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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2085 matches for " Allan Sathiel "
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Gender Consideration in Sustainable Land Management Project Activities on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region: Lessons and Future Outlook  [PDF]
Wakuru Magigi, Allan Sathiel
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.45022
Abstract: The paper contributes on understanding gender considerations into Sustainable Land Management (SLM) project activities on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region. Specifically, it documents gender profile and assesses the project activities along with gender considerations, where critical issues, risks and opportunities in relation to gender mainstreaming in SLM project activities are highlighted. It evaluates also the capacity for mainstreaming gender issues into the institutions involved in project implementation. The study employed structured interview and consultative meetings methods with key actors identified. A total of 500 respondents were interviewed in the project catchment areas in the region. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The paper winds up by consolidating key strategic areas for intervention as future outlook and lessons which manifests benchmarks for the Kilimanjaro region to adopt a more programmatic approach to sustainable land management and elsewhere of the same in other cities with the same context in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Experts in Natural Resource Damages and Toxic Tort Litigation  [PDF]
Allan Kanner
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.73036

Expert testimony plays a critical role in environmental and toxic tort litigation [1]. While most litigation settles, the work of an expert should, from the outset, be prepared with trial in mind. First and foremost, an expert, using the appropriate expertise, must be able to resolve questions that will assist the trier of fact in making determinations necessary under the law applicable to the case. In addition, an expert must demonstrate a solid scientific foundation in all of his or her opinions. Once armed with the opinions reached in the case, the forensic expert should work with the trial team to simplify proof, clarify the presentation and integrate it with other trial proof and themes [2]. This effort should include the realistic identification of any perceived or real shortcomings regarding the information available, the approach taken by or conclusions reached by the expert. Ongoing communication between the trial team and the expert throughout the discovery and pre-trial litigation is essential.

Issues Trustees Face in Natural Resource Damage Assessments, Part I  [PDF]
Allan Kanner
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.84035
Abstract: The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process evaluates natural resource injuries arising from hazardous waste or oil spills and determines the appropriate remedies. In this article, the first of a two part series, I address the issues that Natural Resource Trustees regularly face during the NRDA process outlined in numerous environmental statutes. Large scale environmental disasters call for sound science, but also discretionary and informed decision-making specific to the particulars of the scenario faced by the trustee that will make the public whole. If the environmental statutes are read correctly, a NRDA will enable a trustee to make the best decisions regarding restoration plans and damages owed. However, constant challenges to the trustee’s authority by the responsible party during the assessment process are not only inconsistent with the trustee’s statutorily delegated authority and the purpose of the environmental statutes themselves, but add considerable delay and cost to the restoration process. This article outlines the NRDA process a trustee typically follows while addressing common misinterpretations of statutory authority that often hinder the ultimate goal of environmental restoration.
Issues Trustees Face in Natural Resource Damage Assessments, Part II  [PDF]
Allan Kanner
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.84034
Abstract: The first part of this two part series laid out the process that a Natural Resource Trustee will follow to complete a sound Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) as well as the typical challenges they face from the Responsible Party. The second part will present the typical issues that the trustee will face as the NRDA is tested in a court of law. A major litigation hurdle typically concerns what counts as “sound science” under the fact specific circumstances of a particular case. Many responsible parties will attempt to challenge a trustee’s assessment under the Daubert standard, which is the test for admissibility of evidence. However, because trustees are selected for their scientific expertise and subject to applicable laws and policies, including guidance on how to conduct a NRDA, trustees are generally the best arbiters of appropriate science, and as such should not be subject to a rigorous Daubert analysis.
The Heart of Learning  [PDF]
Allan M. MacKinnon
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.412A2003
Abstract: This essay explores the central importance of human interest and aspiration in learning. In an age when our educational institutions and ministries of education seem to be preoccupied with defining and measuring the “outcomes” of schooling, there is a great need to reconsider what we are doing in curriculum studies and refocus at least some of our energy on helping young people develop and sustain their interests. I use an autobiographical account of my interest in playing guitar and how this is related to my formative school experiences to develop my argument. The article also reviews literature tracing educational research and writing that focuses on the role of interest in learning.
