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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 315026 matches for " Alan L Zhang "
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Long-Term Electrophysiological and Behavioral Analysis on the Improvement of Visual Working Memory Load, Training Gains, and Transfer Benefits  [PDF]
Ching-Chang Kuo, Cheng Zhang, Robert A. Rissman, Alan W. L. Chiu
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.45025
Abstract: Recent evidence demonstrates that with training, one can enhance visual working memory (VWM) capacity and attention over time in the near transfer tasks. Not only do these studies reveal the characteristics of VWM load and the influences of training, they may also provide insights into developing effective rehabilitation for patients with VWM deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated VWM over extended periods of time and evaluated transfer benefits on non-trained tasks. Here, we combined behavioral and electroencephalographical approaches to investigate VWM load, training gains, and transfer benefits. Our results reveal that VWM capacity is directly correlated to the difference of event-related potential waveforms. In particular, the “magic number 4” can be observed through the contralateral delay amplitude and the average capacity is 3.25-item over 15 participants. Furthermore, our findings indicate that VWM capacity can be improved through training; and after training exercises, participants from the training group are able to dramatically improve their performance. Likewise, the training effects on non-trained tasks can also be observed at the 12th week after training. Therefore, we conclude that participants can benefit from training gains, and augmented VWM capacity sustained over long periods of time on specific variety of tasks.
Partial Molar Entropy and Partial Molar Heat Capacity of Electrons in Metals and Superconductors  [PDF]
Alan L. Rockwood
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.72021
Abstract: There are at least two valid approaches to the thermodynamics of electrons in metals. One takes a microscopic view, based on models of electrons in metals and superconductor and uses statistical mechanics to calculate the total thermodynamic functions for the model-based system. Another uses partial molar quantities, which is a rigorous thermodynamic method to analyze systems with components that can cross phase boundaries and is particularly useful when applied to a system composed of interacting components. Partial molar quantities have not been widely used in the field of solid state physics. The present paper will explore the application of partial molar electronic entropy and partial molar electronic heat capacity to electrons in metals and superconductors. This provides information that is complementary information from other approaches to the thermodynamics of electrons in metals and superconductors and can provide additional insight into the properties of those materials. Furthermore, the application of partial molar quantities to electrons in metals and superconductors has direct relevance to long-standing problems in other fields, such as the thermodynamics of ions in solution and the thermodynamics of biological energy transformations. A unifying principle between reversible and irreversible thermodynamics is also discussed, including how this relates to the completeness of thermodynamic theory.
Supplementing fibroblast growth factor 2 during bovine oocyte in vitro maturation promotes subsequent embryonic development  [PDF]
Kun Zhang, Alan D. Ealy
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.22017
Abstract: The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is a novel model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. In this study we investigated the glycolipid metabolic changes with phlorizin-treatment, which inhibits intestinal glucose uptake and renal glucose reabsorption, in male SDT rats. Phlorizin (100 mg/kg, b.i.d., s.c.) was administered for 4 weeks to SDT rats from 20 to 24 weeks of age. As a result, phlorizin reduced the development of hyperglycemia and decreased the hemoglo-bin A1c (HbA1c) levels. In the liver, phlorizin increased mRNA levels of glucokinase, the enzymes related with the glycogen cascade and the proteins associated with lipid metabolism. In conclusion, chronic administration of phlorizin in SDT rats produced a good glycemic control and an improvement in liver function.
