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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1538 matches for " Alfred Kondowe "
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Impact of Convective Parameterization Schemes on the Quality of Rainfall Forecast over Tanzania Using WRF-Model  [PDF]
Alfred L. Kondowe
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.610069
Abstract: To describe the evolution of atmospheric processes and rainfall forecast in Tanzania, the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model was used. The principal objectives of this study were 1) the understanding of mesoscale WRF model and adapting the model for Tanzania; 2) to conduct numerical experiments using WRF model with different convective parameterization schemes (CP’s) and investigate the impact of each scheme on the quality of rainfall forecast; and 3) the investigation of the capability of WRF model to successfully simulate rainfall amount during strong downpour. The impact on the quality of rainfall forecast of six CP’s was investigated. Two rainy seasons, short season Vuli from October to December (OND) and long season Masika from March to May (MAM) were targeted. The results of numerical experiments showed that for rainfall prediction in Dar es Salaam and (the entire coast of the Indian Ocean), GD scheme performed better during OND and BMJ scheme during MAM. Results also showed that NC scheme should not be used, which is in agreement to the fact that in tropics rainfall is from convective activities. WRF model to some extent performs better in the cases of extreme rainfall.

Evaluation of the Performance of ENACTS MAP-ROOM Products over Tanzania  [PDF]
Philbert M. Luhunga, Agnes L. Kijazi, Ladislaus Chang’a, Hashim Ng’ongolo, Alfred Kondowe
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.92014
Abstract: Tanzania has inadequate weather stations (28-synoptic weather stations), which are sparsely distributed over complex topographic terrain. Many places, especially rural areas, have no stations to monitor weather and climate. In this study, we evaluate the performance of ENACT-MAPROOM products over Tanzania with the aim of assessing their potential to supplement observed weather and climate data, especially over areas where there is limited number of weather stations. Monthly rainfall total and monthly averaged minimum and maximum temperatures from ENACT-MAPROOM are evaluated against observed data from 23 weather stations. The evaluation is limited to analyze how well the ENACT-MAPROOM products reproduce climatological trends, annual cycles and inter-annual variability of rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures. Statistical analysis recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) that includes that correlation and trend analysis are used. It is found that ENACT-MAPROOM products reproduce the climatological trends, annual cycles and inter-annual variability of rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures over most stations. The statistical relationship between ENACT-MAPROOM products against observed data from 23 weather stations using Pearson correlation coefficient indicates that ENACT-MAPROOM products bear strong and statistically significant correlation coefficient to observed data. The overall evaluation here finds high skills of ENACT-MAPROOM products in representing rainfall and temperature over Tanzania, suggesting their potential use in planning and decision making especially over areas with limited number of weather stations.
Facing the Enemy Head-On: The Role of Pasimba Radio Program in Promoting the Fight against HIV and AIDS in Malawi  [PDF]
Precious Madula, Yu Hong, Wellman Kondowe
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.54016
Abstract: Radio programs are very important in developing countries in informing the masses about public health matters. Their role is quite visible in the fight against HIV/AIDS through dissemination of messages aimed at informing the publics about the dangers of HIV/AIDS and what prevention measures can be employed. Drawing on framing and social learning theory together with readings on media effects, this study aimed at establishing whether Pasimba radio program is having an impact in promoting behavioral change among couples in Malawi. Data was collected through a survey (N = 100) and data was analyzed using cross tabulations, chi-square, correlation and regression. Results indicate that there is a significant relationship between respondents who listen to the program and those that have the propensity to undergo HIV test. This implies that Pasimba program is having an impact in influencing behavioral change and that there is a correlation between listening to the program and having the motivation to know one’s serostatus.
Primordial Open-System Thermodynamics and the Origin of a Biophysics Selection Principle  [PDF]
Alfred Bennun
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2012.23010
Abstract: Mesons and baryons, according to their rest mass and half-life, show a tendency for de-confinement and re-confinement of energy, contributing to a continuous surge of enthalpy along the primordial chronology. The strong force opposes to the separation of the constitutive quarks of pions, which by self-multiplication, absorb the energy released by decay and pair-annihilation. The 1% of mass apported by quarks requires an additional 99% of energy from this decay to manifest as gluons-hadrons formation. Processes like oscillation neutron-proton and antineutron-antiproton cycles are capable to capture primordial radiation, and may have prevented a Universe immersed into residual gamma radiation.
Innovative Use of Light-Weight Radioisotopes in Therapeutics and the Engineering of Light-Power Generators  [PDF]
Alfred Bennun
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2013.31A011

