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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1721 matches for " Alison Shorto "
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Quantitative genetic analysis of life-history traits of Caenorhabditis elegans in stressful environments
Simon C Harvey, Alison Shorto, Mark E Viney
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-15
Abstract: We found that lines of C. elegans vary in their phenotypic plasticity of dauer larva development, i.e. there is variation in the likelihood of developing into a dauer larva for the same environmental change. There was also variation in how lifetime fecundity and the rate of reproduction changed under conditions of environmental stress. These traits were related, such that lines that are highly plastic for dauer larva development also maintain a high population growth rate when stressed. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on two chromosomes that control the dauer larva development and population size phenotypes. The QTLs affecting the dauer larva development and population size phenotypes on chromosome II are closely linked, but are genetically separable. This chromosome II QTL controlling dauer larva development does not encompass any loci previously identified to control dauer larva development. This chromosome II region contains many predicted 7-transmembrane receptors. Such proteins are often involved in information transduction, which is clearly relevant to the control of dauer larva development.C. elegans alters both its larval development and adult reproductive strategy in response to environmental stress. Together the phenotypic and genotypic data suggest that these two major life-history traits are co-ordinated responses to environmental stress and that they are, at least in part, controlled by the same genomic regions.Organisms live in environments that vary both spatially and temporally. In such variable environments there are different ways to maximise fitness. Life-history traits can either be robust to environmental change (a buffered or canalised trait) or they can be variable in an environmentally-dependent manner (a phenotypically plastic trait). Phenotypic plasticity of a trait can be manifest as a continuous phenotypic range across an environmental gradient, such as the variation in Drosophila melanogaster body size metrics across temperat
Quantitative genetic analysis of life-history traits of Caenorhabditis elegans in stressful environments
Simon C Harvey, Alison Shorto, Mark E Viney
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-96
Abstract: In Figure 1 of [1] the plotted data were inverted. The correct Figure is shown below. The text and statistical analyses in [1] are correct.
Natural variation in gene expression in the early development of dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans
Simon C Harvey, Gary LA Barker, Alison Shorto, Mark E Viney
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-325
Abstract: There were substantial transcriptional differences between four C. elegans lines under the same environmental conditions. The expression of approximately 2,000 genes differed between genetically different lines, with each line showing a largely line-specific transcriptional profile. The expression of genes that are markers of larval moulting suggested that the lines may be developing at different rates. The expression of a total of 89 genes was putatively affected by dauer larva or non-dauer larva-inducing conditions. Among the upstream regions of these genes there was an over-representation of DAF-16-binding motifs.Under the same environmental conditions genetically different lines of C. elegans had substantial transcriptional differences. This variation may be due to differences in the developmental rates of the lines. Different environmental conditions had a rather smaller effect on transcription. The preponderance of DAF-16-binding motifs upstream of these genes was consistent with these genes playing a key role in the decision between development into dauer or into non-dauer larvae. There was little overlap between the genes whose expression was affected by environmental conditions and previously identified loci involved in the plasticity of dauer larva development.Developmental decisions and processes can be controlled transcriptionally. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes a developmental decision between different larval fates. This decision is based on the 'suitability' of the environment for growth and reproduction. Under 'favourable' conditions, second stage larvae (L2) develop via two larval stages (L3, L4) into reproductive adults [1,2]. However, under 'unfavourable' conditions, L2s form a developmentally arrested L3 stage, the so-called dauer larva. Dauer larvae are environmentally resistant, have a specialised metabolism and are comparatively long-lived [2]. Overall, dauer larvae are transcriptionally repressed compared with actively
A Case Study of Water Education in Australia  [PDF]
Alison J. Sammel
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.513129
Abstract:

What does it mean to be scientifically literate in relation to water? Is this understanding the same for water literacy? And what implications do these two concepts have for water education in Australia? In addressing these questions, this paper provides a snapshot of the similar and competing educational ideologies that underpin the concepts of scientific literacy in relation to water, and water literacy. An investigation of the Australian Curriculum (Science), and a small case study of pre-service education students highlight the degree to which one concept is favored over the other. This bias ultimately raises questions for water education in Australia, as it is not about whether the ACS or [future] teachers should be addressing issues associated with water, but rather how and to what end goal. This necessitates exploring the partial and political nature of any approach to educating about water, and highlights that not all approaches are equally as politically neutral or challenging.

Science as a Human Endeavour: Outlining Scientific Literacy and Rethinking Why We Teach Science  [PDF]
Alison J. Sammel
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.510098
Abstract: What does it mean to be scientifically literate? Historically, dominant understandings of scientific literacy focus on science content acquisition. However, new understandings imply more genuine and authentic interactivity between science content knowledge/skills and understanding of the economic, sociocultural, religious, ecological, ideological, political and temporal connections upon which the science is based: this is the task of Science as a Human Endeavour. This paper presents a snapshot of what Science as a Human Endeavour is, its purpose and factors to consider. Science as a Human Endeavour doesn’t just necessitate that we change our teaching practices: it forces us to rethink the teaching and learning of science and the reason why we are doing it.


