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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 326872 matches for " Alfred S. Traoré "
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Nutritional and Clinical Rehabilitation of Severely Malnourished Children with Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Powder in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  [PDF]
Urbain Zongo, Steve Léonce Zoungrana, Aly Savadogo, Alfred S. Traoré
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49128

Malnutrition in all its forms remains one of the most serious and neglected health problem. This longitudinal study referred pragmatic was carried out, which tested or aimed to assess the impact of Moringa leaf powder on the nutritional status of malnourished children. It was a pilot study in Ouagadougou severely malnourished children using Moringa as a nutritional supplement. We investigated the correlations and the impact of Moringa leaf powder on the nutritional status. A sample of 110 children aged 6 59 months were recruited and randomly selected and assigned to two treatments Group I and Group II. They received the CREN’s standard nutritional care diet but the Group I received more dose of 10 g of Moringa leaf powder per day. At the end, a significant improvement in the key parameters was recorded in both groups. However, the group receiving the Moringa supplement recorded a higher average weight gain (8.9 ± 4.3 g/kg/day, against 5.7 ± 2.72 g/kg/day in Group II) and a quicker recovery rate, with an average stay of 36 ± 16.54 days, against 57 ± 19.20 days amongst those not receiving the Moringa supplement. There is no significant improvement in hemoglobin rate in either group (p = 0.060 Group I, p = 0.063 Group II). Tolerability was considered to be good, as there were no recorded cases of medical admittance, no any occurrence of digestive disorders. The supplementation of Moringa leaf powder appears to be effective in improving the nutritional recovery of severely malnourished children.

Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria from Wastewaters in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Adama Sawadogo, Otoidobiga C. Harmonie, Joseph B. Sawadogo, Aminata Kaboré, Alfred S. Traoré, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512115
Abstract: Lubricants are very often found in nature under waste-oil forms and represent for the environment a real danger of pollution due to the difficulty of their biodegradation. The situation is especially worrying in most developing countries in particular those of Sub-Saharan Africa due to the absence of regulation or control. The present work aims to isolate bacterial strains able to degrade hydrocarbons which can later be used in biotechnology for environments depollution. Oil-contaminated wastewater samples were collected in Ouagadougou city (Burkina Faso) and then used as source of bacterial isolation. Appropriate amounts of samples were inoculated to a mineral salt medium (MS) with Total Quartz 9000 oil as sole carbon and energy source and then incubated for enrichment, prior to microbe isolation. Two bacterial strains namely S2 and S7 were isolated from the enrichment cultures. The strains were tested for their ability to degrade other hydrocarbons (i.e. gasoline, diesel oil, brake oil) and for temperature, pH and salt concentration ranges for growth before their biochemical characteristics were defined. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical traits, strains S2 and S7 belong to Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas genera, respectively.
Skin Problems among Users of the Urine-Based Fertiliser in Ouagadougou Periurban Areas, Burkina Faso: A Prospective Study  [PDF]
Joseph M. Makaya, Serge Aho, Joseph Wethé, Dayéri Dianou, Nicolas Barro, Alfred S. Traoré
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2014.44019
Abstract: The great challenge for the sustainable use of excreta (urine, faeces) in agriculture is to increase the benefits of these products as resources and decrease the negative effects on human health. The risk of gastrointestinal diseases associated with the use of human excreta as natural fertilisers is well established, while information on skin problems remains largely anecdotal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of skin problems among people involved in the handling of the urine used as fertiliser along a productive sanitation system in Ouagadougou periurban areas. A questionnaire was used for each targeted worker to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, conditions of work and reported health symptoms such as skin burning, itching, eye irritation and paronychia. The exposure measurements were essentially based on field observations. A total of 435 people were interviewed, including 45 workers in urine storage sites, 209 farmers using urine-based fertiliser and 181 control farmers. More than 35% of site workers reported skin symptoms. For farmers using urine-based fertiliser and their controls, 17.2% and 26.0% reported skin symptoms, respectively. Overall, the associations between skin symptoms and the handling of urine used as fertiliser were almost significant (P < 0.06). Also, the study showed that these skin symptoms reported by the urine handlers are associated with conditions of work. Effective preventive measures such as wearing suitable protective equipment and practicing good personal hygiene should be emphasized. This topic needs to be further examined using longitudinal studies.
Optimization of Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Wastewaters in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Case Study of SAE 40/50 Used Oils and Diesel  [PDF]
Adama Sawadogo, Harmonie C. Otoidobiga, Léon W. Nitiema, Alfred S. Traoré, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.51001
Abstract: Environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products such as diesel and used oils has been recognized as one of the most serious current problem in the world, especially in developing countries. These petrochemical products devastate the soil, surface and underground waters and alter the microbial population at the polluted sites. Thus, the present work aims to optimize the biodegradation of diesel and two used oils (SAE 40 and SAE 50) by bacterial strains namely Acinetobacter S2 and Pseudomonas S7 using either nutrient factors (yeast extract, peptone or trace elements) or surfactants (tween 80 or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: SDS). The strains are incubated alone or together with the used oils or diesel supplemented or not with nutrient factors or surfactants for 14, 28, 42 and 56 days, respectively. For all the incubation period, the hydrocarbons degradation rates are determined by gravimetric assay. The results obtained show that nutrient factors increase significantly SAE 50 used oil biodegradation (p = 0.009). Similarly, tween 80 increases SAE 50 and SAE 40 used oils biodegradation but not diesel one. The results also show a significant difference between biodegradation rates at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days for all the hydro-carbons tested (p < 0.0001). For all the hydrocarbons, the association of strains Acinetobacter S2 and Pseudomonas S7 increases the degradation over the one of the strains alone.
Optimization of Biogas Production from Organic Municipal Waste: Development of Activated Sludge as Digesters Inoculum  [PDF]
Mahamadi Nikièma, Marius K. Somda, Kifouli Adéoti, Désiré Traoré, Farid Baba-Moussa, Fatiou Toukourou, Dayéri Dianou, Alfred S. Traoré
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.813103
Abstract: This study is a contribution to the optimization of organic fraction of municipal waste bioconversion into biomethane, by activated sludge production as inoculum for digesters. The wastewater (WW) and cow dung (CD) samples were taken from the slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou town, Burkina Faso. Different mixtures were made, enriched with mineral solution and cellulose at 5% (w/v) as: 10% CD + 90% WW (C7), 30% CD + 70% WW (C6), 50% CD + 50% WW (C5), 70% CD + 30% WW (C4), 90% CD + 10% WW (C3), 100% CD (C2) and 100% WW (C1). The pH evolution and biogas (CH4 and CO2) production were followed for 25 days. Cultures tend to acidify with increase in cow dung proportion. Biogas production was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in C5 (880.0 mL), C6 (862.0 10 mL) and C7 (772.0 mL). Mixture C5 had a highest level of CO2 production (40%). Also C7 and C6 retained in the experiment contained respectively organic matter, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and total alkalinity (TAC) as 41.06%, 47.02%, 1320 mg acetic acid/L, 3036 mg Acetic acid/L and 520 mg CaCO3/L, 1310 mg CaCO3/L. Mixture C6 was the best medium for microorganism proliferation stability with 3.5 × 105 UFC/ml of methanogens bacteria. It also possessed buffering capacity, which prevents acidification of medium during VFAs production.
Microbial Quality of Wastewater Used in Urban Truck Farming and Health Risks Issues in Developing Countries: Case Study of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Léon W. Nitiema, Savadogo Boubacar, Zongo Dramane, Aminata Kabore, Poda Jean No?l, Alfred S. Traoré, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.46067

Urban truck farming in developing countries appears of great importance to overcome unemployment and poverty. However, the quality of wastewater used for such activity could expose populations to waterborne diseases. The microbial quality of wastewaters used for truck farming in Ouagadougou city, was examined for the presence of bacterial and parasitological fecal indicators during the dry-hot season (May) and the wet season (July) in 2012. The wastewaters of three water reservoirs and two canals intensively used for truck farming were analyzed throughout the study. These indicators were also monitored in waste stabilization ponds during wastewater treatment in 3 plants of the city. For all the selected sampling sites, the concentrations of microbial indicators in water were significantly higher in the dry-hot season compared to the wet one (p < 0.0001) and ranged to 2200 - 53,800 CFU/100ml for Escherichia coli, 8200 - 108,400 CFU/100ml for fecal coliforms, 650 - 45,000 CFU/100ml) for fecal streptococcus, and 0 - 2.4 eggs/l for helminthes during the study periods. For wastewater under treatment in waste stabilization ponds, significant microbial concentration drops (p < 0.0001) in the range of 82% - 100%, 78% -

Quality of Human Urine Used as Fertilizer: Case of an Ecological Sanitation System in Ouagadougou Peri-Urban Areas-Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Joseph M. Makaya, Aly Savadogo, Marius K. Somda, Jean-Baptiste Bour, Nicolas Barro, Alfred S. Traoré
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.56049