The chemokine receptor CX3CR1 is directly involved in the arrest of breast cancer cells to the skeleton
Whitney L Jamieson-Gladney, Yun Zhang, Alan M Fong, Olimpia Meucci, Alessandro Fatatis
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3016
Abstract: We have previously shown that the membrane-bound and cell-adhesive form of the chemokine fractalkine is exposed on the luminal side of human bone marrow endothelial cells and that bone stromal cells release the soluble and chemoattractant form of this chemokine. The goal of this study was to determine the role of fractalkine and its specific receptor CX3CR1 in the homing of circulating breast cancer cells to the skeleton.We employed a powerful pre-clinical animal model of hematogenous metastasis, in which fluorescent cancer cells are identified immediately after their arrival to the bone. We engineered cells to over-express either wild-type or functional mutants of CX3CR1 as well as employed transgenic mice knockout for fractalkine.CX3CR1 protein is detected in human tissue microarrays of normal and malignant mammary glands. We also found that breast cancer cells expressing high levels of this receptor have a higher propensity to spread to the skeleton. Furthermore, studies with fractalkine-null transgenic mice indicate that the ablation of the adhesive and chemotactic ligand of CX3CR1 dramatically impairs the skeletal dissemination of circulating cancer cells. Finally, we conclusively confirmed the crucial role of CX3CR1 on breast cancer cells for both adhesion to bone marrow endothelium and extravasation into the bone stroma.We provide compelling evidence that the functional interactions between fractalkine produced by both the endothelial and stromal cells of bone marrow and the CX3CR1 receptor on breast cancer cells are determinant in the arrest and initial lodging needed for skeletal dissemination.Currently, only six percent of women that are first diagnosed with breast adenocarcinoma present with metastases [1]. Unfortunately, between 20 and 50% of them will eventually develop a metastatic disease [1]. Metastases are responsible for an intolerably high number of deaths among patients that would otherwise be almost invariably cured by surgical resection and adj
Severe Necrotizing Adenovirus Tubulointerstitial Nephritis in a Kidney Transplant Recipient
Ravi Parasuraman,Ping L. Zhang,Dilip Samarapungavan,Leslie Rocher,Alan Koffron
Case Reports in Transplantation , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/969186
Abstract: Adenoviruses (AdV) are emerging pathogens with a prevalence of 11% viruria and 6.5% viremia in kidney transplant recipients. Although AdV infection is common, interstitial nephritis (ADVIN) is rare with only 13 biopsy proven cases reported in the literature. We report a case of severe ADVIN with characteristic histological features that includes severe necrotizing granulomatous lesion with widespread tubular basement membrane rupture and hyperchromatic smudgy intranuclear inclusions in the tubular epithelial cells. The patient was asymptomatic at presentation, and the high AdV viral load (quantitative PCR>2,000,000 copies/mL in the urine and 646,642 copies/mL in the serum) confirmed the diagnosis. The patient showed excellent response to a combination of immunosuppression reduction, intravenous cidofovir, and immunoglobulin therapy resulting in complete resolution of infection and recovery of allograft function. Awareness of characteristic biopsy findings may help to clinch the diagnosis early which is essential since the disseminated infection is associated with high mortality of 18% in kidney transplant recipients. Cidofovir is considered the agent of choice for AdV infection in immunocompromised despite lack of randomized trials, and the addition of intravenous immunoglobulin may aid in resolution of infection while help prevention of rejection. 1. Introduction Adenoviruses (AdV) are emerging pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients with clinical manifestation that ranges from subclinical infection to fatal outcome. The reported prevalence of AdV infection during the first year after kidney transplant (KT) is 11% by urine culture and 6.5% by serum PCR [1, 2]. Manifestations of urinary tract involvement may include hemorrhagic cystitis, ureteral obstruction with hydronephrosis, acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, or a mass lesion in the kidney [3–5]. Adenovirus interstitial nephritis (ADVIN) is rare in kidney transplant recipients with 13 biopsy proven cases reported in the literature [6–8]. We report a case of severe necrotizing ADVIN with characteristic morphology on biopsy within three weeks after kidney transplantation. 2. Case Report 2.1. Clinical History and Laboratory Data A 44-year-old African American male with end-stage renal disease from hypertensive nephrosclerosis received a four-antigen mismatch, flow crossmatch negative deceased donor kidney transplantation. The patient received IL-2 receptor antagonist (Basiliximab) for induction and tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone for maintenance
Perceptual Compensation Is Correlated with Individuals' “Autistic” Traits: Implications for Models of Sound Change
Alan C. L. Yu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011950
