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A metalloid Ti13Cu87 target was sputtered by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures in an Ar-N2 mixture ambient. The sputtered species were condensed on Si (111), glass slide and Potsssium bromide (KBr) substrates. The as-deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), optical spectrophotometry and four point probe technique. The as-deposited films present composite structure of nano-crystallite cubic anti-ReO3 structure of Ti inserted Cu3N (Ti:Cu3N) and nano-crystallite face centre cubic (fcc) structure of Cu. The titanium atoms and sequential nitrogen excess form a solid solution within the Cu3N crystal structure and accommodate in crystal lattice and vacant interstitial site, respectively. Depending on substrate temperature, unreacted N atoms interdiffuse between crystallites and their (and grain) boundaries. The films have agglomerated structure with atomic Ti:Cu ratio less than that of the original targets. A theoretical model has been developed, based on sputtering yield, to predict the atomic Ti:Cu ratio for the as-deposited films. Film thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient are extracted from the measured transmittance spectra. The films’ resistivity is strongly depending on its microstructural features and substrate temperature.
In this paper, we focused on numerical solutions of carcinogenesis mutations models that are based on reaction-diffusion systems and Lotka-Volterra food chains. We consider the case with one and two-stages of mutations with appropriate initial conditions and the zero-flux boundary conditions. The main purpose is to construct a stable discretization scheme, which allows much accuracy than those of a standard approach. To this end, we use the spectral method to postprocess numerical solutions for the proposed model by using some classical methods for solving differential equations. The implementation of the algorithm is simple and it does not need to solve the linear or nonlinear system (in case the model is nonlinear). We simulate the one and two-stage carcinogenesis mutations model and compared the results with previously published ones.
A group G is
said to be(2,3,t) -generated if it can be generated by an involution x and an element y so that 0(y)=3 and 0(xy)=t. In the present article, we determine all (2,3,t)-generations for the Rudvalis sporadic simple group Ru, where t is any divisor of .