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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 130728 matches for " Alla V. Shaboltas "
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Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study
Weihai Zhan, Alla V Shaboltas, Roman V Skochilov, Andrei P Kozlov, Tatiana V Krasnoselskikh, Nadia Abdala
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-629
Abstract: A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, health status, alcohol use, and violence involving sexual partners among 440 participants who were recruited from an STI (sexually transmitted infection) clinic center in St. Petersburg, Russia for a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis.Overall, 47.0% participants were classified as misusing alcohol and 7.2% participants perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Participants with alcohol misuse were 3.28 times (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.34-8.04) as likely as those without alcohol misuse to perpetrate IPV. Among participants who had consumed alcohol in the past three months, those who usually drank on the streets or in parks (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.67-18.90) were more likely to perpetrate IPV.Both alcohol misuse and certain drinking contexts (e.g., drinking on the streets or at parks) were associated with IPV. The association between drinking contexts and IPV needs further investigation, as do the underlying mechanisms for this association. IPV prevention initiatives might benefit from reducing alcohol misuse. Drinking contexts such as drinking on the streets or at parks as well as the factors related to the use of alcohol in these contexts may also need to be addressed.Alcohol consumption, particularly at hazardous drinking levels, is highly prevalent in Russia. The estimates based on 2001-2003 data revealed that, on average, each Russian aged 15 years and older consumed 15.2 L of pure ethanol alcohol per year, among the highest rates in the world [1]. Another study conducted in a western city of Russia between 1999-2000 showed that 75% of male and 47% of female workers were classified as misusing alcohol according to the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) criteria [2]. Alcohol misuse causes serious public health problems in Russia. It has been reported that more than half of all deaths at ages 15-54 years in Russia were alcohol related, d
Correlates of abortions and condom use among high risk women attending an std clinic in st Petersburg, Russia
Nadia Abdala, Weihai Zhan, Alla V Shaboltas, Roman V Skochilov, Andrei P Kozlov, Tatiana V Krasnoselskikh
Reproductive Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-28
Abstract: Cross-sectional analysis of data collected between 2009 and 2010 from women who had casual or multiple sexual partners in the previous three months was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the independent correlates of abortion(s) and no condom use in the prior three months. Independent variables included socio-demographics, at risk drinking per alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT-C) criteria, having sex after drinking alcohol, having a sexual partner who injects illicit drugs, and parity.Of 87 participants, 45% had an abortion in their lifetime and 26% did not use condoms in the prior three months. Abortion was independently associated with low income (OR, 3.33, 95%CI, 1.13-9.78) and at risk drinking (OR, 3.52, 95%CI, 1.24-10.05). Lack of condom use was independently associated with being more likely to have sex after drinking (OR, 3.37, 95%CI, 1.10-10.28) and parity (OR, 3.69, 95%CI, 1.25-10.89).Programs to increase contraceptive use including condom use among women at high risk for STD/HIV in Russia are needed. Programs to reduce sexual HIV risk and abortion rates must address alcohol misuse and target women with limited income.Abortions were the primary means of birth control in the Soviet Union [1,2], and abortion rates in Russia are among the highest in the world today. Data from the United Nations Statistics Division from 2003 to 2004, show an abortion rate in Russia of 54% per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44, which is more than twice the rate in the United States (21% per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44) and the highest of the Eastern and Western European countries [3]. Studies in Russia show that abortion prevalence as reported by women can range from 50% to 75% in different cities [4,5]. Although efforts to decrease unwanted pregnancy and abortion rates in the mid-1990s [6-9] have led to a reduction of abortions and better attitudes toward contraceptive methods in Russia [9], recent studies show that some Russian women still prefer not to us
History of Childhood Abuse, Sensation Seeking, and Intimate Partner Violence under/Not under the Influence of a Substance: A Cross-Sectional Study in Russia
Weihai Zhan, Alla V. Shaboltas, Roman V. Skochilov, Tatiana V. Krasnoselskikh, Nadia Abdala
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068027
Abstract: Objectives To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Conclusions IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.