The use in agriculture of excreta from urine-diversion toilets can be an alternative solution to the lack of sanitation and high costs of mineral fertilizers inherent to developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic quality of urine used as fertilizer through an ecological sanitation system in Ouagadougou peri-urban areas. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in urine samples taken before and after thirty (30) days of storage in jerry cans exposed to sunlight. The concentrations of 7.0 g/l; 3.5 and 9.6 g/l of ammonia nitrogen for mean, minimum and maximum respectively, are obtained in unstored urine samples. These concentrations did not practically vary with the storage. On average, values of other chemical parameters analyzed in stored urine were as follows: pH, 8.8; phosphorus (P), 0.3 g/l; potassium (K), 1.9 g/l; total dissolved solids (TDS), 21.0 g/l; cadmium (Cd), 154.3 μg/l; copper (Cu), 5.2 μg/l; lead (Pb), 15.2 μg/l; chromium (Cr), 6.1 μg/l; nickel (Ni), 154.0 μg/l. Escherichia coli, staphylococci, enterococci, Salmonella and spores of Clostridium perfringens were detected in unstored urine samples, with 26% of fecal contamination rate. The time of storage (30 days) under sunlight was enough for almost all bacteria removal in urine samples. Although the fertilizing value of urine was confirmed, it would be important to take account of the best practices on applying in soils, because of the high TDS contents. Also, the risk linked to micropollutants in urine-based fertilizers could be negligible in view of low quantities. The results obtained in this study prove that after 30 days of exposure to sunlight urine collected via eco-toilet becomes bacteriologically sanitized, and can therefore be used to fertilize soils. However, it is necessary to demonstrate the inactivation of other groups of enteric microorganisms in human urine during storage.

Nutritional Composition, Physical Characteristics and Sanitary Quality of the Tomato Variety Mongol F1 from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Edwige B. Oboulbiga, Charles Parkouda, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Ella W. R. Compaoré, Abdoul Karim Sakira, Alfred S. Traoré
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.84030
Abstract: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) is quantitatively the highest vegetable consumed in Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical, nutritional characteristics, and sanitary quality of the tomato variety Mongal F1 from different production sites. Twenty-eight (28) samples of Mongal F1 fresh tomatoes were collected from 28 producers at three different localities of Ouahigouya, Loumbila and Ouagadougou. The physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics were determined by standardized methods and the traces metallic elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results revealed a degree brix varying from 4.07° to 5.50° and a pH ranging from 3.71 to 4.08 corresponding to a total acidity of 0.39% to 0.55% citric acid equivalents. The moisture content, the ash content, the total carbohydrates content, the reducing carbohydrates content, the lipids content and the protein content were ranged from 95.09% to 96.17%, 9.25% to 10.60%, 47.00% to 53.43%, 30.03% to 41.21%, 3.04% to 7.71% and 17.09% to 25.03% respectively. The results of the trace metals showed a high accumulation of total cadmium from 0.11 to 0.22 ppm, of total lead of 1.15 to 1.27 ppm and arsenic total of 0.19 to 0.20 ppm. The results proved that environmental conditions influence the quality of the tomato Mongal F1. Detection of trace elements in the tomato fruits suggests that a better production practices are needed.
Seroprevalence of Fecal-Oral Transmitted Hepatitis A and E Virus Antibodies in Burkina Faso
Kuan Abdoulaye Traoré, Hortense Rouamba, Yacouba Nébié, Mahamadou Sanou, Alfred S. Traoré, Nicolas Barro, Pierre Roques
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048125
Abstract: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females) and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1–21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8–31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3–24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1–16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population.
Identification of exopolysaccharides-producing lactic acid bacteria from Burkina Faso fermented milk samples
Aly Savadogo, Cheik AT Ouattara, Paul W Savadogo, Nicolas Barro, Aboubacar S Ouattara, Alfred S Traoré
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: Spacer region between 16S and 23 S rRNA genes of thirteen lactic acid bacteria strains from Burkina Faso fermented milk samples were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Pediococcus spp, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp mesenteroides were identified. The Lactobacillus group was the predominant bacteria. Plasmids identified ranged between 2000 and 4000 bp. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) production varied from 181 mg/l and 814 mg/l, monomer analysis showed that glucose and galactose were predominant. Key Words: Lactic acid bacteria, fermented milk, PCR, exopolysaccharides. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(3) 2004: 189-194
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