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Hospital Delivery Room versus Outdoor Birthing Place: Differences in Airborne Microorganisms and Their Impact on the Infant  [PDF]
Tobias C. Olofsson, Alejandra Vàsquez
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.31005
Abstract:

The incidence of allergic airway diseases continues to increase in industrial countries while remaining much more stable in developing countries. Allergens inhaled are eventually also swallowed and evidently the gastrointestinal immune system has a role in regulating allergic responses in the pulmonary as well as the GI system. While some studies have pointed out the role of probiotic bacteria as a supplementary protection against the early development of various allergies, little attention has been paid to the composition of the airborne microflora first and continuosly inhaled by newborns and infants. This study compares the composition of two airborne microbial communities, one from hospital delivery rooms and the other from a nature reserve, evidently in use as a birthing place as early as 7500 B.C. around the air from the outdoor birthing place was marked by a far greater variation in microbial composition and a much higher representation of fungi than the air from the hospitals. The dominant bacterial species from the delivery rooms were Staphylococcus areus and Micrococcus luteus, originating from the staff and the hospital environment; the outdoor flora, however, was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. In addition, 56% of all the bacterial isolates from the delivery rooms were most closely related to strains previously associated with clinical infections, whereas only 15% of isolates in the outdoor bacterial sample had such relationships. The role of airborne microorganisms could be important to infants with developing immune systems considering the microbial bias of hospital air presented in this study.

Anormalidades durante el desarrollo embrionario de sardina común, Strangomera bentincki en el ambiente natural
Vásquez,Paulina; Llanos-Rivera,Alejandra; Castro,Leonardo;
Revista de biología marina y oceanografía , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-19572010000100020
Abstract: to describe and quantify morphological abnormalities during the embryonic development of strangomera bentincki an area nearby the itata river mouth was sampled during the reproductive season 2007. abnormality levels (3-13 %) were coincident with reported levels for other clupeids species inhabiting areas with similar environmental characteristics to the area studied. type and abnormalities prevalence were coincident with those reported for other fish species. blastopore irregular closing and the embryonic axis twist were the most frequent in the samples. these abnormality types would be caused by errors during the epiboly, which can occur spontaneously, influenced by internal or external factors.
LEJOS DEL PODER: HACIA LA IMPLEMENTACIóN DE UNA LEY DE CUOTAS EN CHILE
Zú?iga Fajuri,Alejandra; Aguilera Bertucci,Daniela; Vásquez Bravo,Andrea;
Revista de derecho (Valdivia) , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-09502007000200001
Abstract: this essay intends to justify, from the point of view of equality -as it has been stated in the chilean constitution- a system of electoral quotas that helps to reverse the limited participation of women in public life. the paper describes the basic concepts of discrimination and affirmative action. in addition, it analyzes the principle of equality and the positive results of quotas systems in countries such as argentina and costa rica. finally, it studies the possible application of a quotas law in the chilean electoral system
Efectos Ambientales y Socieconómicos de los Procesos Productivos del Café y del Banano: Una Mirada Multifactorial
José Alfredo Vásquez,Marleny Cardona A.,Luz Dinora Vera,Alejandra García
Ecos de Economía , 2006,
Abstract: Durante el siglo XX y hasta la actualidad la produccion del sector agricola y en particular de los subsectores de cafe y banano han jugado un importante papel en la economia antioquena, tanto en la generacion de empleo y divisas, como en la construccion de una cultura asociada a ambos sectores. Las investigaciones realizadas por diversas instituciones en ambos subsectores si bien han orientado la introduccion de mejoras en la produccion, han dejado de lado un analisis comparativo de ambos subsectores con miras a la identificacion politicas propendan por el mejoramiento conjunto de ambos procesos productivos en aspectos de indole socioeconomico, y ambiental. El articulo presenta los resultados y conclusiones de un analisis comparativo de los procesos productivos del cafe y el banano en el departamento de Antioquia, desde los aspectos socioeconomico y ambiental, haciendo uso de una metodologia de analisis factorial (cuantitativo).
LEJOS DEL PODER: HACIA LA IMPLEMENTACIóN DE UNA LEY DE CUOTAS EN CHILE Far away from power: Towards the implementation of a quota system law in Chile
Alejandra Zú?iga Fajuri,Daniela Aguilera Bertucci,Andrea Vásquez Bravo
Revista de Derecho , 2007,
Abstract: El siguiente trabajo pretende justificar, desde el punto de vista del principio de igualdad -tal y como ha sido consagrado en la Constitución chilena-, un sistema de cuotas electorales que ayude a revertir la limitada participación de la mujer en la vida pública. Junto con precisar los conceptos básicos de discriminación inversa y acción afirmativa, se analiza el principio de igualdad y los importantes resultados que los sistemas de cuota utilizados en países como Argentina y Costa Rica han significado en su consecución y respeto. Finalmente, se reflexiona en torno a la posible aplicación de una ley de cuotas en el sistema binominal chileno This essay intends to justify, from the point of view of equality -as it has been stated in the Chilean Constitution- a system of electoral quotas that helps to reverse the limited participation of women in public life. The paper describes the basic concepts of discrimination and affirmative action. In addition, it analyzes the principle of equality and the positive results of quotas systems in countries such as Argentina and Costa Rica. Finally, it studies the possible application of a quotas law in the Chilean electoral system
Symbionts as Major Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees
Alejandra Vásquez, Eva Forsgren, Ingemar Fries, Robert J. Paxton, Emilie Flaberg, Laszlo Szekely, Tobias C. Olofsson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033188
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial host-associated members of the microbiota of humans and animals. Yet LAB-associations of invertebrates have been poorly characterized and their functions remain obscure. Here we show that honeybees possess an abundant, diverse and ancient LAB microbiota in their honey crop with beneficial effects for bee health, defending them against microbial threats. Our studies of LAB in all extant honeybee species plus related apid bees reveal one of the largest collections of novel species from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ever discovered within a single insect and suggest a long (>80 mya) history of association. Bee associated microbiotas highlight Lactobacillus kunkeei as the dominant LAB member. Those showing potent antimicrobial properties are acquired by callow honey bee workers from nestmates and maintained within the crop in biofilms, though beekeeping management practices can negatively impact this microbiota. Prophylactic practices that enhance LAB, or supplementary feeding of LAB, may serve in integrated approaches to sustainable pollinator service provision. We anticipate this microbiota will become central to studies on honeybee health, including colony collapse disorder, and act as an exemplar case of insect-microbe symbiosis.
