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Crescimento do fungo simbionte de formigas cortadeiras do gênero Acromyrmex em meios de cultura com diferentes extratos
Borba Regina da Silva,Loeck Alci Enimar,Bandeira Juliana de Magalh?es,Moraes Caroline Leivas
Ciência Rural , 2006,
Abstract: As formigas cortadeiras mostram preferência por algumas espécies vegetais, as quais s o constantemente desfolhadas, enquanto outras n o s o atacadas, embora sejam abundantes e localizadas próximas ao ninho. As formigas dos gêneros Atta e Acromyrmex cortam plantas e transportam peda os para os formigueiros. O material vegetal é usado para o cultivo do fungo Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, do qual se alimentam. Vários trabalhos utilizando extratos de plantas têm sido realizados para avaliar o efeito sobre o desenvolvimento do fungo simbionte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de meios de cultura acrescidos de diferentes extratos sobre o crescimento do fungo L. gongylophorus. Fungos das espécies Acromyrmex ambiguus, Acromyrmex crassispinus, Acromyrmex heyeri e Acromyrmex lundi foram inoculados nos meios ágar Nutritivo e BDA, ambos acrescidos de mela o e de extratos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), tifa (Typha angustifolia L.) e formiga (Atta sexdens piriventris). O meio Pagnocca foi utilizado como padr o. As placas foram mantidas em camaras climatizadas à temperatura de 25 + 1degreesC e escotofase de 24 hs, por um período de 49 dias. O crescimento fúngico foi avaliado com base no diametro da col nia, sendo este avaliado em intervalos semanais, totalizando sete avalia es. Também foi avaliado o peso seco do fungo aos 53 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o fungo cultivado por diferentes espécies de formigas tem crescimento diferenciado em meios de cultura com diferentes extratos.
Crescimento do fungo simbionte de formigas cortadeiras do gênero Acromyrmex em meios de cultura com diferentes extratos
Borba, Regina da Silva;Loeck, Alci Enimar;Bandeira, Juliana de Magalh?es;Moraes, Caroline Leivas;Centenaro, Elias Daniel;
Ciência Rural , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782006000300002
Abstract: the cutter ants show preference for some vegetable species, which are constantly defoliated, while others are not attacked, although they are abundant and located close to the nest. the ants of the goods atta and acromyrmex cut plants and they transport pieces to the anthills. the vegetable material is used for the cultivation of the mushroom leucoagaricus gongylophorus, mushroom from of which theyfeed. several works using extracts of plants have been accomplished to evaluate the effect on the development of the mushroom symbiont. the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of added culture means of different extracts on the growth of the l. gongylophorus mushroom. where mushrooms of the species acromyrmex ambiguus, acromyrmex crassispinus, acromyrmex heyeri and acromyrmex lundi were inoculated in the means nutritious ágar and bda, both added of molasses and extracts of lolium multiflorum lam., typha angustifolia l. and ant (atta sexdens piriventris). the pagnocca medium was used as pattern. the plates were maintained in cameras acclimatized to the temperature of 25 + 1°c and 24 hours of darkness, for a period of 49 days. the fungal growth was evaluated with base in the diameter of the colony, which was accomplished with weekly intervals, totalizing seven evaluations. also the dry weight was evaluated from the mushroom to the 53 days. the results showed that the mushroom cultivated by different species of ants has differentiated growth in culture means with different extracts.
Avalia??o de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira
TEIXEIRA, IVONEL;BOTTON, MARCOS;LOECK, ALCI ENIMAR;
Neotropical Entomology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2002000300017
Abstract: the ground pearl, eurhizococcus brasiliensis (hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (vitis sp.) causing plant death. infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. a single application in november provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 l, three times a year). the dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. these results show the possibility of controlling e. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.
OCORRêNCIA DE FORMIGAS CORTADEIRAS NA REGI?O DA DEPRESS?O CENTRAL DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL
Grürzmacher, Douglas D.;Loeck, Alci Enimar;Medeiros, Ane H.;
Ciência Rural , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000200001
Abstract: with the objective of to identifying the leaf-cutting ants that occur in the depress?o central region of rio grande do sul state, brazil, to verify its predominance species and its geographical distribution, a survey was done in 51 counties. forty ant samples were collected in each county in second semester of 1999. ants identification and data interpretation were carried out in the fitossanidade department of "eliseu maciel" agronomy faculty of the federal university of pelotas. ants from 2.058 samples were identified, being observed: atta sexdens piriventris santschi, 1919; acromyrmex laticeps (emery, 1905); acromyrmex crassispinus (forel, 1909); acromyrmex heyeri (forel, 1899); acromyrmex lundi (guerin, 1838); acromyrmex ambiguus (emery, 1887); acromyrmex striatus (roger, 1863); acromyrmex lobicornis (emery, 1887); acromyrmex coronatus (fabricius, 1804) and acromyrmex landolti balzani (forel, 1884). the predominant species were acromyrmex lundi, atta sexdens piriventris, a. ambiguus, a. heyeri, a. striatus and a. laticeps, representing, respectively, 23.91%, 22.89%, 16.86%, 14.04%, 6.85% and 6.70% of total samples in this region, occurring in 84.31%, 60.78%, 70.59%, 84.31%, 78.43% and 88.24% of the counties, respectively. the others species (a. crassispinus, a. lobicornis, a. landolti balzani and a. coronatus) are less frequent, representing together 6.27% of total samples, being considered of rare occurrence in this region.
