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Outcome of HIV-exposed uninfected children undergoing surgery
Jonathan S Karpelowsky, Alastair JW Millar, Nelleke van der Graaf, Guido van Bogerijen, Heather J Zar
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-69
Abstract: A prospective study of children less than 60 months of age undergoing general surgery at a paediatric referral hospital from July 2004 to July 2008 inclusive. Children underwent age-definitive HIV testing and were followed up post operatively for the development of complications, length of stay and mortality.Three hundred and eighty children were enrolled; 4 died and 11 were lost to follow up prior to HIV testing, thus 365 children were included. Of these, 38(10.4%) were HIVe, 245(67.1%) were HIVn and 82(22.5%) were HIVi children.The overall mortality was low, with 2(5.2%) deaths in the HIVe group, 0 in the HIVn group and 6(7.3%) in the HIVi group (p = 0.0003). HIVe had a longer stay than HIVn children (3 (2-7) vs. 2 (1-4) days p = 0.02). There was no significant difference in length of stay between the HIVe and HIVi groups. HIVe children had a higher rate of complications compared to HIVn children, (9 (23.7%) vs. 14(5.7%) (RR 3.8(2.1-7) p < 0.0001) but a similar rate of complications compared to HIVi children 34 (41.5%) (RR = 0.6 (0.3-1.1) p = 0.06).HIVe children have a higher risk of developing complications and mortality after surgery compared to HIVn children. However, the risk of complications is lower than that of HIVi children.HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children are a rapidly growing population. Programs for the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) have reduced the transmission rate of perinatal HIV infection to approximately 2% to 5% [1-3]. Such programs have therefore effectively reduced the number of HIV infected (HIVi)children but identified an increasing population of HIVe children [4].HIVe children have been overlooked as a group of children who may be at an increased risk of illness compared to HIV-unexposed (HIVn) children. Recently, increased morbidity and mortality in HIVe children compared to HIVn children has been reported [4-10]. Many factors may account for this including innate deficiencies in immunity [11-13], feeding practice
The passage of a nasogastric tube does not always exclude an oesophageal atresia
Alexander Angus,Millar Alastair
African Journal of Paediatric Surgery , 2009,
The evolving management of Burkitt's lymphoma at Red Cross Children's Hospital
Alan Davidson, Farieda Desai, Marc Hendricks, Patricia Hartley, Alastair Millar, Alp Numanoglu, Heinz Rode
South African Medical Journal , 2006,
An Assessment of Burs Designed to Cut Zirconia  [PDF]
Brian J. Millar
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2017.75021
Abstract: Objective: Zirconia is increasingly being used in restorative dentistry but its removal is often a difficult procedure due to its resistance to cutting with conventional diamond burs. Zirconia cutting burs have been developed and this study aims to compare 4 such burs. Methods: 35 experienced restorative dentists selected from our Practice Based Network (PBN) were asked to evaluate the cutting of a 1 mm groove into zirconia using 4 burs A (Meisinger), B (ZR2-1 experimental bur from DIATECH), C (Komet) & D (DIATECH Z-Rex, a bur designed with enhanced bonding of diamond grit to bur shank). Responses regarding cutting time, performance and wear were recorded. Results: For best cutting times and also overall performance D performed best and C the worst, with little difference between burs A and B. Bur C also performed least well for wear on the bur. Conclusion: The newly designed zirconia cutting bur DIATECH Z-Rex with enhanced bonding of diamond grit performed best in the analysis by the 35 dentists.
What Women Want in a Man: The Role of Age, Social Class, Ethnicity, and Height  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham, Alastair McClelland
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.63028
Abstract: This study aimed to use a budget allocation model to examine mate preference. 303 female respondents with a mean age of 21.75 years were asked about their preferences for someone to take on a blind date. They were presented with descriptions of 16 hypothetical men which they were asked to rate for personal choice and suitability. The hypothetical men differed on age (18 - 20 years vs. 30 - 33 years), social class (I/II vs. III/IV), ethnicity (Caucasian vs. Asian) and height (short/average from 5’6” to 5’8” and tall 6’1” to 6’3”). Overall females preferred younger, taller males from their own racial group and with a higher social class. Women showed a strong preference for men their own age, ethnicity and especially height.
What Men Want in a Woman: Personality Is More Important than Academic Record or Athleticism  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham, Alastair McClelland
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.68092
Abstract: Two hundred and fifty eight male respondents with a mean age of 24.5 years were presented with sixteen hypothetical females which they were asked to rate for suitability as long term partners. The hypothetical females differed with respect to: academic record ability (high/average); athleticism (high/low) and two personality variables; Extraversion (introvert/extravert) and Neuroticism (stable/neurotic). Overall males preferred intelligent, athletic, extraverted, stable females as potential long term partners. Effect sizes showed that being Extravert was seen as being the most important characteristic and being athletic as the least important. However, there were also a number of significant two- and three-way interactions between the characteristics of the potential dates. Limitations of the study are noted.
Ozone and its use in periodontal treatment  [PDF]
Dimitrios Iliadis, Brian J. Millar
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.32034

