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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18503 matches for " Ali Djibo "
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New Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A, W135, C, and Y
Suzanne Chanteau ,Sylvie Dartevelle,Ali Elhadj Mahamane,Saacou Djibo,Pascal Boisier,Farida Nato
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030337
Abstract: Background Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis (meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis) are a major public health concern in the African “meningitis belt,” which includes 21 countries from Senegal to Ethiopia. Of the several species that can cause meningitis, N. meningitidis is the most important cause of epidemics in this region. In choosing the appropriate vaccine, accurate N. meningitidis serogroup determination is key. To this end, we developed and evaluated two duplex rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting N. meningitidis polysaccharide (PS) antigens of several important serogroups. Methods and Findings Mouse monoclonal IgG antibodies against N. meningitidis PS A, W135/Y, Y, and C were used to develop two immunochromatography duplex RDTs, RDT1 (to detect serogroups A and W135/Y) and RDT2 (to detect serogroups C and Y). Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy criteria were used to determine diagnostic accuracy of RDTs on reference strains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples using culture and PCR, respectively, as reference tests. The cutoffs were 105 cfu/ml for reference strains and 1 ng/ml for PS. Sensitivities and specificities were 100% for reference strains, and 93.8%–100% for CSF serogroups A, W135, and Y in CSF. For CSF serogroup A, the positive and negative likelihood ratios (± 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 31.867 (16.1–63.1) and 0.065 (0.04–0.104), respectively, and the diagnostic odds ratio (± 95% CI) was 492.9 (207.2–1,172.5). For CSF serogroups W135 and Y, the positive likelihood ratio was 159.6 (51.7–493.3) Both RDTs were equally reliable at 25 °C and 45 °C. Conclusions These RDTs are important new bedside diagnostic tools for surveillance of meningococcus serogroups A and W135, the two serogroups that are responsible for major epidemics in Africa.
Evaluation and use of surveillance system data toward the identification of high-risk areas for potential cholera vaccination: a case study from Niger
Jose Guerra, Bachir Mayana, Ali Djibo, Mahamane L Manzo, Augusto E Llosa, Rebecca F Grais
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-231
Abstract: We evaluated the cholera surveillance data using a standard CDC protocol, through interviews with heads of the system, and a review of cholera data collected between 2006–2009. The surveillance system was found to be sufficiently reliable to be able to utilize the data for the detection of high risk areas for cholera vaccination. Temporal, geographic and socio-demographic analyses of cholera cases indicated that between 2006 and 2009, 433 cholera cases were reported in the Maradi region of Niger. Two deprived neighborhoods of the region’s capital city, Bagalam and Yandaka, represented 1% of the regional population and 21% of the cholera cases, reaching a yearly incidence rate of 3 per 1000 in 2006 and 2008, respectively.The results of this evaluation suggest that the reporting sensitivity of the surveillance system is sufficient, to appropriately classify the region as cholera endemic. Additionally, two overcrowded neighborhoods in the regional capital met WHO criteria for consideration for cholera vaccination.In 2008, Africa accounted for 94% of the cholera cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Niger reported a small fraction of these cases, although certain areas of the country face repeated epidemics [1,2]. From 2000 to 2008, Niger reported cholera outbreaks every year, mainly in the south of the country and totaling close to 6000 cases [2]. The region of Maradi has the highest population density in the country and regularly reports cholera cases [2].Two safe and effective oral cholera vaccines (Dukoral and Shanchol) are now available and prequalified by WHO [3-5], with some evidence of induced herd immunity [6,7]. To optimize implementation in cholera-endemic areas, WHO guidance recommends targeting oral cholera vaccination to areas where culture-confirmed cholera has been detected in at least 3 of the past 5?years; and incidence rates are at least 1/1000 population in any of these years or high-risk areas or groups have been identified using in
Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea in children under 5 in rural Niger: results of a cross-sectional survey
Anne-Laure Page, Sarah Hustache, Francisco J Luquero, Ali Djibo, Mahamane Manzo, Rebecca F Grais