Light weight radioisotope (LWR) 89Sr and 90Sr could be obtained from used rods in fission atomic plants. The economics of the disposal of nuclear bars indicate the convenience to develop added value applications. The difference in t1/2 allows 89Sr to deliver its energy at a rate 200 times higher than 90Sr. A large emission number of low penetrating power particles in a short time characterize 89Sr, which allows that these highly radioactive LWR involves a rather limited danger. Chemical similitude of calcium and strontium uptake has led to the use of 89Sr in treatment of bone cancer metastasis. 89Sr damages animal tissues because ionize water, but penetrates through the skin about: 5 to 8 mm. Hence, to obtain it in insoluble form, like obtaining 89Sr silicate, could make possible its wider use. Purifying 89Sr from contaminant 90Sr allows that after one year do not leave any contamination. LWR could be covered with scintillators substances, which by subtracting kinetic energy from beta-radiation, emit light and function as a major source of shielding. This treatment engineers Radioisotope Light Generators (RLG). Their light could activate photovoltaic cells (PV), which could lead to nano-devices without moving parts RLG-PV.

Exponential GARCH Modelling of the Inflation-Inflation Uncertainty Relationship for Ghana  [PDF]
Alfred Barimah
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55048

This study examines the asymmetric effects of inflation on inflation uncertainty in Ghana for the period 1963:4 to 2014:2. Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Heteroscedasticity (EGARCH) model is employed on monthly inflation rates to estimate inflation uncertainty. Two complementary approaches are used to determine the empirical relationship between inflation and its uncertainty. In the first approach, inflation dummy is included in the variance equation and in the second, we employ the two-step procedure in which Granger causality test is performed on the monthly inflation rates and the conditional variance generated from the EGARCH model. We find strong support for both Friedman-Ball and Cukierman-Meltzer hypotheses for the full sample as well as the inflation targeting period. Given the current build-up in inflationary pressures in Ghana, our results warn of possible costs of not keeping inflation in check. The major policy implication that follows from this study is that the Bank of Ghana should strive to minimize the gap between actual and target inflation levels so the public will have consistent belief in all announced policy targets.