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of ozone in periodontal treatment in dental practice. Methods: An evaluation of the current state of knowledge regarding the application of ozone in periodontal treatment revealed limited available literature. Therefore an audit was conducted in dental practice in order to evaluate the effects of ozone in periodontal treatment. Twenty-five patients were treated with gaseous ozone after having had failed conventional periodontal treatment. BPE scores and the six deepest pockets were measured in each patient before and after the use of ozone. Results: From the initial number of twenty-nine patients selected, twenty-five patients attended both follow up appointments. Based on BPE scores, twenty of the patients have overall improvement while five of the patients continued to have deterioration. Eight patients had an improvement in depths of periodontal pockets by three millimetres, sixteen patients had improvement by one to two millimetres and one patient did not improve. The depth of pockets after the use of ozone decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The audit revealed that gaseous ozone significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the depth of pockets in patients with periodontal disease. The positive results encourage further investigation in the subject.

Glomalin and Soil Aggregation under Six Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains, USA  [PDF]
Kristine A. Nichols, James Millar
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.38043

The soil environment is linked to aboveground management including plant species composition, grazing intensity, levels of soil disturbance, residue management, and the length of time of a living plant is growing. Soil samples were collected under rangeland [native grass, rotational grazing (NGRG); tame grass, heavy grazing (TGRG); and tame grass, rotational grazing (TGHG)] and cropland [conventional till (CT); CT plus manure (CTM); and long term no till (NT)] systems. The rangeland systems were hypothesized to have higher glomalin content [measured as Bradford-reactive soil protein (BRSP)] and water stable aggregation (WSA) than the cropland systems. In addition, within both rangeland and cropland systems, BRSP and WSA were expected to decline with increased disturbance due to grazing or tillage and going from native to introduced plant species. Differences were detected for BRSP with NGRG and CTM having the highest values in range and cropland systems, respectively. However, the CTM system had higher BRSP values than one or both of the tame grass systems while the CT and NT systems had similar values. Correlation analysis showed strong relationships between all of the BRSP values and WSA.

An in Vitro Study of Microleakage Comparing Total-Etch with Bonding Resin and Self-Etch Adhesive Luting Cements for All-Ceramic Crowns  [PDF]
Brian J. Millar, Sanjukta Deb
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.43020
Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the dye leakage present following cementation of all-ceramic crowns with 7 currently used cements to compare total-etch (TE) with dentine bonding agent (DBA) and self-etch (SE) systems. Methods: Forty-two Authentic? crowns were fabricated and cemented onto extracted human teeth using 7 currently available cements (2 two-stage adhesives (TE + DBA): Panavia 21 Kuraray; Paracore, Coltene Whaledent and 5 all-in-one adhesives (SE): MaxCem Kerr; Panavia F2.0 Kuraray; RelyX Unicem 3MEspe; seT SDI). Following storage in water and thermal cycling, the teeth were exposed to dye, sectioned and examined under confocal microscopy. Leakage was determined by two blinded examiners and scoring was carried out on a scale of 0 - 8 per tooth (0 = no leakage, 8 complete leakage across the section). One overall reading was obtained per tooth with 6 teeth per material. Results: The results showed a wide range of scores between the different cements. Only a few specimens which used TE + DBA showed slight marginal leakage: Paracore (mean score 0 ± 0) and Panavia 21 (0.3 ± 0.5). The majority of specimens using SE showed leakage: RelyX Unicem (0.8 ± 0.8), SmartCem (1.7 ± 2.1), MaxCem (3.2 ± 1.7), Panavia F2.0 (4.5 ± 2.4) then seT (5.2 ± 2.5). Statistical analysis was carried out showing that Paracore and Panavia 21 were significantly less prone to leakage than MaxCem, (P = 0.002) and seT (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, the choice of luting cement is important in reducing dye leakage. This study strongly favours the use of a TE with separate adhesive system placed prior to the composite luting resin.
Effect of Autoclave Sterilisation on the Dimensional Stability and Tear Strength of Three Silicone Impression Materials  [PDF]
Brian J. Millar, Sanjukta Deb
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.412069
Abstract: Objectives: There is a risk of spreading infectious material via non-sterile impressions. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of autoclave sterilisation on dimensional stability and tear strength of impression materials. Methods: Twenty-four specimens were produced using a standard ruled test block for each of three impression materials (Affinis, Aquasil and Speedex) to test dimensional stability. Thirty tear strips for each material were prepared for the tear test (ISO 34-1). Specimens were randomly allocated to 3 different groups (autoclaved, disinfected or untreated). A non-contact scanner was used to analyse dimensional change and a universal testing machine was used to determine tear strengths. Results: There were no significant differences in the test dimensions measured for any of the three impression materials following autoclave treatment compared to the disinfected or untreated control groups. The tear strengths were not adversely affected by autoclave sterilisation at 134°C. Conclusion: These addition and condensation-cured silicone impression materials can be steam autoclaved without adverse effects on dimensional accuracy or tear strength.
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