OCORRêNCIA DE FORMIGAS CORTADEIRAS NA REGI O DA DEPRESS O CENTRAL DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL
Grürzmacher Douglas D.,Loeck Alci Enimar,Medeiros Ane H.
Ciência Rural , 2002,
Abstract: Com o objetivo de identificar as espécies de formigas cortadeiras que existem na regi o da Depress o Central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, de verificar sua predominancia e distribui o geográfica, realizou-se um levantamento em 51 municípios. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de formigas de cada município no segundo semestre de 1999. A identifica o das formigas e a interpreta o dos dados foi realizada no Departamento de Fitossanidade da Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel" da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Na análise das 2.058 amostras de formigas, constatou-se a presen a de: Atta sexdens piriventris Santschi, 1919; Acromyrmex laticeps (Emery, 1905); Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel, 1909); Acromyrmex heyeri (Forel, 1899); Acromyrmex lundi (Guerin, 1838); Acromyrmex ambiguus (Emery, 1887); Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863); Acromyrmex lobicornis (Emery, 1887); Acromyrmex coronatus (Fabricius, 1804) e Acromyrmex landolti balzani Emery, 1890. As espécies predominantes foram Acromyrmex lundi, Atta sexdens piriventris, A. ambiguus, A. heyeri, A. striatus e A. laticeps, representando, respectivamente, 23,91%, 22,89%, 16,86%, 14,04%, 6,85% e 6,70% do total amostrado, ocorrendo em 84,31%, 60,78%, 70,59%, 84,31%, 78,43% e 88,24% dos municípios, respectivamente. As demais espécies (A. crassispinus, A. lobicornis, A. landolti balzani e A. coronatus) foram pouco freqüentes, representando juntas 6,27% do total, sendo por isso, consideradas de ocorrência rara nesta regi o.
Controle da cochonilha-parda Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius, 1776) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) na cultura da videira
Afonso, Ana Paula Schneid;Teixeira, Ivonel;Botton, Marcos;Faria, Jo?o Luiz;Loeck, Alci Enimar;
Ciência Rural , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782004000400003
Abstract: the european peach scale parthenolecanium persicae is one of the most important grape pest in southern brasil. the insecticides dimetoato (tiomet 400 ce, 100ml/100l), fenitrotion (sumithion 500 ce, 150ml/100l), metidation (supracid 400 ce, 100ml/100l), paratiom metil (folidol 600 ce, 100ml/100l) and triclorfon (dipterex 500 snaqc, 300ml/100l) were evaluated in a field experiment in 2001 and imidacloprid (provado 200 sc, 30, 40 and 50ml/100l), tiacloprid (calypso 480 sc, 20, 30 and 40ml/100l), tiametoxam (actara 250 wg, 20, 30 and 40 g/100l) and paratiom metil (folidol 600 ce, 100ml/100l) in 2002. insecticides were sprayed using 800l of water.ha-1 seeking third instar nymphs. phosporous insecticides fenitrotion, metidation, paratiom metil and triclorfon and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and tiametoxam were efficient for p. persicae control. dimetoato and tiacloprid were not efficient for insect control reducing pest population in levels bellow 50%.
Controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots., 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) com inseticidas empregados em frutíferas temperadas
Afonso, Ana Paula Schneid;Faria, Jo?o Luiz;Botton, Marcos;Loeck, Alci Enimar;
Ciência Rural , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782005000200001
Abstract: the maize weevil sitophilus zeamais mots. has frequently occurred in temperate fruits in the field, damaging peaches in pelotas, rs, apples in fraiburgo, sc and grapes in serra gaúcha, rs, brazil. this work evaluated in laboratory, the effect of deltamethrine (decis 25 ce, 40ml 100l-1), dimetoate (dimetoato ce 150ml 100l-1), thrichlorphon (dipterex 500 snaqc 300ml 100l-1), phosmet (imidan 500 pm, 200g 100l-1), fenthion (lebaycid 500 ce 100ml 100l-1), chlorpiriphos (lorsban 480 br, 150ml 100l-1), malathion (malation 1000, 200ml 100l-1), carbaryl (sevin 480 sc, 360ml 100l-1), fenitrothion (sumithion 500 ce, 150ml 100l-1) and methidathion (supracid 400 ce, 100ml 100l-1) commonly used in temperate fruit pest control and the new insecticides thiamethoxam (actara 250 wg, 15 e 30g 100l-1), emamectin benzoate (proclaim 5 sg, 10 e 20g 100l-1), imidacloprid (provado 200 sc, 30 e 60ml 100l-1), spinosad (tracer 480 ce, 10 e 20ml 100l-1) and etofenprox (trebon 100 sc, 100 e 150ml 100l-1). experiments were conducted treating apple fruits with an insecticide solution per 10 seconds (residual contact) and offered to adults of s. zeamais sp, and by spraying compounds directly on adults (direct contact). the insecticides trichlorfon (150g 100l-1), fenthion (50g 100l-1), chlorpiriphos (72g 100l-1), malathion (200g 100l-1), methidathion (40g 100l-1) and thiamethoxam (3.75 and 7.5g 100l-1) were efficient in the control of the maize weevil by residual contact. fenthion (50g 100l-1), chlorpiriphos (72g 100l-1), malathion (200g 100l-1), fenitrothion (75g 100l-1) and methidathion (40g 100l-1) were efficient by direct contact.
Aspectos biológicos de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick 1909) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes proteicas
Manfredi-Coimbra, Silvana;Garcia, Mauro Silveira;Loeck, Alci Enimar;Botton, Marcos;Foresti, Josemar;
Ciência Rural , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782005000200002
Abstract: biology aspects of argyrotaenia sphaleropa meyrick fed on artificial diets with different protein sources were studied: d1-white bean, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; d2-common bean and yeast and d3-common bean, yeast and wheat germ, evaluating the duration and viability of all developmental stages (egg, larval, prepupa and pupa) and of the total cycle (egg-adult), sex ratio, pupa weight, fecundity, longevity and life table of fertility. tests were conducted in the laboratory at 25±1°c, 65±10% rh and 14h of photophase. duration of the egg stage was 6.6 days on all diets. the longest duration of larval and prepupal stages on d1 and pupal stages on d2, resulting in a longer duration of the total cycle on these two diets (30,9 and 30,8 days). the total viability was higher than 62% on all diets, and there was no statistical difference among the treatments. the number of instars was four or five on all treatments. the lowest fecundity was observed in d1. based on the fertility life table, d3 was the most suitable diet for rearing a. sphaleropa, due to the lowest development time (t), the highest finite increasing rate (l), and total viability exceeding 75%.
Growth of symbiont fungi of some higher attine ants in mineral medium
Loeck, Alci Enimar;Pierobom, Carlos Roberto;Gusm?o, Luciana Guerra de;Afonso, Ana Paula;
Ciência Rural , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782004000100012
Abstract: bioassays were conducted to verify the possibility of culturing the symbiont fungus of some higher attine in mineral medium and finding out the optimum ph value for their satisfactory mycelial growth. three organic media and one mineral medium were inoculated with isolates from atta sexdens piriventris and acromyrmex heyeri. in mineral medium different values of ph (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0) were tested with isolates from a. laevigata and a. laticeps. the behavior of isolates (colony diameter) was different in the mineral medium. however, even the one which grew the least of all provided enough mycelial for rapd analysis. the best range of ph for fungal growth in mineral medium was between 4.0 and 5.0
Variabilidade genética interespecífica em formigas cortadeiras do gênero Acromyrmex que ocorrem no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul
Grutzmacher, Douglas Daniel;Loeck, Alci Enimar;Oliveira, Ant?nio Costa;Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma;Malone, Gaspar;
Ciência Rural , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782007000400001
Abstract: at present, a few number of taxonomists work on identification of leaf cutting ants. morphological-based methods do not always produce a reliable identification, due to the strong polymorphism observed even in the same colony. this fact leads to hypothesize that, besides those variations, others may also occur related to geographic distribution of the ants. six acromyrmex species were sampled at four locations in the state of rio grande do sul and analyzed by rapd and aflp. fifty ubc primers, originated from the university of british columbia, were evaluated to select a set of primers that could be useful for species identification and genetic variability studies. only 13 primers, which amplified fragments of all species, were selected. although the selected primers produced fragments that allowed various ways for identification of a. heyeri, a. ambiguus, a. crassispinus, a. striatus, a. laticeps and a. aspersus, only ubc 354, ubc348 and ubc356 primers allowed a reliable identification showing the most visible fragments. results by dendogram and morphological-based identification, showed that a. striatus and a. laticeps are less related to the other species. however a. ambiguus e a. crassispinus are the most genetically related ants in the state of rio grande do sul. the results indicate that a reliable identification of acromyrmex can be carried out by rapd and aflp, yet allowing verification of genetic distance between species.
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