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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13295 matches for " Allophonic Theory "
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Allophonic Perception in Dyslexia: An overview
Escritos de Psicología (Internet) , 2011,
Abstract: allophonic theory claims that people affected by dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic rather than phonemic units. after a reminder about the featural theory of speech perception, the evidence supporting the allophonic theory is summarized. the difference between allophonic perception and reduced phoneme perception acuity is emphasized, the latter being a common characteristic of various troubles of language development and is thus not specific to dyslexia. taking account of this fundamental difference, the counter-evidence against allophonic theory is examined and proposals for future testing and remediation are formulated.
Allophonic Perception in Dyslexia: An Overview / Percepción alofónica en la dislexia: una revisión
Willy Serniclaes
Escritos de Psicología , 2011,
Abstract: Allophonic theory claims that people affected by dyslexia perceive speech in allophonic rather than phonemic units. After a brief review of the featural theory of speech perception, the evidence supporting the allophonic theory is summarized. The difference between allophonic perception and reduced phoneme perception acuity is emphasized, the latter being a common characteristic of various disorders of language development and thus not specific to dyslexia. Taking this fundamental difference into account, the counterevidence against allophonic theory is examined, and proposals for future testing and remediation are formulated.
David Eddington
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2006, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.6.2.48781
Abstract: In American English, /t/ in capitalistic is generally flapped while in militaristic it is not due to the influence of capi[ ]al and mili[t ]ary. This is called Paradigm Uniformity or PU (Steriade, 2000). Riehl (2003) presents evidence to refute PU which when reanalyzed supports PU. PU is thought to work in tandem with a rule of allophonic distribution, the nature of which is debated. An approach is suggested that eliminates the need for the rule versus PU dichotomy; allophonic distribution is carried out by analogy to stored items in the mental lexicon. Therefore, the influence of the pronunciation of capital on capitalistic is determined in the same way as the pronunciation of /t/ in monomorphemic words such as Mediterranean is. A number of analogical computer simulations provide evidence to support this notion.
David Britain,Peter Trudgill
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2005, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.5.1.47951
Abstract: When mutually intelligible, but distinct dialects of the same language come into contact, linguistic accommodation occurs. When this contact is long-term, for example in the emerging speech communities of post-colonial settings, such as the English in Australia and New Zealand (Trudgill 1986; Trudgill 2004; Britain, in press); oras a result of, say, New Town development (Omdal 1977; Kerswill and Williams 1992, 2000; Dyer 2002; Britain and Simpson, forthcoming); indentured labour schemes (Barz and Siegel 1988; Siegel 1987, 1997; Moag 1979, Domingue 1981, Mesthrie 1992); or land reclamation (Britain 1991, 1997a 1997b, 2002a 2002b), the accommodation can become routinised and permanent, and, through the process of koineisation, a new dialect can emerge when children acquire accommodated language as their Ll . These new dialects are characteristically less 'complex', show evidence of intermediate 'interdialect' forms, and contain fewer marked or minority linguistic features than the dialects which came together in the original mix. In this paper we wish to highlight another possible outcome of koineisation, namely reallocation. Reallocation occurs where two or more variants in the dialect mix survive the levelling process but are refunctionalised, evolving new social or linguistic functions in the new dialect. We provide a range of examples of social and linguistic reallocation, from a number of historical and contemporary speech communities around the world, the dialects of which have developed from long-term contact and linguistic accommodation. We then focus on examples of phonological, morphological and lexical reallocation in one speech community affected by dialect contact, the Fens of Eastern England.
The Times of Archaeology and Archaeologies of Time
Andrew Gardner
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2001, DOI: 10.5334/pia.165
Abstract: The subject matter of archaeology as a discipline is explicitly structured by time, and ‘timetravel’ is a common feature of popular discourses about the study of the past. Yet archaeology is also the discipline which, amongst its other theoretical shortcomings, has singularly failed to develop any theory of time. Chronology is ever-present as a measuring tool, but only in rare cases has there been any consideration of this as but one, culturally-specific kind of temporality among many others experienced by people in their daily lives. In this paper, I will discuss various perspectives on archaeological times, including more sophisticated approaches developed since the later 1980s, and argue for an abandoning of the dualism between ‘measured’ and ‘experienced’ times which has emerged in some of these more critical attempts to grapple with the issue. Time is fundamental to archaeology, but not just because we ‘use’ dates. Rather, archaeologists should be able to contribute to wider discussions of time from their understandings of the materialized temporalities of past human agents, and to develop perspectives on the importance of these to the very nature of human social agency as a form of engagement with the world.
A Discussion of the Suitability of Only One vs More than One Theory for Depicting Corporate Governance  [PDF]
Abdullah Al Mamun, Qaiser Rafique Yasser, Md. Ashikur Rahman
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.41005

