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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18515 matches for " Alberto Izzotti "
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Molecular biology as applied to the prevention of chronic-degenerative
Alberto Izzotti
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.2427/6000
Abstract: Dear Sir, Chronic-degenerative diseases (CDD), including atherosclerosis, cancer and chronic-obstructive pulmonary diseases, are the main causes of death in developed countries, accounting for approximately 90% of mortality. These pathologies arise from a complex network of risk-factors both exogenous and endogenous in origin. The role of preventive medicine in counteracting this major public-health problem is pivotal, especially since treatment of these diseases is difficult. The goal of preventive medicine is to shed light on the network of CDDrelated risk factors in healthy subjects, thus allowing for primary preventive interventions aimed at removing harmful exposures, increasing host-defence mechanisms and activating targeted early-screening programs in susceptible individuals.CDD risk-factors are identified by anamnestic evaluation and questionnaires as well as chemical-laboratory analyses and the clinical examination of patients. For example, the risk assessment for atherosclerosis is performed by analysing diet and smoke-exposure habits, measuring blood pressure, lipid profile, etc., however, a similar approach may only in part be pursued for cancer because the majority of the related pathogenic phenomena occurs at molecular level.
Mitochondrial Damage in the Trabecular Meshwork Occurs Only in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and in Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma
Alberto Izzotti,Mariagrazia Longobardi,Cristina Cartiglia,Sergio Claudio Saccà
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014567
Abstract: Open-angle glaucoma appears to be induced by the malfunction of the trabecular meshwork cells due to injury induced by oxidative damage and mitochondrial impairment. Here, we report that, in fact, we have detected mitochondrial damage only in primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudo-exfoliation glaucoma, among several glaucoma types compared.
Trabecular Meshwork Gene Expression after Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty
Alberto Izzotti,Mariagrazia Longobardi,Cristina Cartiglia,Federico Rathschuler,Sergio Claudio Saccà
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020110
Abstract: Trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal are the tissues appointed to modulate the aqueous humour outflow from the anterior chamber. The impairment of their functions drives to an intraocular pressure increase. The selective laser trabeculoplasty is a laser therapy of the trabecular meshwork able to decrease intraocular pressure. The exact response mechanism to this treatment has not been clearly delineated yet. The herein presented study is aimed at studying the gene expression changes induced in trabecular meshwork cells by selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in order to better understand the mechanisms subtending its efficacy.
Accelerated Repair and Reduced Mutagenicity of DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Human Bronchial Cells Transfected with E.coli Formamidopyrimidine DNA Glycosylase
Mara Foresta, Alberto Izzotti, Sebastiano La Maestra, Rosanna Micale, Alessandro Poggi, Donatella Vecchio, Guido Frosina
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087984
Abstract: Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na+K+-ATPase locus (ouar) were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells’ capacity to repair damaged DNA.
Complex Relationships between Occupation, Environment, DNA Adducts, Genetic Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer in a Case-Control Study Using a Structural Equation Modeling
Stefano Porru, Sofia Pavanello, Angela Carta, Cecilia Arici, Claudio Simeone, Alberto Izzotti, Giuseppe Mastrangelo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094566
Abstract: DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028), whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006) was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001), coffee (p<0.001), cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041) and MnSOD (p = 0.009) and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008) were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different critical life stages.
Oxidative Damage and Autophagy in the Human Trabecular Meshwork as Related with Ageing
Alessandra Pulliero, Anke Seydel, Anna Camoirano, Sergio Claudio Saccà, Marco Sandri, Alberto Izzotti
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098106
Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation process induced under stress conditions. Autophagy also plays a major role in ocular patho-physiology. Molecular aging does occur in the trabecular meshwork, the main regulator of aqueous humor outflow, and trabecular meshwork senescence is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. However, the role of autophagy in trabecular meshwork patho-physiology has not yet been examined in vivo in human ocular tissues. The purpose of the herein presented study is to evaluate autophagy occurrence in ex-vivo collected human trabecular meshwork specimens and to evaluate the relationship between autophagy, oxidative stress, and aging in this tissue. Fresh trabecular meshwork specimens were collected from 28 healthy corneal donors devoid of ocular pathologies and oxidative DNA damage, and LC3 and p62 protein expression analyzed. In a subset of 10 subjects, further to trabecular meshwork proteins, the amounts of cathepesin L and ubiquitin was analyzed by antibody microarray in aqueous humor. Obtained results demonstrate that autophagy activation, measured by LC3II/I ratio, is related with. oxidative damage occurrence during aging in human trabecular meshwork. The expression of autophagy marker p62 was lower in subjects older than 60 years as compared to younger subjects. These findings reflect the occurrence of an agedependent increase in the autophagy as occurring in the trabecular meshwork. Furthermore, we showed that aging promotes trabecular-meshwork senescence due to increased oxidative stress paralleled by autophagy increase. Indeed, both oxidative DNA damage and autophagy were more abundant in subjects older than 60 years. These findings shed new light on the role of oxidative damage and autophagy during trabecular-meshwork aging.
