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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3259 matches for " Alicia Shields "
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Suppressing Dengue-2 Infection by Chemical Inhibition of Aedes aegypti Host Factors
Seokyoung Kang,Alicia R. Shields,Natapong Jupatanakul,George Dimopoulos
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003084
Abstract: Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 μM) and MPA (25 μM) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission.
Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster
David Scott, Alicia Shields, Michaela Straker, Heidi Dalrymple, Priya K. Dhillon, Singh Harbinder
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023645
Abstract: Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex.
Breaking the Hybrid–Species Barrier
Robert Shields
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001201
Abstract:
Common Disease: Are Causative Alleles Common or Rare?
Robert Shields
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001009
Abstract:
Challenges in Making Use of Genetics Research to Improve Smoking Treatment: Race, Genetics, Health Professionals & Health Policy
Shields Alexandra
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-3-49
Abstract:
The aberrant contribution of the mirror neuron system in autism spectrum disorder
Grant Shields
Impulse : an Undergraduate Journal for Neuroscience , 2012,
Abstract: The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a recently discovered system, existing largely in the inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe, which is activated when one either perceives or performs an action, and thought to be important for social interaction. Some have linked atypical MNS activation with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (e.g., Rizzolatti and Fabbri-Destro, 2010). This literature review was conducted to attempt to determine if deficits in the MNS contribute to the social and communicative deficits seen in ASD. Many electroencephalogram (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and behavioral studies indicate that individuals with ASD improperly engage their MNS in social interaction, which results in social and communicative deficits. Other fMRI, EEG, and behavioral studies indicate that individuals with ASD have a functional MNS. Recent experimental work has also shown that the functioning of the MNS is heavily subject to top-down influences, and that individuals with ASD have abnormal top-down processing. This review therefore concludes that individuals with ASD have a functional MNS that is irregularly inactive during social interaction due to abnormalities in the connectivity of their automatic top-down processing systems, and this inactivity contributes to the social deficits seen in ASD.
Is plate tectonis withstanding the test of time?
O. Shields
Annals of Geophysics , 1997, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3889
Abstract: Since the theory of plate tectonics was first proposed thirty years ago, some problems have arisen in its practical application. These call into question its fundamental assumptions of horizontal plate motion, hotspot fixity, true polar wander, Panthalassa, and the Earth s constant size while leaving seafloor spreading and subduction intact. A rapidity expanding earth solves these problems and privides an alternative viewpoint worth reconsidering.
Preface
Greg Shields
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2001,
Abstract:
O Que é Que a Olhadela Comunica?
SHIELDS, Rob
Contemporanea : Revista de Comunica??o e Cultura , 2007,
Abstract:
Breaking the Hybrid–Species Barrier
Robert Shields
PLOS Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001201
Abstract:
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