Agency theory predicts that the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and the chairman positions should be held by different individuals in order to protect shareholder’s interest. Though there are mixed evidences on CEO duality and firm performance, most research have found that there is negative relationship between CEO duality and firm performance.  Although, in the last decades of the twentieth century, agency theory became the dominant force in the theoretical understanding of corporate governance, it does not however cover all aspects of corporate governance. This paper aims to explore whether it is better to combine various theories in order to describe effective and good corporate governance or theorizing corporate governance based on one theory only. This will cover corporate governance theories which include agency theory, stakeholder theory, stewardship theory, and institutional theory.

Financial Intermediaries in a Search Theoretic Model of Bilateral Exchange  [PDF]
Andrew C. Chang
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.51005
Abstract: This note investigates an effect of financial intermediaries on bilateral exchange. In a search theoretic framework, it is possible for Pareto inefficient outcomes in bilateral exchanges between firms and laborers, when firms are forced to secure liquidity through financial intermediaries and are unable to communicate the value of the firm to the intermediary. The quantity of labor supplied to firms in the model is below the Pareto optimal level.
Soldner Had Found in 1802 the Deflection of the Light by the Sun as the General Relativity Shows  [PDF]
Marc Mignonat
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.98095
Abstract: Systematically, it is written in the literature that only the general relativity (GR) allows finding the just value of the deflection of the light by the sun. Yet, we noted, by reading over the original text of SOLDNER of 1801: “Ueber die Ablenkung eines Lichtstrals von seiner geradlinigen Bewegung, durch die Attraktion eines Weltkörpers, the welchem er nahe vorbei geht” (that we think it is important to put in English in full in Appendix) that, contrary to what we read since about 100 years, he found the right value. Soldner had started from a Newtonian gravitational calculation and, with the value of 1801, find 1.64”. This calculation, with the actual values, allows finding the right value of 1.752”. There are reasons to explain the wrong calculations which we usually make. However, there is no epistemological reason for questioning the general relativity. Some observations are only explained by the GR. But the Newtonian calculations are much simpler. We can continue to say that the theory of Newton is incomplete but we cannot say it is false.
A Game Theoretic Approach for Analyzing the System of Incentives and Restraints Present in Chinese Financial Systems  [PDF]
Lin Hu, Fan Yang, Zijun Sha
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.47066

Currently, the most important issue with respect to financial institutions is how to motivate staff without providing perverse incentives. For instance, with the implementation of a proper incentive system, staff will be motivated via their self-interest to create financial innovations to better price and hedge risk. However, this system must also be designed with checks and balances in mind because it is also very easy to institute a system in which perverse incentives drive individual behavior. In an effort to modernize the Chinese financial system, it is important to understand both the underlying mechanism by which people respond to incentives to better design compensation schemes that maximize innovation. Utilizing game theory, it is possible to analyze the interplay between these two drivers of human action. From this analysis it becomes possible to design better ways of compensating staff to curb undesirable behavior by those in the financial industry while still promoting innovation within the field.

Evolution, Quantization, Relativity: An “Ab Initio” Model  [PDF]
Sebastiano Tosto
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.914161
Abstract: “\"\"= everything flows”, Eraclitus, (Ephesus, 535-475 B.C.). If really in Nature everything changes and progresses, then at least two questions arise: 1) how can be these changes entropic but nonetheless somehow predictable without risk of oxymoronic behavior; 2) how can Science conform itself to follow this requirement of the Nature. To attempt an answer to these questions, the present paper introduces an ab initio theoretical model aimed to show that physical information is actually nothing else but straightforward quantum and relativistic implication of the concept of evolution.
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