Academic Dean and the Challenges of Meeting Changing Expectations within a Competitive Higher Education Environment in Africa  [PDF]
Alfred Otara
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.62012
Abstract: This article looks at the challenges involved and seeks to provide guidelines for leadership decisions and practices for the Deans that can be effective in institutions of higher learning. This paper provides an overview of academic leadership by faculty deans, and assesses the degree to which deans exhibit the behaviors embedded in this leadership in addressing the challenges and expectations of this century. Deanship is therefore treated as the academic act of building programs and a community of scholars to set direction and achieve the expectations of stakeholders in the current challenging economic times. The need for transformational leadership is emphasized. The paper shows how academic leaders must be the purveyors of ideas and knowledge that shape managerial thought and practice. Further, academic leadership needs to develop a human resource network inside and outside the departments and university and at the local, national, and international levels. Academic leadership needs to have a clarified program for faculty and staff promotion and development, and it should be placed on a priority list and agenda. Deans will need to use technology effectively and communication innovations to improve access to knowledge. Keeping pace with change in the world of work means offering education programmes that are relevant, are of high quality and, increasingly, include practical or work experience, as well as working more closely with stakeholders such as employers in course design or delivery. They will also need significantly to streamline their operations by incorporating new teaching and learning delivery mechanisms. Finally it is observed that academic leaders should take the initiative by adopting measures of success that are truly useful management tools for their institutions and that have credibility with the institution’s external stakeholders.
Vitamin C twice a day enhances health  [PDF]
Alfred Roc Ordman
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.28123
Abstract: This review provides information determining how much vitamin C to take, including analysis of the recent findings, which demonstrate advantages and problems with higher daily doses. The Daily Value for vitamin C was raised to 90 mg for men in 2000, and Upper Limit of 2,000 mg per day was established as being safe. This followed a study of urinary excretion of vitamin C (AA) that demonstrated 500 mg twice a day provides levels sufficient to cause continuous urinary excretion in humans. That is the lowest oral dosage evaluated that significantly saturates blood plasma. A later study endorsed 200 mg from dietary sources for the RDA. Even though plasma concentration of AA is then significantly lower, at 200 mg daily certain white blood cells are saturated with AA. Recently many studies have indicated the benefit of high levels of AA to maintain the brain, bones, and heart, reduce damage from stroke, brain trauma, and cataracts, and lower the risk of cancer metastasis and colds. Pro-oxidant activity has been found only for i.v. adminstration, where high concentrations appear effective destroying tumor cells while not harming normal cells. This review evaluates recent research and finds it consistent with the hypothesis that people, especially older people and soldiers in combat environments, are likely to benefit if they maintain the saturating level of AA by taking 500mg supplements twice a day.
Effects of hot-water extract of Paecilomyces hepiali on hypertension parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.48048

In this study, effects of hot water extract of Paecilomyces hepiali mycelia on hypertension parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The tested parameters included blood pressure, blood and urine biochemical composition, renin and angiotensin II levels in the blood. Prior to these tests, the extract was examined for toxicity. The fungus was cultivated in a solid medium composed of 40 g brown rice, 0.32 g glucose, 0.65 g sucrose, 2 g peptone and 65 ml corn steep liquor. No abnormality or harmful effects were observed in the toxicity test. Administration of a continuous-dose, once daily, to SHR for 27 weeks (from 13 weeks of age) decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly. Levels of blood urea nitrogen, β-lipoprotein lipid peroxides and low density lipoprotein were significantly lower in the treated groups when compared to the control group. Urinary protein was significantly reduced in the middle and high dose groups. In comparison with the control group (0 mg/kg/10ml/day), significantly higher values were obtained for total cholesterol in groups that were given middle (170 mg/kg/10ml/day) and high (250 mg/kg/10ml/day) dosages. In all dosages (low, middle and high) the values for triglyceride were significantly higher than value found in the control group. In terms of angiotensin II levels, the value in the control group was markedly higher than values in the other groups. The results suggest that oral administration of hot water extract of P. hepiali mycelia has ability to control hypertension in rats.

Feasibility Study of Community Earthquake Warning System Proposed for Mbeya City and Surrounding Regions  [PDF]
Asinta Manyele, Alfred Mwambela
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2014.33013

The Mbeya city and its surrounding regions (Rukwa, Katavi and Njombe) in south western Tanzania, fall among the fast growing economical regions in Tanzania. It is also unfortunately under potential for seismic risk due to its proximity to the western and eastern junction of the East African Rift (EAR) Valley. Construction of Community Earthquake Early Warning (CEEW) system model based on community owned MEMS accelerometer sensors in being proposed for the region. To optimize the warning time function and as the process of planning and designing the community hosted seismic network, the paper presents the simulation of warning times that can be realized in this region based on the distribution of sensor stations in relation to the historical strong earthquakes and target sites. The distribution of sensor stations determines the detection and reporting time of the event, while location of earthquakes and position of target site determine the available warning time for the target to be protected. Testing the various sensor station configura- tions (regional, On-site and Hybrid) models of CEEWS by simulation of scenario earthquakes, the hybrid configuration that distributes sensor stations closer to the source and on target sites, was able to provide at least 5 seconds of warning times to various targets. This time has been demon- strated to be enough for shutting down hazardous industrial processes and for people to take cover at safer locations to reduce injuries.

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