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-389
Abstract: A cluster survey was done on 35 clusters of 21 children under 5 years of age in each of four districts of the Maradi Region, Niger. Caretakers were asked about diarrhea of the child during the recall period and their health seeking behavior in case of diarrhea. A weighted cluster analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of diarrhea, as well as the proportion of consultations and types of health structures consulted.In total, the period prevalence of diarrhea and severe diarrhea between April 24th and May 21st 2009 were 36.8% (95% CI: 33.7 - 40.0) and 3.4% (95% CI: 2.2-4.6), respectively. Of those reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 70.4% (95% CI: 66.6-74.1) reported seeking care at a health structure. The main health structures visited were health centers, followed by health posts both for simple or severe diarrhea. Less than 10% of the children were brought to the hospital. The proportion of consultations was not associated with the level of education of the caretaker, but increased with the number of children in the household.The proportion of consultations for diarrhea cases in children under 5 years old was higher than those reported in previous surveys in Niger and elsewhere. Free health care for under 5 years old might have participated in this improvement. In this type of decentralized health systems, the WHO recommended hospital-based surveillance of severe diarrheal diseases would capture only a fraction of severe diarrhea. Lower levels of health structures should be considered to obtain informative data to ensure appropriate care and burden estimates.Although better sanitation, hygiene and access to care have successfully alleviated the burden of diarrheal diseases in developed countries [1,2], diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in the world, representing nearly one in five child deaths - about 1.5 million each year [3,4]. In sub-Saharan Africa, the etiology of diarrhea is se
Mathematical Analysis of an Optimal Control Problem of Surface Water Pollution  [PDF]
Djibo Moustapha, Hamidou Haoua, Saley Bisso
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.82014
Abstract: We present in this paper a new technique based on Gelfand’s triplet [1] and include differential theory to make a theoretical analysis of an optimal control problem with constraints governed by coupled partial differential equations. This technique allowed us to give some theoretical results of existence and uniqueness of the solution of constraints and characterize the optimal control.
Schistosomiais and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Control in Niger: Cost Effectiveness of School Based and Community Distributed Mass Drug Administration
Jacqueline Leslie ,Amadou Garba,Elisa Bosque Oliva,Arouna Barkire,Amadou Aboubacar Tinni,Ali Djibo,Idrissa Mounkaila,Alan Fenwick
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001326
Abstract: Background In 2004 Niger established a large scale schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths control programme targeting children aged 5–14 years and adults. In two years 4.3 million treatments were delivered in 40 districts using school based and community distribution. Method and Findings Four districts were surveyed in 2006 to estimate the economic cost per district, per treatment and per schistosomiasis infection averted. The study compares the costs of treatment at start up and in a subsequent year, identifies the allocation of costs by activity, input and organisation, and assesses the cost of treatment. The cost of delivery provided by teachers is compared to cost of delivery by community distributers (CDD). The total economic cost of the programme including programmatic, national and local government costs and international support in four study districts, over two years, was US$ 456,718; an economic cost/treatment of $0.58. The full economic delivery cost of school based treatment in 2005/06 was $0.76, and for community distribution was $0.46. Including only the programme costs the figures are $0.47 and $0.41 respectively. Differences at sub-district are more marked. This is partly explained by the fact that a CDD treats 5.8 people for every one treated in school. The range in cost effectiveness for both direct and direct and indirect treatments is quantified and the need to develop and refine such estimates is emphasised. Conclusions The relative cost effectiveness of school and community delivery differs by country according to the composition of the population treated, the numbers targeted and treated at school and in the community, the cost and frequency of training teachers and CDDs. Options analysis of technical and implementation alternatives including a financial analysis should form part of the programme design process.
