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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5961 matches for " Alfredo Obure "
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Association of Attitudes and Beliefs towards Antiretroviral Therapy with HIV-Seroprevalence in the General Population of Kisumu, Kenya
Craig R. Cohen, Michele Montandon, Adam W. Carrico, Stephen Shiboski, Alan Bostrom, Alfredo Obure, Zachary Kwena, Robert C. Bailey, Rosemary Nguti, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004573
Abstract: Background Since antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available in the developed world, the prevalence of unprotected sex and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV have increased. We hypothesized that a similar phenomenon may be occurring in sub-Saharan Africa concomitant with the scale-up of HIV treatment. Methods We conducted a general population-based survey in Kisumu, Kenya. Participants completed an interview that included demographics as well as ART-related attitudes and beliefs (AB) and then underwent HIV serological testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of AB about ART indicated two factors: 1) ART-related risk compensation (increased sexual risk taking now that ART is available); and 2) a perception that HIV is more controllable now that ART is available. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of these factors with HIV-seroprevalence after controlling for age. Findings 1,655 (90%) of 1,844 people aged 15–49 contacted, including 749 men and 906 women, consented to participate in the study. Most participants (n = 1164; 71%) had heard of ART. Of those who had heard of ART, 23% believed ART was a cure for HIV. ART-related risk compensation (Adjusted (A)OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.16–1.81), and a belief that ART cures HIV (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.22–3.76) were associated with an increased HIV seroprevalence in men but not women after controlling for age. In particular, ART-related risk compensation was associated with an increased HIV-seroprevalence in young (aged 15–24 years) men (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.12–2.19). Conclusions ART-related risk compensation and a belief that ART cures HIV were associated with an increased HIV seroprevalence among men but not women. HIV prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa that target the general population should include educational messages about ART and address the changing beliefs about HIV in the era of greater ART availability.
'The girl with her period is the one to hang her head' Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya
Shannon A McMahon, Peter J Winch, Bethany A Caruso, Alfredo F Obure, Emily A Ogutu, Imelda A Ochari, Richard D Rheingans
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-11-7
Abstract: Data were collected at six rural schools in the Nyanza Province of Western Kenya. Using focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and field notes from observations, researchers collected information from 48 primary schoolgirls and nine teachers. Systematic analysis began with a reading of transcripts and debriefing notes, followed by manual coding of the narratives.Focus group discussions became opportunities for girls to share thoughts on menstruation, instruct one another on management practices and advise one another on coping mechanisms. Girls expressed fear, shame, distraction and confusion as feelings associated with menstruation. These feelings are largely linked to a sense of embarrassment, concerns about being stigmatized by fellow students and, as teachers explained, a perception that the onset of menstruation signals the advent of a girl's sexual status. Among the many methods for managing their periods, girls most frequently said they folded, bunched up or sewed cloth, including cloth from shirts or dresses, scraps of old cloth, or strips of an old blanket. Cloth was reported to frequently leak and cause chafing, which made school attendance difficult particularly as the day progressed. Attitudes and practices of girls toward menstruation have been arranged into personal, environmental and behavioural factors.Further research on menstrual management options that are practical, sustainable and culturally acceptable must be conducted to inform future programs and policies that aim to empower young girls as they transition into womanhood. Stakeholders working within this and similar contexts must consider systematic mechanisms to explain to young girls what menstruation is and how to manage it. Providing sanitary supplies or guiding girls on how to create supplies serve as critical components for future interventions.Menstruation is managed differently according to cultural, social and economic contexts. For young girls in poor, rural settings who often
Addressing Inequities in Access to Health Products through the Use of Social Marketing, Community Mobilization, and Local Entrepreneurs in Rural Western Kenya
Julie R. Harris,Minal K. Patel,Patricia Juliao,Parminder S. Suchdev,Laird J. Ruth,Vincent Were,Cliff Ochieng,Sitnah Hamidah Faith,Steven Kola,Ronald Otieno,Ibrahim Sadumah,Alfredo Obure,Robert Quick
International Journal of Population Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/470598