Landfill Liner Failure: an Open Question for Landfill Risk Analysis  [PDF]
Alberto Pivato
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.23032
Abstract: The European Union Landfill regulations (1999/31/EC) are based on the premise that technological barrier systems can fully contain all landfill leachate produced during waste degradation, and thus provide complete protection to groundwater. The long-term durability of containment systems are to date unproven as landfill liner systems have only been used for about 30 years. Many recent studies have drawn attention to some of the deficiencies associated with artificial lining systems, particularly synthetic membrane systems. Consequently, failure modes of landfill liners need to be quantified and analysed. A probabilistic approach, which is usually performed for complex technological systems such as nuclear reactors, chemical plants and spacecrafts, can be applied usefully to the evaluation of landfill liner integrity and to clarify the failure issue (reliability) of liners currently applied. This approach can be suitably included into risk analysis to manage the landfill aftercare period.
Some Numerical Curiosities about the Universe  [PDF]
Alberto Coe
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.611169
Abstract: We try briefly the relationship between numbers and some aspects of physical reality. By means of a simple set of mathematical and physical tools what we wanted to find was dimensionless numbers that could fit with a particular symmetry. In this paper we describe a small sheaf of numerical results.
Sport Coaches Learn to Coach in Hong Kong  [PDF]
Alberto Cruz
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2017.74036
Abstract: Sport coaching is dynamic and complex. Sport coaches must develop a range of skills and knowledge to coach competently. Studies have shown that school sport coaches learn to coach through many different situations. School sport coaches seem to learn to coach through life experiences in various learning situations. To date, few studies have investigated the process by which school sport coaches in Hong Kong learn how to coach. Therefore, the present study examined the learning situations in which school sport coaches learn to coach and the factors that influence their coaching practice, using Moon’s generic view of learning.Twelve sport coaches with a minimum of one year’s experienceof coaching in schools were recruited in this study. Snowball sampling was employed to maximise variation of the sample. Two semistructured interviews were conducted to gather information concerning their sporting experiences, career paths, learning-to-coach processes, and coaching practice in schools. Deductive content analysis was used to organise and categorise the data. The trustworthiness of the study was established using peer debriefing and member checking.Findings indicated that school sport coaches learn to coach through formal coaching education courses and informal learning settings: mentoring and exchanging ideas with other coaches and physical education teachers. Sport coaches also reported that their past sporting and coaching experience helped their coaching practice. Number of participants, school equipment and facilities, and weather were major factors that influence the practice of school sport coaches.The findings of the study have implications for the training of sport coaches with respect to their specific learning needs and knowledge of how to coach in Hong Kong’s school system. Learning strategies should be provided to address different learning situations coaches might encounter and the factors that influence practice to
Optimal Selection and Allocation of Sectionalizers in Distribution Systems Using Fuzzy Dynamic Programming  [PDF]
Albornoz Esteban, Andreoni Alberto
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2010.24040
Abstract: This paper describes a calculation strategy that allows determining the optimal number and placement of sectionalizing switches in MV radial distribution networks, in correspondence to technical, regulatory and economical aspects. A formulation that takes into account the investment, maintenance and power interruption costs has been developed, seeking for a reduction in total costs while taking care of the regulatory and technical aspects. A multicriteria optimization procedure allows incorporating in the calculating process various quality indicators which can be either global or individual indexes. This way of formulation makes the proposal flexible as well as applicable to allow including aspects that were not considered in previous papers. The solution methodology is mainly based on dynamic programming, fuzzy logic, heuristics and economic analysis techniques. Given its flexibility, the proposed tool is easily adapted to real distribution systems, by considering the individual requirements of each network. The solutions obtained in simulations are oriented to help decision-making for the operator.
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