen Fragen zur Adoleszenzforschung befasst, stellt King im zweiten Teil konkrete Analysen zu drei Schwerpunktthemen vor: Familie, K rperbedeutungen und Peer Group in der Adoleszenz. Vera King’s book investigates how adolescence in Western modernised societies can best be conceived of and investigated. In her analysis of the meaning of adolescence and the processes which constitute it, King consistently takes into consideration the varying conditions and factors which influence adolescence such as, cohort, gender, and social inequality. Part I of the book deals with the history of science and methodological questions in the research on adolescence. In Part II, King analyses the role of family, of the body, and of peer groups during adolescence.
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