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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 162119 matches for " Ali B. Haruna "
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Infection of Wounds by Potential Bacterial Pathogens and Their Resistogram  [PDF]
Isyaka M. Tom, Muhammad M. Ibrahim, Askira M. Umoru, Jidda B. Umar, Musa A. Bukar, Ali B. Haruna, Abdullahi Aliyu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105528
The major innate barrier to the establishment of infections in internal tissues is the skin, the disruption of which leads to wound formation. Such wounds can be contaminated by bacterial pathogens thereby hampering the healing process and its management becomes resource demanding. Here, we assess the diversity of potential bacterial pathogens in the infection of different types of wounds among hospitalized patients. Three hundred and twenty wound swab samples were collected and processed via microscopy, and cultured on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate Agar. Isolates were further confirmed using biochemical tests and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. 87.5% of samples collected yielded bacterial growth comprising of single bacterial isolates (52.17%) and polymicrobial/mixed growth (47.82%). Staphylococcus aureus (32.61%) was the most prevalent bacterial specie identified. Gram-negative bacteria (62.33%) were the most pervasive group, chief among which were E. coli (23.64%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.13%). Rate of infection was highest among Wound sepsis and Burns wound where Enterobacter spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the most prevalent respectively. Differences in wound type in relation to rate of infection with Gram-negative bacteria was statistically significant (f = 5.9592; df = 29; p-value = 0.001645; p < 0.01; Mean ± SD = 7.633 ± 6.3706). Resistivity profile of isolates has shown that the most significant resistance rate was against Amoxicillin and Ampicillin, among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria identified respectively. This suggests that wounds can be infected by potential bacterial pathogens which can exacerbate the progression of the wound and complicate the healing process.
Grinding Machine Noise Spectra in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria
Ali Haruna,Agu, M. N.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2011,
Abstract: When we are exposed to intense noise levels some or all of the hair cells in the organ of corti may be damaged temporarily or permanently. Exposure to excessive noise for a short period of time may produce a loss of heavy sensitivity. Continuous noise exposure over a long period of time (years) is more damaging than interrupted exposure to noise, which permits the ear to have a rest and possible recovery period. The presence of low frequency noise in the noise generated by grinding machines in Kaduna metropolis can have adverse effect on concentration and memory.Thus, this study was carried out to assess the grinding machine noice spectra in Kaduna Metropolis using sound level meter (Digital, Testo 816) and Digital Hand Data Logger (DB-525).
Studies on the use of Zizyphus spina-christi against pain in rats and mice
B Adzu, AK Haruna
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Zizyphus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae) grows wild in tropical Africa and Asia and can be domesticated. It has folkloric usage in pain related ailments throughout these regions. In view of the claimed therapeutic potentials, investigation of the plant’s root bark was initiated in our laboratory. The plant material was first sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol, and in this report, a fraction (numbered) ZS-4D from the methanol extract eluted with 70:30% (chloroform : methanol) using flash column chromatography was apparently traced to be responsible for its main analgesic, and in addition, anti-inflammatory activities. The fraction (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested on chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin), mechanical (analgesy-meter) and thermal (tail-flick) analgesic tests with the aim of elucidating both central and peripherally mediated action in rats and mice. Its antiinflammatory action against egg albumin-induced hind paw oedema was also tested in rats. Results show that the fraction has some levels of dose related effect on all the models except the tail-flick test in which the activity was not statistically significant.
The Role of Private Water Vending in Nigeian Peri-Urban Informal Settlements: Implication for Policy Makers  [PDF]
Hassan Tsenbeya Ishaku, Ajayi Abayomi Peters, Ali Haruna, Fabian Mazawuje Dama
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.212127
Abstract: This paper presents a study of water vending in 3 informal settlements of Yola North in Adamawa State of Nigeria. These settlements represent the fast growing urban areas often dwelling in unplanned and unsecured tenure. Access to safe water supply has great influence on the health, economic productivity and quality of life of the people. But meeting this need is one of the major challenges facing the urban communities of Nigeria today. A field survey was conducted in the area with 100 observations of households in each of the three informal settlements. These settlements are Sabongari -University village, Vinikilang and Wuro Jabbe. The survey solicited for response concerning household water source, water per capita use and household size. Findings revealed that about 92% of respondent in Sabongari-University village, 66% in Vinikilang and 87% in Wuro Jabbe depend on vended water from borehole, hand dug well as well as surface water sources which are delivered by hand pushed trucks. Owing to the absence of piped water networks in the study area, households are forced to rely on available water sources which are precursor to water borne diseases. It is advocated that the public agencies should evolve special programs for regularizing informal settlements, meaning the legalization of land tenure, layout corrections and service upgrading if service is to meet the poor informal dwellers.
Grid Resource Allocation: A Review
Haruna Ahmed Abba,Nordin B. Zakaria,Nazleeni Haron
Research Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: As computing technology improves the accessibility to computing resources increases, the demands put on resources gets higher and higher. A grid is a large-scale, heterogeneous, dynamic collection of independent systems, geographically distributed and interconnected with high speed networks. Furthermore, in grid, the resource allocation is a process of allocating user jobs to the CPUs. These jobs are divided into tasks which are allocated to different computers on grid for execution process. Resource allocation is one of the critical features of grid technology. Thus, we found that resource heterogeneity has a great impact on resource allocation which is quite significant in terms of performance, reliability, robustness and scalability. Indeed, the system robustness increases as the system complexity increases. In other words, resource allocation is also an NP complete problem where there is no final solution. The main objective of this study is to review the various grid resource allocations strategies which will in turn serve as a guide for researchers and our vision for future research directions. Therefore, to facilitate further developments in the area, it is essential to survey and review the existing body of knowledge. Therefore, in this chapter, we have studied and classified various ways to achieve an optimum solution. Operation research management (game theory and transportation method) which have been widely use in grid resource allocation for optimum solution, we will design and evaluate a new algorithm for resource allocation either by using simulation or real grid environment.
