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Oral Health of Young Adolescents in Addis Ababa—A Community-Based Study  [PDF]
Hanna Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48073

Introduction: Deteriorating oral health is an emerging public health concern in developing countries, yet little attention has been given to oral health in most sub-Saharan countries. The extents of caries, periodontal diseases and the associated risk factors have not been widely studied at the community level. Purpose: To assess the type and magnitude of oral health diseases as well as associated risk factors among young adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 658 children aged 10 - 14 years in Addis Ababa. Households for the study were selected through a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Data collection was carried out in December 2011 through interview and oral examination which was carried out by dental health professionals. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval was calculated. Factors associated with oral health conditions were identified using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 47.4% (95% CI: 43.6% - 51.2%). Age, sweets intake, tooth cleaning, poor oral hygiene and being from a poor household were significantly associated with having dental caries. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 35.4% (95% CI: 31.7% - 39.0%) and it was associated with: having a mother with low education level, and poor oral hygiene. The prevalence of bad mouth odor was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.8% - 5.9%), and oral trauma 2.1% (95% CI: 1% - 3.2%). Conclusion: The prevalence of both periodontal disease and dental caries is alarmingly high. The findings indicate the need for large scale public education program to motivate regular dental check up, and proper oral hygiene practices. The study also indicates the need to strengthen oral health services using affordable and accessible outlets.

Prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors among children under-five years of age in Eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  [PDF]
Bezatu Mengistie, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.37060
Abstract: Diarrhea remains a major cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age in Sub-Saharan countries in Africa. Risk factors for diarrhea vary by context and have important implications for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the burden of the disease. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors among children un-der 5 years of age in Kersa district, located in Eastern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 1456 randomly selected households with at least one child under 5 years of age. A questionnaire and an observational check list were used for col-lecting information on socio-economic charac-teristics, environmental hygiene and behavioral practices, and occurrence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. Logistic regres-sion was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio of 95% confidence interval. The two-week prevalence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age was 22.5% (95% CI: 20.3-24.6). Improper refuse disposal practices (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.20-4.03), lack of hand washing facilities (OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.29-2.86), living in rural area (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.12-3.31), the presence of two or more siblings in a household (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.33-2.28), and age of the child (OR= 2.25, 95% CI; 1.5-3.36) were the major risk factors for diarrhea. This study demonstrated that diarrhea morbidity was relatively high among children under 5 years of age residing in Eastern Ethiopia. Efforts to reduce childhood diarrhea should focus on improving household sanitation, personal hygiene, and child birth spacing.
Differentials of fertility in North and South Gondar zones, northwest Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study
Getu Alene, Alemayehu Worku
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-397
Abstract: A comparative cross-sectional study which included 2424 women aged 25 years and above was undertaken in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. The study subjects were grouped into high fertile and low fertile categories. There were 1011 and 1413 women in the high and low fertile groups, respectively. A multi-stage cluster sampling stratified by place of residence was employed to select the required study subjects. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data.Among the 25 variables considered in this study, only 9 of them were found significantly and independently associated with the level of fertility. Women with at least secondary education were at a lower risk of high fertility with OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.64) compared to those with no formal education. However, women with primary education did not show any significant difference when compared with the same baseline group. Age at first marriage was inversely associated with the number of children ever born alive. Place of residence, household expenditure, number of children who have died, attitude towards using contraceptives, women's knowledge on the safe period, and current marital status were the other variables that showed significant associations with the level of fertility.Female education beyond the primary level, reduced infant and child mortality, delayed marriage and correct knowledge on the safe period during the menstrual cycle were amongst the main factors that had a bearing on high fertility.Today, to think of population is to think of sustainable growth. It is the phenomenon of growth that commands the attention of the current world. In this regard, it is usually said that less developed countries like Ethiopia could grow economically only if population growth is held in check [1-6]. It is now widely accepted that control of fertility, like the prevention of avoidable deaths, is a public health responsibility [1,2].Ethiopia is one of the most de
Tuberculosis treatment survival of HIV positive TB patients on directly observed treatment short-course in Southern Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study
Debebe Shaweno, Alemayehu Worku
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-682
Abstract: Findings: A retrospective cohort study was employed to compare the survival between HIV positive and HIV negative TB patients (370 each) during an eight month directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) period. TB patient's HIV status was considered as an exposure and follow up time until death was taken as an outcome. All patients with TB treatment outcomes other than death were censored, and death was considered as failure. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the hazard ratio (HR) of death for each main baseline predictor.TB/HIV co-infected patients were more likely to die; adjusted Hazard Rate (AHR) =1.6, 95%CI (1.01, 2.6) during the DOTS period. This risk was statistically higher among HIV patients during the continuation phase (p=0.0003), as a result HIV positive TB patients had shorter survival (Log rank test= 6.90, df= 2, p= 0.008). The adjusted survival probability was lower in HIV positive TB patients (<15%) than HIV negative TB patients (>85%) at the end of the DOTS period (8th month).TB treatment survival was substantially lower in HIV infected TB patients, especially during the continuation phase. Targeted and comprehensive management of TB/HIV with a strict follow up should be considered through the entire TB treatment period.
