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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18607 matches for " Alberto Macchi "
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Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in children: The role of nasal cytology  [PDF]
Maria Cristina Provero, Alberto Macchi, Sara Antognazza, Maddalena Marinoni, Luigi Nespoli
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.32024
Abstract:

Nasal cytology is a diagnostic tool currently used in rhinology to study either allergic and vasomotor rhinological disorders or infectious and inflammatory rhinitis. Over the past few years nasal cytology has been rarely used in pediatrics, nevertheless its clinical and scientific applications seem to be very promising. The advantages of this technique are different: the ease of performance, the noninvasiveness allowing repetition and the low cost. We evaluated 100 children, from 2 to 15 years old, referred to our outpatient service for allergic children for suspected allergic rhinitis (AR). After skin prick test (SPT) or Radio Allergo Sorbent Test (RAST), 59/100 subjects were classified as affected by AR, while 8 children refused to be tested. According to ARIA guidelines, the 59 children with AR (4 - 15 years old) were divided in 56 with persistent AR and 3 with an intermittent form. Nine out of 59 children with AR had a significant number of neutrophils and eosinophils at the nasal cytology, documenting the presence of “minimal persistent inflammation”. Eleven out of 59 AR patients showed a positive swab for bacteria. Children with nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) were 33/100 (2 - 15 years old). After nasal cytology, 17/33 children were classified as NARES (nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophils), including one X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) child, 1/33 as NARESMA (nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophils and mast cell) and another 1/33 as NARMA (nonallergic rhinitis with mast cell). In conclusion, nasal cytology allowed us to correctly classify children with NAR and to better assess the condition of children with AR.

Allergies in Children: What’s New?—A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study  [PDF]
Daniela Simoncini, Anna Peirolo, Alberto Macchi, Stefania Porcu, Daniela Graziani, Luigi Nespoli
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.54045
Abstract: Background: The prevalence of respiratory allergies is increasing worldwide, with important consequences especially for little children. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory allergies, such as rhinitis and asthma, and to point out the risk factors and their relationship with allergic diseases in a specific area of Northern Italy. Methods: 110 children, male and female, from our outpatient service for allergic children, between 3 and 17 years old, were examined. After a skin prick test and a nasal cytology, the written questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was filled by parents together with their children. Results: 110 children were examined. 74% of children had rhinitis and 71% asthma. 88 patients were allergic, grass pollen and house dust mite was the most frequent allergens. A family history of atopy, family background, geographic area, active and passive smoking and home pets were associated to allergies. Older children (6 - 15 years old) had more often rhinitis associated with asthma and conjunctivitis as compared to younger. 21 Children were also affected by non allergic rhinitis. Conclusions: Respiratory allergies are widespread and associated to a low quality of life among little children. Sensitization to Ragweed is increasing with important consequences. Rhinitis precedes the onset of asthmatic symptoms. Moreover non allergic rhinitis is increasing and frequently underdiagnosed.
Pseudodiagnosticity: The Role of the Rarity Factor in the Perception of the Informativeness of Data  [PDF]
Marco D’Addario, Laura Macchi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.36069
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study designed to investigate the pseudodiagnosticity bias as a failure to identify and select diagnostically relevant information. The reported experiment (N = 240) aims to deepen understanding of the role played by the rarity of evidential features in a classical pseudodiagnosticity task. The problem used for the experiment was a classical pseudodiagnosticity task. Six experimental versions were constructed: they differed in the rarity of features proposed and in the percentages (high or low) associated with them. The results show that people’s responses appear to be influenced by the percentage values associated with explicit information more than by a rarity factor. When an initial piece of evidence is associated with a low percentage, the percentage of normatively diagnostic answers is greater than when this percentage is high. Furthermore, rarity is not, in itself, a crucial factor in the occurrence of pseudodiagnosticity bias. Rather, the perception of the difference between two evidential features in terms of informative value influences people’s responses when orienting a diagnostic evaluation. When people perceive an initial piece of evidence as having greater informative value than a second piece of evidence, they tend to (correctly) move their attention from the focal hypothesis to the alternative one.
Optimising PICCANTE - an Open Source Particle-in-Cell Code for Advanced Simulations on Tier-0 Systems
Andrea Sgattoni,Luca Fedeli,Stefano Sinigardi,Alberto Marocchino,Andrea Macchi,Volker Weinberg,Anupam Karmakar
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present a detailed strong and weak scaling analysis of PICCANTE, an open source, massively parallel, fully-relativistic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. PIC codes are widely used in plasma physics and astrophysics to study the cases where kinetic effects are relevant. PICCANTE is primarily developed to study laser-plasma interaction. Within a PRACE Preparatory Access Project, various revisions of different routines of the code have been analysed on the HPC systems JUQUEEN at Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Germany, and FERMI at CINECA, Italy, to improve scalability and I/O performance of the application. The diagnostic tool Scalasca is used to identify suboptimal routines. Different output strategies are discussed. The detailed strong and weak scaling behaviour of the improved code are presented in comparison with the original version of the code.
Quarleri, Lía. Rebelión y guerra en las fronteras del Plata. Guaraníes, jesuitas e imperios coloniales. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2009.
Virginia Macchi.
Historia Crítica , 2010,
Abstract:
Comments on chemical bonding in the high pressure form of Boron
Piero Macchi
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: A scientific discussion was recently raised on the interpretation of chemical bonding in the high pressure structure of Boron. Some remarks are given in this short commentary
A Femtosecond Neutron Source
A. Macchi
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/s00340-005-2092-y
Abstract: The possibility to use the ultrashort ion bunches produced by circularly polarized laser pulses to drive a source of fusion neutrons with sub-optical cycle duration is discussed. A two-side irradiation of a thin foil deuterated target produces two countermoving ion bunches, whose collision leads to an ultrashort neutron burst. Using particle-in-cell simulations and analytical modeling, it is evaluated that, for intensities of a few $10^{19} W cm^{-2}$, more than $10^3$ neutrons per Joule may be produced within a time shorter than one femtosecond. Another scheme based on a layered deuterium-tritium target is outlined.
Theory of Light Sail Acceleration by Intense Lasers: an Overview
Andrea Macchi
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: A short overview of the theory of acceleration of thin foils driven by the radiation pressure of superintense lasers is presented. A simple criterion for radiation pressure dominance at intensities around $5 \times 10^{20} \mbox{W cm}^{-2}$ is given, and the possibility for fast energy gain in the relativistic regime is discussed.
Toy model of the "fountain effect" for magnetic field generation in intense laser-solid interactions
Andrea Macchi
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: A very simple "geometrical" model of a fountain is analyzed to evaluate the net flow on the ground resulting from the superposition of the source and the falling streams. On this basis we suggest a scaling for the magnetic field generated at the rear surface of high-intensity laser-irradiated solid targets due to the "fountain effect" related to fast electrons escaping in vacuum.
Dynamical ionization ignition of clusters in intense and short laser pulses
D. Bauer,A. Macchi
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.68.033201
Abstract: The electron dynamics of rare gas clusters in laser fields is investigated quantum mechanically by means of time-dependent density functional theory. The mechanism of early inner and outer ionization is revealed. The formation of an electron wave packet inside the cluster shortly after the first removal of a small amount of electron density is observed. By collisions with the cluster boundary the wave packet oscillation is driven into resonance with the laser field, hence leading to higher absorption of laser energy. Inner ionization is increased because the electric field of the bouncing electron wave packet adds up constructively to the laser field. The fastest electrons in the wave packet escape from the cluster as a whole so that outer ionization is increased as well.
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