Abstract: While social marketing can increase uptake of health products in developing countries, providing equitable access is challenging. We conducted a 2-year evaluation of uptake of WaterGuard, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and micronutrient Sprinkles in Western Kenya. Sixty villages were randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Following a baseline survey (BL), a multifaceted intervention comprising social marketing of these products, home visits by product vendors from a local women’s group (Safe Water and AIDS Project, or SWAP), product promotions, and modeling of water treatment and safe storage in was implemented in intervention villages. Comparison villages received only social marketing of WaterGuard and ITNs. We surveyed again at one year (FU1), implemented the intervention in comparison villages, and surveyed again at two years (FU2). At BL, <3% of households had been visited by a SWAP vendor. At FU1, more intervention than comparison households had been visited by a SWAP vendor (39% versus 9%, ), and purchased WaterGuard (14% versus 2%, ), Sprinkles (36% versus 6%, ), or ITNs (3% versus 1%, ) from that vendor. During FU2, 47% and 41% of original intervention and comparison households, respectively, reported ever receiving a SWAP vendor visit ( ); >90% those reported ever purchasing a product from the vendor. WaterGuard ( ) and ITNs ( ) were purchased less frequently by lower-SES than higher-SES households; Sprinkles, the least expensive product, was purchased equally across all quintiles. 1. Introduction In 2005, 1.4 billion people in the developing world lived on less than $1.25 per day [1]. Children living in these regions also experienced the highest global burden of morbidity and mortality from acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, malaria, and malnutrition, and the poorest access to health services and improved water sources [2]. Provision of health products and services in resource-poor countries is a major challenge to governments and aid organizations. Understanding the multiple competing needs of the poor, providing affordable products and services to meet those needs, and mobilizing resources for delivery of products and services, particularly to geographically remote areas, is challenging. Social marketing—broadly described as the combination of education to motivate healthy behaviors and the provision of attractively packaged, affordable products and services to low-income persons [3]—is one tool that has become widely used in recent years to promote health products such as condoms [4–6], insecticide-treated
There are Two Different Language Systems in the Brain  [PDF]
Alfredo Ardila
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2011.12005
Abstract: In this paper it is emphasized that human language has two rather different dimensions corresponding to two different language systems: lexical/semantic and grammatical. These two language systems are supported by different brain structures (temporal and frontal), and based in different learning strategies (declarative and procedural). In cases of brain pathology, each one can be independently impaired (Wernicke aphasia and Broca aphasia). While the lexical/semantic language system may have appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man, the grammatical language system probably represents a relatively recent acquisition. Language grammar may be the departing ability for the development of the metacognitive executive functions and is probably based in the ability to internally represent actions.
The Light as Composed of Longitudinal-Extended Elastic Particles Obeying to the Laws of Newtonian Mechanics  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.59092

It is shown that the speed of longitudinal-extended elastic particles, emitted during an emission time T by a source S at speed u (escape speed toward the infinity due to all the masses in space), is invariant for any Observer, under the Newtonian mechanics laws. It is also shown that a cosmological reason implies the light as composed of such particles moving at speed u (function of the total gravitational potential). Compliance of c with Newtonian mechanics is shown for Doppler effect, Harvard tower experiment, gravitational red shift and time dilation, highlighting, for each of these subjects, the differences versus the relativity.

A Feasible Experiment Contrary to the 2nd Postulate of SR  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.69139
Abstract: Assuming the light as composed of longitudinal-extended elastic (and massive) particles emitted during an emission time T at speed c (=u) (with u the escape speed from all the masses, toward the infinity), it is shown that c is invariant (under the Newtonian mechanics laws), for an Observer fixed to the initial emission point Ep (the point where the emission starts), in spite of any motion of the source (of light) with respect to Ep. On the contrary, an Observer, in motion from Ep during the emission, will state (indirectly) a Galilean variation of c which can be proved and evaluated by an appropriate feasible experiment described here.
Evidences for a Unified Physics, in Full Accordance with the Newtonian Laws  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.715193
Abstract: We show that the speed of a longitudinal-extended, elastic (variable length), and massive particle, emitted by a source during an emission time T, at speed u (escape speed from all the masses in space), is invariant for every real measurement, (intending a measurement requiring an interaction light-matter), in spite of any reciprocal motion source-Observer. Thus we may argue that the light has to be composed of such particles (photons) moving at speed c = u. Compliance of these photons with Newtonian mechanics is shown for many effects, (like the Doppler effect, redshift, time dilation, etc.), highlighting the differences versus the Relativity. In the 2nd part, on the assumption that the electron charge can be considered as a point-particle fixed to the electron surface, always facing the atom nucleus during the electron revolution, we revised the light-matter interaction, showing that it only depends on the particular impacts between these photons and the circling electrons: for instance, on H atom, we found 137 circular orbits only, the last one being the ionization orbit, where the electron orbital speed becomes vi= c/1372. [Classical mechanics implies that orbiting electrons produce an electro-magnetic radiation causing their fall into the nucleus: on Section 3.5, the reason why the electron circular orbits are stable].