Determinants of fertility in rural Ethiopia: the case of Butajira Demographic Surveillance System (DSS)
Wubegzier Mekonnen, Alemayehu Worku
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-782
Abstract: Reproductive age women were recruited from a DSS, the Butajira DSS database. A DHS maternity history questionnaire was administered on 9996 participants. Data quality was assured besides ethical clearance. Poisson regression crude and adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio with 95 Confidence Interval were used to identify determinants of fertility.Delayed marriage, higher education, smaller family, absence of child death experience and living in food-secured households were associated with small number of children. Fertility was significantly higher among women with no child sex preference. However, migration status of women was not statistically significant.Policy makers should focus on hoisting women secondary school enrollment and age at first marriage. The community should also be made aware on the negative impact of fertility on household economy, environmental degradation and the country's socio-economic development at large.The three components of population change (i.e., fertility, mortality and migration) have consequences on one another and the overall size and/or structure. In countries at the second stage of demographic transition, mortality reduction is followed by fertility decline [1]. However, drop in fertility is not yet witnessed in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa although it has been observed in some metropolitan areas and selected communities in the sub continent [2-4]. Ethiopia has never been unique in this regard as there were only half a child cut off between 2000 and 2005 from a total fertility rate of 5.9 to 5.4 children per woman [5,6]. Fertility is higher in rural compared to urban areas in the country. Nevertheless, below replacement level fertility of 1.9 children per woman was observed in Addis Ababa. The total fertility rate was however over 6 children per woman in rural Ethiopia. Moreover, there are regional disparities in fertility in the country. Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples region (SNNPR), where this study was con
Determinants of low family planning use and high unmet need in Butajira District, South Central Ethiopia
Wubegzier Mekonnen, Alemayehu Worku
Reproductive Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-37
Abstract: A total of 5746 married women are interviewed from October to December 2009 in the Butajira Demographic Surveillance Area. Contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need with their 95% confidence interval is measured among married women in the Butajira district. The association of background characteristics and family planning use is ascertained using crude and adjusted Odds ratio in logistic regression model.Current contraceptive prevalence rate among married women is 25.4% (95% CI: 24.2, 26.5). Unmet need of contraception is 52.4% of which 74.8% was attributed to spacing and the rest for limiting. Reasons for the high unmet need include commodities' insecurity, religion, and complaints related to providers, methods, diet and work load. Contraception is 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.2) times higher in urbanites compared to rural highlanders. Married women who attained primary and secondary plus level of education have about 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6) and 2 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.9) times more risk to contraception; those with no child death are 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.5) times more likely to use contraceptives compared to counterparts. Besides, the odds of contraception is 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6) and 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) times more likely among women whose partners completed primary and secondary plus level of education. Women discussing about contraception with partners were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.7) times more likely to use family planning. Nevertheless, contraception was about 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.2) more likely among married women whose partners supported the use of family planning.The local government should focus on increasing educational level. It must also ensure family planning methods security, increase competence of providers, and create awareness on various methods and their side effects to empower women to make an appropriate choice. Emphasis should be given to rural communities.The rapid population growth does not match with available resource in Ethiopia [1] where the economy has been ag
High-risk sexual behavior and pattern of condom utilization of the Gondar Collage of Medical Sciences (GCMS) Students, North-west Ethiopia
Yohannis Fitaw, Alemayehu Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Human Immuno Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is unique in its devastating impact on the social, economic and demographic development. This study was conducted to assess College students' `knowledge' about condom distribution, high-risk behavior and pattern of condom utilization. A cross-sectional study was done among 383 students of GCMS. Data were collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Out of 383 students 214 (56.1%) were sexually active. Among the sexually active students, 37.1% reported ever use of condom. Consistent condom use was reported only by 6.4%. Sexual contact with commercial sex workers was reported by 7.8% of them. Consistent use of condom regardless of partner characteristics should be encouraged among students. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2002;16(3):335-338]
Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia
Fanta Wondimagegn,Worku Alemayehu
Reproductive Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-9-8
Abstract: Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.