Mortality Risk among Children Admitted in a Large-Scale Nutritional Program in Niger, 2006
Nael Lapidus, Andrea Minetti, Ali Djibo, Philippe J. Guerin, Sarah Hustache, Valérie Gaboulaud, Rebecca F. Grais
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004313
Abstract: Background In 2006, the Médecins sans Frontières nutritional program in the region of Maradi (Niger) included 68,001 children 6–59 months of age with either moderate or severe malnutrition, according to the NCHS reference (weight-for-height<80% of the NCHS median, and/or mid-upper arm circumference<110 mm for children taller than 65 cm and/or presence of bipedal edema). Our objective was to identify baseline risk factors for death among children diagnosed with severe malnutrition using the newly introduced WHO growth standards. As the release of WHO growth standards changed the definition of severe malnutrition, which now includes many children formerly identified as moderately malnourished with the NCHS reference, studying this new category of children is crucial. Methodology Program monitoring data were collected from the medical records of all children admitted in the program. Data included age, sex, height, weight, MUAC, clinical signs on admission including edema, and type of discharge (recovery, death, and default/loss to follow up). Additional data included results of a malaria rapid diagnostic test due to Plasmodium falciparum (Paracheck?) and whether the child was a resident of the region of Maradi or came from bordering Nigeria to seek treatment. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on a subset of 27,687 children meeting the new WHO growth standards criteria for severe malnutrition (weight-for-height<?3 Z score, mid-upper arm circumference<110 mm for children taller than 65 cm or presence of bipedal edema). We explored two different models: one with only basic anthropometric data and a second model that included perfunctory clinical signs. Principal Findings In the first model including only weight, height, sex and presence of edema, the risk factors retained were the weight/height1.84 ratio (OR: 5,774; 95% CI: [2,284; 14,594]) and presence of edema (7.51 [5.12; 11.0]). A second model, taking into account supplementary data from perfunctory clinical examination, identified other risk factors for death: apathy (9.71 [6.92; 13.6]), pallor (2.25 [1.25; 4.05]), anorexia (1.89 [1.35; 2.66]), fever>38.5°C (1.83 [1.25; 2.69]), and age below 1 year (1.42 [1.01; 1.99]). Conclusions Although clinicians will continue to perform screening using clinical signs and anthropometry, these risk indicators may provide additional criteria for the assessment of absolute and relative risk of death. Better appraisal of the child's risk of death may help orientate the child towards either hospitalization or ambulatory care. As the transition from the NCHS
Field Evaluation of Two Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A during the 2006 Outbreak in Niger
Angela M. C. Rose, Sibylle Gerstl, Ali E.-H. Mahamane, Fati Sidikou, Saacou Djibo, Laurence Bonte, Dominique A. Caugant, Philippe J. Guerin, Suzanne Chanteau
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007326
Abstract: The Pastorex? (BioRad) rapid agglutination test is one of the main rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for meningococcal disease currently in use in the “meningitis belt”. Earlier evaluations, performed after heating and centrifugation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, under good laboratory conditions, showed high sensitivity and specificity. However, during an epidemic, the test may be used without prior sample preparation. Recently a new, easy-to-use dipstick RDT for meningococcal disease detection on CSF was developed by the Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire in Niger and the Pasteur Institute in France. We estimate diagnostic accuracy in the field during the 2006 outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A in Maradi, Niger, for the dipstick RDT and Pastorex? on unprepared CSF, (a) by comparing each test's sensitivity and specificity with previously reported values; and (b) by comparing results for each test on paired samples, using McNemar's test. We also (c) estimate diagnostic accuracy of the dipstick RDT on diluted whole blood. We tested unprepared CSF and diluted whole blood from 126 patients with suspected meningococcal disease presenting at four health posts. (a) Pastorex? sensitivity (69%; 95%CI 57–79) was significantly lower than found previously for prepared CSF samples [87% (81–91); or 88% (85–91)], as was specificity [81% (95%CI 68–91) vs 93% (90–95); or 93% (87–96)]. Sensitivity of the dipstick RDT [89% (95%CI 80–95)] was similar to previously reported values for ideal laboratory conditions [89% (84–93) and 94% (90–96)]. Specificity, at 62% (95%CI 48–75), was significantly lower than found previously [94% (92–96) and 97% (94–99)]. (b) McNemar's test for the dipstick RDT vs Pastorex? was statistically significant (p<0.001). (c) The dipstick RDT did not perform satisfactorily on diluted whole blood (sensitivity 73%; specificity 57%). Sensitivity and specificity of Pastorex? without prior CSF preparation were poorer than previously reported results from prepared samples; therefore we caution against using this test during an epidemic if sample preparation is not possible. For the dipstick RDT, sensitivity was similar to, while specificity was not as high as previously reported during a more stable context. Further studies are needed to evaluate its field performance, especially for different populations and other serogroups.