MANEJO LAPAROSCóPICO DE MASAS ANEXIALES: EXPERIENCIA LOCAL
Catalán B.,Alejandra; Laiz R.,Domingo; Corvalán A.,Jaime; Masoli I.,Diego; Vásquez C.,Wladimir;
Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75262005000400005
Abstract: 132 patients were analyzed evaluating epidemiological and clinical characteristics, the interrelation between ultrasound scan and pathological anatomy, the evolution and the laparoscopic use for the treatment of adnexal masses. the diagnosis was based on the ultrasonic identification of an adnexal mass. the age range was between 16-66 years. the abdominal and pelvic pain was present in 34% of the cases; in 45 % it was diagnosed an adnexal mass by routine ultrasound examination. in 53% it was realized cystectomy and complete ooforectomy in 16%. in 78% the mass corresponded to ovary and in 22 % to the fallopian tube. for the masses of ovarian origin the biggest frequency corresponded to epithelial tumors (22%), followed by endometriosis cysts in 18%. 3 vascular complications are described and a change to laparotomy way in 5 cases. only 1 tumor borderline was found and 1 cervix cancer. the objective of this work is to show our surgical experience in the laparoscopic handling of the adnexal tumors
Abastecimiento de sangre durante desastres: la experiencia de Chile en 2010
Vásquez,Marcela; Maldonado,Mónica; Tagle,Federico; León,Sergio; Soto,Alejandra; Mena,Aaron; Toro,Carla;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892011000500010
Abstract: a review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the richter scale that struck central and southern chile on 27 february 2010. the objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. the descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from interviews, internal reports, and the computer database from the maule regional blood production center. the results lead to the conclusion that to respond efficiently and effectively to the need for blood in the immediate wake of a disaster it is essential to have both a centralized management system that facilitates the supply and administration of blood and volunteers with competence in health that are willing to swiftly arrive during these events. a change in the profile of blood donors during such emergencies was also observed. in chile, for example, during the two weeks after the earthquake, the ratio of male/female donors was reversed. there was 61.1% participation by women, whereas in the week before the event women accounted for only 37%.
Nuclear Import of β-Dystroglycan Is Facilitated by Ezrin-Mediated Cytoskeleton Reorganization
Alejandra Vásquez-Limeta, Kylie M. Wagstaff, Arturo Ortega, Dorothy H. Crouch, David A. Jans, Bulmaro Cisneros
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090629
Abstract: The β-dystroglycan (β-DG) protein has the ability to target to multiple sites in eukaryotic cells, being a member of diverse protein assemblies including the transmembranal dystrophin-associated complex, and a nuclear envelope-localised complex that contains emerin and lamins A/C and B1. We noted that the importin α2/β1-recognised nuclear localization signal (NLS) of β-DG is also a binding site for the cytoskeletal-interacting protein ezrin, and set out to determine whether ezrin binding might modulate β-DG nuclear translocation for the first time. Unexpectedly, we found that ezrin enhances rather than inhibits β-DG nuclear translocation in C2C12 myoblasts. Both overexpression of a phosphomimetic activated ezrin variant (Ez-T567D) and activation of endogenous ezrin through stimulation of the Rho pathway resulted in both formation of actin-rich surface protrusions and significantly increased nuclear translocation of β-DG as shown by quantitative microscopy and subcellular fractionation/Western analysis. In contrast, overexpression of a nonphosphorylatable inactive ezrin variant (Ez-T567A) or inhibition of Rho signaling, decreased nuclear translocation of β-DG concomitant with a lack of cell surface protrusions. Further, a role for the actin cytoskeleton in ezrin enhancement of β-DG nuclear translocation was implicated by the observation that an ezrin variant lacking its actin-binding domain failed to enhance nuclear translocation of β-DG, while disruption of the actin cytoskeleton led to a reduction in β-DG nuclear localization. Finally, we show that ezrin-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization enhances nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic but not the transmembranal fraction of β-DG. This is the first study showing that cytoskeleton reorganization can modulate nuclear translocation of β-DG, with the implication that β-DG can respond to cytoskeleton-driven changes in cell morphology by translocating from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to orchestrate nuclear processes in response to the functional requirements of the cell.
Identidad, responsabilidad familiar y ejercicio de la paternidad en varones del Estado de México
Alejandra Salguero Velásquez
Papeles de población , 2006,
Abstract: El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar el proceso de construcción identitario en varones mexicanos, tomando en cuenta la manera en que asumen la responsabilidad familiar y el ejercicio de la paternidad. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, para la cual se entrevistó a 30 varones de nivel socioeconómico medio-alto, con hijos e hijas en edad escolar, pertenecientes a familias integradas y cuyas parejas realizaban actividades laborales remuneradas. Los resultados permiten identificar la diversidad y complejidad de los significados que atribuyen al "ser hombre". Se encuentra una estrecha relación entre el proceso de construcción de la identidad masculina y el ejercicio de la paternidad, ya que una forma de ser padre tiene que ver con una manera particular de ser hombre.
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