Factors Underpinning at Least Three Years of Participant Adherence to a Community-Focused Modified Boxing Program  [PDF]
Paul Perkins, Allan Hahn
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.72023
Abstract: In Australia, a modified form of boxing aimed at maximising participant safety and enjoyment has existed since 2006. Known as Box’Tag, it precludes impacts to the head and neck, in accordance with recommendations of medical and other experts. It also makes use of automated scoring technology. From 2012-2016, a Box’Tag program was run at a Police Community Youth Club (PCYC) in Canberra, Australia, with the first author of this paper as the coach. It rapidly grew to include more than 100 regular participants, which was ten times the number involved in a conventional boxing program that it replaced. During its term, it gradually evolved to increasingly take on characteristics that seemed to be valued by participants. Upon its closure, participants were asked to complete a Program Evaluation Form as part of standard PCYC procedure. Among participants who met this request, there were 38 (18 F, 20 M) who had been involved in the program for at least three years. We subsequently carried out thematic analysis of their written feedback to identify which aspects of the program had attracted them and were primarily responsible for their prolonged participation. Four major themes emerged, covering the program environment, the underlying concept, the timetable and the characteristics and outcomes of the training itself. Specifically, the environment was considered friendly, welcoming and supportive. The concept was seen to have extended beyond a sport program to encompass the establishment of a dynamic community brought together by a common interest. The program timetable was regarded as accommodating and flexible, and the training itself was described as safe, fun and beneficial in multiple respects. Overall, the participants expressed deep affection for the program. Our findings accord with those of other researchers who have sought to discern factors influencing adherence to sport and exercise programs and who now suggest that traditional, highly instructional approaches to the operation of such programs might contribute to participant dropout. Prolonged involvement in the Canberra PCYC Box’Tag program is explicable in terms of self-determination theory, in that the program seems to have provided conditions that supported participant growth in autonomy, competence and relatedness. A strong case exists for replication of these conditions in other settings.
Figuring out what works: a need for more and better studies on the relationship between ICU organization and outcomes
Allan Garland
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc8843
Abstract: In the previous issue of Critical Care, Billington and colleagues [1] presented an intriguing study assessing differences in intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes and resource use according to the base specialty of intensivists. While certain to be controversial, this type of research is important, and we need much more of it. But, first, details about the study itself.This retrospective statistical analysis used data from three medical-surgical ICUs in Calgary, Alberta. All are closed ICUs, with house staff, and a single intensivist in charge for each block of time. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of outcomes and resource use with the specialty training of their 26 intensivists. Specialties were divided into three groups: (a) internal medicine, (b) internal medicine and pulmonary subspecialty, or (c) all others, representing anesthesia, surgery, and emergency medicine.While not perfect, their analysis is appropriate, adjusting for the type and severity of illness and a number of other potentially confounding variables and using methods to deal with the intrinsically clustered data. They found some differences according to intensivist specialty, most prominent of which was that adjusted ICU mortality was significantly lower for patients under the care of those trained in internal medicine and pulmonary medicine. However, when all of their data were considered, the association between the intensivists' base specialty and outcomes was not very robust. As the authors indicate, these findings cannot be assumed to represent a causal pathway, and without additional studies they cannot be taken as either definitive or generalizable. However, it is completely plausible that such differences exist.Variations in care and outcomes not related to patient or illness characteristics have been found throughout the health care system. Differences have been found at the level of geographic region [2], hospital [3], physician specialty, and individual physi
Clinical and laboratory characteristics of drug-induced vasculitic syndromes
Allan Wiik
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/ar1805