Increasing Positive Perceptions of Diversity for Religious Conservative Students  [PDF]
Alison Cook, Ronda Roberts Callister
Creative Education (CE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2010.12014
Abstract: Evidence suggests that positive perceptions toward diversity enhance the potential group and organizational benefits resulting from diversity. Given the make-up of today’s organizations, encountering diversity has become the norm ra-ther than the exception. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to address diversity issues, and take steps to increase positive perceptions of diversity within the business classroom in order to carry that advantage into the workplace. Religious conservative students present a unique challenge to diversity education in that they likely hold value- laden attitudes that lack alignment with diversity principles. This study prescribes a scaffolding approach to increase positive perceptions of diversity within a classroom comprised predominantly of religious conservative students
Interdisciplinary Practice: Dialogue as Action to Resist Colonialism in Higher Education  [PDF]
Alison J. Sammel, Marcus Waters
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.514139
Abstract:


Two colleagues, one who is identified as a Kamilaroi First Nation of Australia man, and a woman who is identified as Australian, from European decent, come together through dialogue to explore interdisciplinary practices within their university setting. Focusing on their areas of expertise, they share the similarities and differences associated with the concepts of identity, identifying and binaries between the teaching and learning of Science Education and First Nations Knowledge production. Through emerging dialogue, they realize that even though their cultural backgrounds are completely different, both are subjected to the complexities of hegemonic binaries that impact and influence their teaching practice. In striving for equity, both authors aim to continually recognize and challenge the binaries that privilege some agendas and students, and marginalize others. By sharing assumptions, beliefs and practices, the article invites the possibility that something new can emerge from their encounter to generate innovative understandings that will inform future practice. Through their praxis and dialogues with students, both have come to understand that it is not only those students marginalized by the system that appreciate their actions, but those who are privileged also benefit as they become more aware of an ever changing world around them.


Comparing Alcohol Policies Between Countries: Science or Silliness?
Alison Ritter
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040153
Abstract:
Open access to US government work urged
Alison McCook
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20040722-01
Abstract: The committee's report stipulates that NIH deposit the final manuscript and any supplemental materials from NIH-funded research to PubMed Central 6 months after publication. And if any publishing costs are covered by NIH funds, the research would be available immediately upon publication. The recommendation must be approved by the Senate before going into effect.The announcement last week, lauded by proponents of open access, came just before a similar development in the United Kingdom, where the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee recommended that the government insist that government-funded researchers deposit a copy of their scientific papers in an electronic archive that can be accessed for free online."This is the policy that many of us have been advocating for some time," Peter Suber, from Earlham College in Richmond, Ind., told The Scientist. "It's an extraordinarily important step."The response from publishers, however, was less positive. Barbara Meredith, vice president of Professional and Scholarly Publishing at the Association of American Publishers (AAP), told The Scientist that, if enacted, the NIH recommendation could undermine the sustainability of the publishing industry and exert a "chilling effect" on NIH-funded authors by potentially limiting which journals accept their work.She added that the AAP does not oppose open access, but it does oppose the government's decision to interfere with the free market by deciding how research should be published. "There's no justification at all for congressional action," Meredith said.Instead, she recommended that an investigation be conducted with the input of "all stakeholders" in the range of business models, including open access. Meredith added that she and her colleagues plan to "work on Senate staffers" during the upcoming recess before they vote on the proposal.Robert Campbell, president of Blackwell Publishing, which currently offers only a few open-access journals, agreed that the publis
Researchers boycott Cell Press
Alison McCook
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20031024-02
Abstract: In the letter, Peter Walter and Keith Yamamoto write that Elsevier, owner of Cell Press, is asking the University of California for an additional $90,000 per year to provide electronic access to the six Cell Press titles - when the university already paid Elsevier $8 million for online access to its other journals in 2002 alone.Walter told us that he and Yamamoto decided to write the letter when they lost access to Cell Press journals after moving to a campus that was 20 minutes away from the main campus, which carries paper copies of the journals. They then learned that the university had been trying unsuccessfully to reach a deal with Elsevier for electronic access since 1998.The letter urges their colleagues to resign from the editorial boards of Cell Press, to stop submitting papers, and to refuse to review manuscripts for the journals, which also include Developmental Cell, Cancer Cell, and Immunity. While publishing a paper in the prestigious Cell Press titles is a career goal for many researchers, Walter told us that there is little glory in publishing in an outlet that is inaccessible to others. "There's no point to having the little gold star attached to your papers if your colleagues can't read them," he said.In response to the letter, Lynne Herndon, president and chief executive officer of Cell Press, distributed an E-mail last Friday (October 17) offering all UC researchers who registered a username and password free electronic access to Cell Press titles through the end of the year.Walter and Yamamoto responded Monday (October 20) with another E-mail, reminding UC researchers that Cell Press had offered trial electronic access to the journals before, then removed that access when negotiations with the university fell apart. Consequently, they urged their colleagues to maintain the boycott.Walter added that he would be satisfied with even a small response from the research community. "Even if [Elsevier] only gets five papers less," he said, he believed t
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