Infections in Children Admitted with Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition in Niger
Anne-Laure Page, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Sani Sayadi, Said Aberrane, Ann-Carole Janssens, Claire Rieux, Ali Djibo, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Hubert Ducou-le-Pointe, Rebecca F. Grais, Myrto Schaefer, Philippe J. Guerin, Emmanuel Baron
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068699
Abstract: Background Although malnutrition affects thousands of children throughout the Sahel each year and predisposes them to infections, there is little data on the etiology of infections in these populations. We present a clinical and biological characterization of infections in hospitalized children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Maradi, Niger. Methods Children with complicated SAM hospitalized in the intensive care unit of a therapeutic feeding center, with no antibiotics in the previous 7 days, were included. A clinical examination, blood, urine and stool cultures, and chest radiography were performed systematically on admission. Results Among the 311 children included in the study, gastroenteritis was the most frequent clinical diagnosis on admission, followed by respiratory tract infections and malaria. Blood or urine culture was positive in 17% and 16% of cases, respectively, and 36% had abnormal chest radiography. Enterobacteria were sensitive to most antibiotics, except amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty-nine (9%) children died, most frequently from sepsis. Clinical signs were poor indicators of infection and initial diagnoses correlated poorly with biologically or radiography-confirmed diagnoses. Conclusions These data confirm the high level of infections and poor correlation with clinical signs in children with complicated SAM, and provide antibiotic resistance profiles from an area with limited microbiological data. These results contribute unique data to the ongoing debate on the use and choice of broad-spectrum antibiotics as first-line treatment in children with complicated SAM and reinforce the call for an update of international guidelines on management of complicated SAM based on more recent data.
Parasitoses Génito-Urinaires
P Bouree, N Djibo, f Bisaro
African Journal of Urology , 2007,
Abstract: Les parasites ont rarement une localisation strictement rénale. Cependant, la bilharziose urinaire est très fréquente en Afrique sub-saharienne et se manifeste par une hématurie. L\'hydatidose est essentiellement localisée au niveau hépatique, mais des localisations rénales sont possibles. D\'autres parasitoses (filarioses, paludisme) provoquent des glomérulonéphrites par des réactions immunologiques, qui disparaissent avec le traitement spécifique du parasite responsable. Parasites in the urinary system only are rare. Schistosoma haematobium infection is very frequent in tropical Africa, and is revealed by hematuria. Hydatic cysts are mostly found in the liver, but a renal infection is possible. The other parasites (filariasis, malaria) often lead to immune complex glomerulonephritis and are cured by specific treatment of the parasites.
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Revealed by Ophthalmologic Complications: A Report of One Case in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Caroline Yonaba, Aichatou Djibo, Chantal Zoungrana, Angèle Kalmogho, Ousseine Diallo, Patrice Tapsoba, Noufounikoun Méda, Ludovic Kam
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.54044
Abstract: Type 1 neurofibromatosis is an inherited multisystem neurocutaneous disease predisposing to tumors development. Serious skin and ophthalmologic complications, although rare, can occur throughout life. Furthermore in children, unawareness of early symptoms may delay diagnosis. We report the case of A.T. 8 years old, admitted for exophthalmosis and facial deformity dating back to the age of 2 years. The diagnosis of neurofibromatosis was suspected in the presence of light brown skin spots scattered all over the body and subcutaneous nodules. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral exophthalmosis, eyelids neurofibromas, blepharoptosis, Lisch nodules, corneal edema, and optic atrophy. Head CT scan clarified the nature and the extent of ophthalmologic lesions. Treatment was symptomatic. Neurofibromatosis is rarely reported in children in our setting; it is probably under diagnosed. Clinicians should think of this diagnosis in presence of certain specific symptoms and make a clinical assessment.
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