Three Conditions Leading to a Unified (Quasi-Newtonian) Physics  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.911129
Abstract: It is shown that the total escape speed u (i.e. from all the masses in space), which depends on the total gravitational potential U through the relation u = (2U)1/2, tends to c; then, under the 1st condition c = u, and assuming (as a 2nd condition) the light as composed of longitudinally-extended, elastic (i.e. variable length) and massive particles, (photons), emitted at speed u referred to the initial location (O) of their source, we show that c referred to O becomes invariant despite any motion of its source from O. We revised the Doppler effect for the light, the gravitational redshift cause, the time dilation, highlighting the differences with respect to the Relativity. In the 2nd part, considering (3rd condition) the electron charge as a point-particle fixed to the electron surface and facing the atom nucleus during the electron orbit, the light-matter interaction becomes a consequence of the particular impacts between these photons and the circling electrons: e.g., on H atom, we found 137 circular orbits only, the last one being the ionization orbit, where the electron orbital speed becomes v i= c/1372. [Classical physics, under the assumption that a circling electron should produce (like a macroscopic electric circuit), an electro-magnetic radiation, implies that this claimed effect has to cause the electron fall into its nucleus: on Section 2.5, we show that the e.m. radiation of a circling electron only happens between two circular orbits].
Recurrence of Preeclampsia in Northern Tanzania: A Registry-Based Cohort Study
Michael J. Mahande, Anne K. Daltveit, Blandina T. Mmbaga, Gileard Masenga, Joseph Obure, Rachel Manongi, Rolv T. Lie
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079116
Abstract: Objective Preeclampsia occurs in about 4 per cent of pregnancies worldwide, and may have particularly serious consequences for women in Africa. Studies in western countries have shown that women with preeclampsia in one pregnancy have a substantially increased risk of preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies. We estimate the recurrence risks of preeclampsia in data from Northern Tanzania. Methods A prospective cohort study was designed using 19,811 women who delivered singleton infants at a hospital in Northern Tanzania between 2000and2008. A total of 3,909 women were recorded with subsequent deliveries in the hospital with follow up through 2010. Adjusted recurrence risks of preeclampsia were computed using regression models. Results The absolute recurrence risk of preeclampsia was25%, which was 9.2-fold (95% CI: 6.4 - 13.2) compared with the risk for women without prior preeclampsia. When there were signs that the preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy had been serious either because the baby was delivered preterm or had died in the perinatal period, the recurrence risk of preeclampsia was even higher. Women who had preeclampsia had increased risk of a series of adverse pregnancy outcomes in future pregnancies. These include perinatal death (RR= 4.3), a baby with low birth weight (RR= 3.5), or a preterm birth (RR= 2.5). These risks were only partly explained by recurrence of preeclampsia. Conclusions Preeclampsia in one pregnancy is a strong predictor for preeclampsia and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in subsequent pregnancies in Tanzania. Women with previous preeclampsia may benefit from close follow-up during their pregnancies.
Effect of Breed and Sex on Pork Meat Sensory Evaluation  [PDF]
Sandra Rodrigues, Alfredo Teixeira
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.57070

This work had an objective to evaluate the sensory quality of two categories of pork meat from a commercial pork meat and a selected meat from the Portuguese black pork (Preto Alentejano breed). Sixteen animals were used, 8 females and 8 males from each breed. Animals had 80 - 100 kg of live weight. The longissimus muscle between the 5th thoracic vertebra and the 10th lumbar vertebra was used in the analysis. Sensory analysis was performed by a trained taste panel of 10 elements, in 5 sessions. All evaluation conditions were standardized, and the attributes studied were odor intensity, toughness, juiciness and flavor intensity. The taste panel found differences mainly between breeds. The panellists scored Preto Alentejano meat as being juicier, tenderer, and with richer taste than Commercial meat. The higher juiciness score of Preto Alentejano meat was probably attributable to the higher intramuscular fat content compared with Commercial meat. The Commercial pork was characterized mainly by high toughness.

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