Abstract: The differential diagnosis between drug-induced and idiopathic vasculitic conditions may be difficult in the individual patient. Because the mere withdrawal of the offending drug in the former situation is usually sufficient to attain complete remission of clinical symptoms, the distinction between these syndromes is very important. Failure to recognize a relationship with a drug can lead to fatal organ damage.The report by Branka Bonaci-Nikolic and coworkers [1] included in this issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy is a good example of clinical research aimed at identifying details that can aid in distinguishing between seemingly related syndromes, such as idiopathic vasculitides (IVs) and drug-induced vasculitides (DIVs). The clinical importance of recognizing patients with DIV is great because withdrawal of the offending drug usually leads to resolution of the syndrome without further therapy, whereas the IVs must always be treated with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs, and sometimes even with plasmapheresis.The study included 72 consecutive patients who had been found to be positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed at proteinase-3 or myeloperoxidase. Twenty-nine of these patients suffered from Wegener's granulomatosis, 23 from microscopic polyangiitis, four from Churg–Strauss syndrome, and 16 from a DIV caused by either propylthiouracil or methimazol. All sera were additionally studied for presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), antihistone and anticardiolipin antibodies, cryoglobulins, complement factors C3 and C4, C-reactive protein and α1-antitrypsin.Cutaneous vasculitis was found to be most common in the DIV patients, being present in 63%, whereas it was found in only 25% of the IV patients. In contrast, renal vasculitis was seen in 75% of the IV patients but only in 19% of the DIV patients. Four of the DIV patients presented with symptoms compatible with an IV-like syndrome (one Wegener's granulomatosis, three mi
Vaccinia tricks Toll
Rachel Allan
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-reports0079
Abstract: A search of the vaccinia virus sequences identified two potential TLR homologs, A46R and A52R. Subsequent cloning confirmed that these proteins each contained a putative TIR domain, although they lacked a further conserved set of amino acids known to be important for TLR signaling. The viral homologs could therefore inhibit Toll signaling by competing for a TIR-dependent substrate while failing to recruit downstream components. To explore this possibility, the authors used a reporter gene system to study the effects of A46R and A52R on the Toll-like IL-1 receptor pathway. Expression of A46R and A52R in human cells was found to inhibit NFκB activation following IL-1 stimulation but had no effect on an unrelated pathway. Inhibition was more profound for the A52R protein. A52R was subsequently coexpressed with high levels of various IL-1 signaling intermediates in an attempt to pinpoint its action within the signaling pathway. Upstream components, including MyD88, failed to compensate for the action of A52R, whereas overexpression of downstream IRAK restored NFκB activation. These results indicate that A52R acts at the level of MyD88, consistent with its predicted TIR-dependent mechanism. Similar experiments performed on the IL-8 and TLR-4 systems confirmed that A52R could inhibit multiple TIR-dependent pathways.The authors conclude that A46R and A52R can effectively inhibit TIR-dependent signaling pathways. These proteins may therefore be useful for defining the importance of TIR-dependent pathways in the host immune response.The ancient origin of Toll pathways is reflected by their occurrence throughout multicellular organisms - from plants to insects and mammals. Studies of Drosophila Toll proteins have provided valuable insights into the role of these innate pattern-recognition receptors. Thus, we now know that binding of Toll receptors by microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide leads to the activation of appropriate immune defense mechanisms in the host. Clo
DAP12 and dendritic cells
Rachel Allan
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-reports0080
Abstract: Knock-in mice expressing a non-functional DAP12 mutant were generated using standard homologous recombination and embryonic stem cell techniques. Reverse-transcriptase-coupled-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed that these mice were homozygous for the mutant gene, and that the integrity of flanking genes was maintained. DAP12 mutant mice developed normally, with no significant alteration in the levels of lymphoid and myeloid cell subsets in their peripheral blood. The lytic capacity of their NK cells was assessed by killing assays in vitro. Lysis mediated specifically by the DAP12-associated NK receptor Ly49D was severely impaired, although alternative killing systems (dependent on other transmembrane adaptors) remained intact. It has previously been suggested that activating receptors such as Ly49D and Ly49H might regulate the expression of their inhibitory isoforms. Flow cytometric analysis of NK cells from DAP12 mutant mice revealed a normal inhibitory receptor repertoire, however, indicating that NK cell differentiation was not affected. The most significant effects of DAP12 deficiency were apparent in dendritic cell populations. Although no detectable changes in dendritic cell populations in lymphoid organs were observed, immunohistochemical staining of lympho-epithelial tissues revealed striking abnormal accumulations of dendritic cells in the mucosa of the small intestine, the dermis of buccal epithelia and the dermis of the skin. No gross deficiencies were observed in the phenotype of DAP12-deficient dendritic cells, their migratory capacity or their ability to stimulate allogeneic CD4 T cells, but they were unable to prime hapten-specific CD8 T cells in a contact-sensitivity test.A related paper describing the failure of DAP12-deficient mice to develop autoimmunity appeared in the same issue of Immunity and is available to subscribers.The authors conclude that DAP12 must have a critical role in myeloid dendritic cell/pre-dendritic cell differentiation and/or activation,
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