Screening of Cowpeas for Resistance to the Flower Bud Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
Mumuni Abudulai,A.B. Salifu,Mohammed Haruna
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Seventeen cowpea cultivars were screened for resistance to the flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom in field trials during 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the results showed that ITH 98-20 and TVu 1509 (resistant control) supported significantly (p<0.05) lower thrips populations than Vita 7 (susceptible control) and most of the cultivars except ITH 98-49 and Sanzi. Significantly lower thrips damage ratings were recorded for 11 cultivars including TVu 1509 and Sanzi than Vita 7. Sanzi and ITH 98-47 also had significantly lower yield losses due to thrips compared with Vita 7, the susceptible control. In 2004, no significant differences in thrips populations were detected among the cultivars. However, thrips damage ratings were significantly lower in 5 cultivars including Sanzi and TVu 1509 than Vita 7. Significantly lower yield losses also were recorded for 8 cultivars including Sanzi than Vita 7, the susceptible control. There were positive, but nonsignificant, correlations between thrips populations and damage ratings and also between damage ratings and yield loss in both years. The above results show the potential of finding resistance sources in the cultivars tested.
Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Emergency Contraception among Female Adolescent Hawkers in Rigasa Suburban Community of Kaduna State Nigeria
Bubakar Attahir,M B Sufiyan,Aisha Abdulkadir,M K Haruna
Journal of Family and Reproductive Health , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: In Nigeria the rate of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents is about 30%, considerably lower than the rates reported for developed countries. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female adolescent hawkers in Rigasa community, a suburb of Kaduna town."nMaterials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of 1200 adolescent female hawkers aged 15–29 years was carried out in 2008, using both self and interviewer administered questionnaires. "nResults: Vast majority of the respondents are divorcees, constituting 92%. About 46% of them have never attended formal school before marriage. Of the 18 participants who were aware of emergency contraception; none correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for the method’s use. Antibiotics or home remedies such as dye Robin Blue mixed with Coca cola or mixed with lime or lime mixed with potash and salt water were mentioned as unlisted methods of emergency contraception by responders. "nConclusion: It is glaring that there exist a yawning gap of information and knowledge on contraception in general and emergency contraception in particular among female adolescent hawkers. The need to inform this target group about reproductive health generally and unwanted pregnancy in particular would not be out of place.
A Poisson Solver Based on Iterations on a Sylvester System  [PDF]
Michael B. Franklin, Ali Nadim
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.96052
We present an iterative scheme for solving Poisson’s equation in 2D. Using finite differences, we discretize the equation into a Sylvester system, AU +UB = F, involving tridiagonal matrices A and B. The iterations occur on this Sylvester system directly after introducing a deflation-type parameter that enables optimized convergence. Analytical bounds are obtained on the spectral radii of the iteration matrices. Our method is comparable to Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) and amenable to compact programming via vector/array operations. It can also be implemented within a multigrid framework with considerable improvement in performance as shown herein.
Synthesis and characterisation of temperature responsive poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazolines
M Haruna
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: A bifunctional Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazolines) containing hydrophobic end groups at both end of the polymer chains were synthesised by terminating a living cationic polymerisation with 4- bromomethyl benzoic acid. The results obtained for the clouding point measurement using UVvisible spectrophotometer shows that bifunctional polymer containing 20 monomer units (DP 20) exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) near 49oC due to formation of hydrophobic domains by the polymer end-groups. In contrast, the polymer with 50 monomer units does not exhibit any LCST between 20 to 70oC due to the imbalance in the hydrophilic-hydrophobic interaction in this polymer.
Seed contents of sika deer (Cervus nippon) dung and the fate of seeds in a temperate short grassland in an urban park in Japan
Haruna Ishikawa
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2011,
Abstract: Many studies have suggested the positive effects of grazing by large herbivorous mammals on seed dispersal, but little isknown about how herbivores could affect the fate of ingested seeds. This study examined the effects of seed ingestion bysika deer (Cervus nippon) on seed fate in a temperate grassland established in an urban park long resided by high densitiesof sika deer. I compared species composition and seasonal traits of seed abundance and maturity in the grasslandcommunity with those in deer fecal pellets. In total, 27 herbaceous species were observed, including the predominantZoysia japonica. Seed phenology and production differed among the three dominant species (Z. japonica, Digitariaviolascens, and Hydrocotyle maritima). Pellets contained at least 26 species of herbaceous seeds, and their abundancediffered among species. Of the 26 species, 15 were observed in the vegetation at the study site. The peak of seed abundancein pellets for the dominant species appeared 1 month after the peak of inflorescence production (but most ofthe inflorescences were immature and susceptible to digestion) and consequently corresponded to the peak of matureinflorescence. Because sika deer are likely to ingest seeds at any maturity stage in the grassland and immature seeds areless hardened, ingested immature seeds can suffer great losses. The results suggested that the survival of germable seedswith great losses of immature seeds may be a factor determining which plant species can be successfully dispersed byherbivores.
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