Competency and constraints of higher education and research institutions for rural transformation in the Amhara region, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Getachew Alemayehu, Sisay Yehuala, Yonas Worku, Zerihun Nigussie, Girmachew Seraw
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.35092
Abstract: Ethiopia is an agrarian country and agriculture is the backbone of its economy. Consequently, the government of Ethiopia has devised Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) as the country’s overall economic development policy. For the last 15 years, public investment towards the expansion of higher education, research and extension in agriculture has been so enormous. In reality, however, these higher education and research institutions were not sufficiently responsive to rural transformation. Thus, to evaluate the role of higher education and research institutions in stimulating rural transformation and to identify main training constraints accountable for their poor performances in institutional learning and rural transformation is of paramount importance. To this effect focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted. Stratified and purposive sampling technique was dominantly employed during the survey studies. The result of the study has shown that higher education and research institutions were less responsive to address the actual problems of small-scale farmers and they were limited by a number of constraints/challenges to address the actual problems of farmers. The major constraints were, to list some, limited involvement in research and extension works by the university staff, students limited practical attachments of the training programmes with farming communities, limited infrastructures and facilities and limited availability of contextualized learning resources. In addressing the aforesaid constraints/challenges, the university staff should proportionally allocate time in the research and extension activities on top of practical teaching supported by local research results and experience; involving students on practical attachments both in their academic and vacation time; giving emphasis on basic training preparation like fulfilling libraries, laboratories, demonstration fields and transportation facilities; and lastly to revise the existing curriculum in to the direction of solving the real problems of the Amhara region then the country Ethiopia.
Relating mechanisms of higher education and research closely to the reality in the society for rural transformation in the Amhara region, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Getachew Alemayehu, Sisay Yehuala, Yonas Worku, Zerihun Nigussie, Girmachew Seraw
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.35094
Abstract: Higher education and research in Ethiopia is going through a decisive phase of reform and expansion. As a system it is increasingly required to respond and gear adequately to the development needs of the society and the country. This change is taking place through a government-led radical review of the system’s status and challenges, and by devising mechanisms of consensus building, as well as ownership and overcoming the resistance to change. Higher education and research institutions of Bahir Dar and Gondar Universities and ARARI, in Ethiopia are not satisfactorily responsive to rural transformation in addressing problems of small-scale farmers. This calls for responsive education and research that addresses farmers’ constraints. Thus, to survey the suitability/appropriateness of the current training programmes of higher education and research institutions to address the actual problems of farmers is of paramount importance. To this effect, tools such as interview guide, checklist and questionnaires were put to use for data collection. Primary data was collected from observation, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics for quantitative data and triangulation for qualitative data were the prime techniques for data analysis. The result of the study shows that university heads, instructors, students, research heads, researchers and employees rated the suggested mechanisms, namely “inviting speakers from industries and farming community”, “visiting guest lecturers” and “special entrepreneurial project”, as the top most important for ensuring training and research closely to the reality in the society of Amhara region in facilitating agricultural growth and rural transformation. Besides, employers and farmers responded that fresh graduates are deficient with relevant technical skills because of less emphasis on experiential learning on higher education. Therefore, the curriculum for the training should give much weight to incorporate these suggested mechanisms and the higher institutions curriculum should be arranged in such a way that the trainees could obtain appropriate technical know-how.
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