Abstract: Variation is a ubiquitous feature of speech. Listeners must take into account context-induced variation to recover the interlocutor's intended message. When listeners fail to normalize for context-induced variation properly, deviant percepts become seeds for new perceptual and production norms. In question is how deviant percepts accumulate in a systematic fashion to give rise to sound change (i.e., new pronunciation norms) within a given speech community. The present study investigated subjects' classification of /s/ and // before /a/ or /u/ spoken by a male or a female voice. Building on modern cognitive theories of autism-spectrum condition, which see variation in autism-spectrum condition in terms of individual differences in cognitive processing style, we established a significant correlation between individuals' normalization for phonetic context (i.e., whether the following vowel is /a/ or /u/) and talker voice variation (i.e., whether the talker is male or female) in speech and their “autistic” traits, as measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). In particular, our mixed-effect logistic regression models show that women with low AQ (i.e., the least “autistic”) do not normalize for phonetic coarticulation as much as men and high AQ women. This study provides first direct evidence that variability in human's ability to compensate for context-induced variations in speech perceptually is governed by the individual's sex and cognitive processing style. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the systematic infusion of new linguistic variants (i.e., the deviant percepts) originate from a sub-segment of the speech community that consistently under-compensates for contextual variation in speech.
Polymorphism and luminescent behavior of linear, two-coordinate gold(i) complexes
Alan L. Balch
Gold Bulletin , 2004, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215516
Abstract: For those interested in the luminescence of gold(I) complexes, the formation of crystalline polymorphs with different aurophilic interactions between molecules or ions offers a new field where individual crystals of the same substance show differences in their luminescence and in their structures.
Harvey,Alan L;
Revista de Salud Animal , 2009,
Abstract: natural products are the most consistently successful source of drug leads, both historically and currently. despite this, the use of natural products in industrial drug discovery has fallen out of favour. natural products are likely to continue to be sources of new commercially viable drug leads because the chemical novelty associated with natural products is higher than that of any other source: this is particularly important when searching for lead molecules against newly discovered targets for which there are no known small molecule leads. despite the commonly held assumptions, natural products can be a more economical source of chemical diversity compared with synthesis of equivalent numbers of diverse chemicals. additionally, natural products that are found to be biologically active in assays are generally small molecules with drug-like properties. that is, they are capable of being absorbed and metabolised by the body. hence, development costs to produce orally active medicines are likely to be much lower than with biotechnological products or with most compounds produced to date from combinatorial chemistry. since less than 10% of the world's biodiversity is reckoned to have been tested for biological activity, many more useful lead compounds are waiting to be discovered from natural products. the challenge is how to access this natural chemical diversity. several different strategies are emerging, as will be described in this review.
Graph inverse semigroups, groupoids and their C*-algebras
Alan L. T. Paterson
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: We develop a theory of graph C*-algebras using path groupoids and inverse semigroups. Row finiteness is not assumed so that the theory applies to graphs for which there are vertices emitting a countably infinite set of edges. We show that the path groupoid is amenable, and give a groupoid proof of a recent theorem of Szymanski characterizing when a graph C*-algebra is simple.
The Fourier-Stieltjes and Fourier algebras for locally compact groupoids
Alan L. T. Paterson
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: The Fourier-Stieltjes and Fourier algebras B(G), A(G) for a general locally compact group G, first studied by P. Eymard, have played an important role in harmonic analysis and in the study of operator algebras generated by G. Recently, there has been interest in developing versions of these algebras for locally compact groupoids, justification being that, just as in the group case, the algebras should play a useful role in the study of groupoid operator algebras. Versions of these algebras for the locally compact groupoid case appear in three related theories: (1) a measured groupoid theory (J. Renault), (2) a Borel theory (A. Ramsay and M. Walter), and (3) a continuous theory (A. Paterson). The present paper is expository in character. For motivational reasons, it starts with a description of the theory of B(G), A(G) in the locally compact group case, before discussing these three realted theories. Some open questions are also raised.
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