Drug choice, spatial distribution, HIV risk, and HIV prevalence among injection drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia
Gina Kruse, Russell Barbour, Robert Heimer, Alla V Shaboltas, Olga V Toussova, Irving F Hoffman, Andrei P Kozlov
Harm Reduction Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-6-22
Abstract: We examined behaviors associated with HIV risk among 900 IDUs who inject heroin, psychostimulants, or multiple substances in 2002. Study participants completed screening questionnaires that provided data on sociodemographics, drug use, place of residence and injection- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. HIV testing was performed and prevalence was modeled using general estimating equation (GEE) analysis. Individuals were clustered by neighborhood and disaggregated into three drug use categories: Heroin Only Users, Stimulant Only Users, and Mixed Drug Users.Among Heroin Only Users, younger age, front/backloading of syringes, sharing cotton and cookers were all significant predictors of HIV infection. In contrast, sharing needles and rinse water were significant among the Stimulant Only Users. The Mixed Drug Use group was similar to the Heroin Only Users with age, front/back loading, and sharing cotton significantly associated with HIV infection. These differences became apparent only when neighborhood of residence was included in models run using GEE.The type of drug injected was associated with distinct behavioral risks. Risks specific to Stimulant Only Users appeared related to direct syringe sharing. The risks specific to the other two groups are common to the process of sharing drugs in preparation to injecting. Across the board, IDUs could profit from prevention education that emphasizes both access to clean syringes and preparing and apportioning drug with these clean syringes. However, attention to neighborhood differences might improve the intervention impact for injectors who favor different drugs.Injection drug use is at the heart of Russia's HIV epidemic and the majority of new infections are associated with injection drug use [1,2]. Of the approximately 40,000 new HIV cases registered in Russia in 2003, 76% were among injection drug users [3]. Heroin and psychostimulants are the dominant injection drugs of abuse in Russia [1,4]. St. Petersburg has been o
Thinning of Emulsion Water-in-Oil Films Stabilized with Modified Aluminum Hydroxide under Influence of Applied Pressure Drop  [PDF]
Alla V. Nushtaeva
Soft (Soft) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/soft.2014.31002
Abstract:

The results of studies of thinning free water-in-oil emulsion films stabilized by solid particles by the Applied Pressure Drop Technique (APDT) are reported. The quasi-equilibrium film thickness achieved by slow increasing the pressure drop was smaller than the rupture thickness obtained by sharp increasing the pressure. It is shown that non-equilibrium films ruptured with thicknesses corresponding to adjustment of the packing of solid particles in the films. It is supposed that the restructuring package is the cause of the earlier breakthrough of the film.

Risk Behavior as a Reaction on Uncontrollable Stress
Alia V. Shaboltas,Dmitry A. Zhukov
Psychology in Russia : State of Art , 2011,
Abstract: Displacement reaction is a universal behavioral reaction for stressful situation. Displacement behavior becomes more probable under uncontrollable stress. Very often human displacement behavior is revealed in different forms of risk behaviors. Many forms of risk behavior are deviant and asocial. The essay reviews the significance of uncontrollable social stress management in humans. Importance of studies on uncontrollable stress for prevention of displacement and risk behaviors is discussed.
Analysis of Joint Ventures Financial State
Alla V. Dmitrenko
European Researcher , 2013,
Abstract: The article describes the basic techniques for the analysis of businesses financial state and methods that were adapted for the joint ventures activities, analyses joint venture financial state, makes conclusions and submits reasonable proposals for improvement of its future activities
Lp-Estimations of Vector Fields in Unbounded Domains  [PDF]
Alexey V. Kalinin, Alla A. Tyukhtina, Artem A. Zhidkov
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.31008
Abstract: Some new estimations of scalar products of vector fields in unbounded domains are investigated. Lp-estimations for the vector fields were proved in special weighted functional spaces. The paper generalizes our earlier results for bounded domains. Estimations for scalar products make it possible to investigate wide classes of mathematical physics problems in physically inhomogeneous domains. Such estimations allow studying issues of correctness for problems with non-smooth coefficients. The paper analyses solvability of stationary set of Maxwell equations in inhomogeneous unbounded domains based on the proved Lp-estimations.
On forbidden high-energy electrons as a source of background in X-ray and gamma-ray observations
Alla V. Suvorova,Alexei V. Dmitriev
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The study is devoted to a problem of electron-induced contaminant to X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysical measurements on board low-orbiting satellites. We analyzed enhancements of electron fluxes in energy range 100 - 300 keV observed at equatorial and low latitudes by a fleet of NOAA/POES low-orbiting satellites over the time period from 2003 to 2005. It was found that 100-300 keV electron fluxes in the forbidden zone below the inner radiation belt enhanced by several orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms and/or under strong compressions of the magnetosphere. The enhancements are related to high substorm activity and occurred at any local time. Intense fluxes of the energetic electrons in the forbidden zone can be considered as an essential contaminant to X-ray and gamma-ray measurements at low-latitude and low-altitude orbits.
Solid-State Cultivation of Edible Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp. under Laboratory Conditions  [PDF]
Anastasia A. Shnyreva, Elena Y. Kozhevnikova, Artem V. Barkov, Alla V. Shnyreva
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.72010
Abstract: Oyster mushrooms of genus Pleurotus are well known as valuable edible mushrooms which are broadly cultivated in the world as well as wildly propagated in forests of the temperate climate zones including Russia. Indoor cultivation conditions adapted for a laboratory with non-specialized facilities were suggested for effective solid-state cultivation and fruit bodies’ production of Pleurotus species. Seven of 9 Pleurotus species of different origin produced fruit bodies successfully. The best fructification was shown for species P. sajor-caju, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius with fruit body yields of 74%, 72%, and 61% by dry substrate weight in the first flushing cycle. Fruit bodies appeared in five to 10-day flushes. “Spawn run” stage was completed within 17 to 24 days, the longest colonization stage (26 days) being for the pink oyster, P. djamor. The cultivation parameters proposed in this study can be employed with ease for laboratory and “home” cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The species and strains’ identification was confirmed by restriction analysis of ITS region of rRNA gene cluster. Molecular barcodes based on restriction enzyme (AluI, and BsuRI) profiles of ITS sequences were shown to be applicable for molecular genotyping of Pleurotus species of different origin.
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