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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 197138 matches for " Alan D. Jassby "
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Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change
James E. Cloern, Noah Knowles, Larry R. Brown, Daniel Cayan, Michael D. Dettinger, Tara L. Morgan, David H. Schoellhamer, Mark T. Stacey, Mick van der Wegen, R. Wayne Wagner, Alan D. Jassby
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024465
Abstract: Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate change and other drivers of habitat transformations; and (4) anticipation and adaptation to the growing probability of ecosystem regime shifts.
Past, Present and Future: Urgency of Dealing with Climate Change  [PDF]
Alan D. Hecht
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.45069

This paper gives an historic perspective on 10 critical phases and actions in advancing an understanding of climate change and taking appropriate domestic and international action. Credit goes to atmospheric scientists for their committed efforts to understand, model and measure the impacts of climate change. Today, greenhouse gases are at a record level and little doubt remains that greenhouse gases (GHG) warm the atmosphere and that human-made climate change is real. Recognizing the urgency of responding to climate change, the 2013 US Climate Action Plan aims to cut carbon emissions and prepare to deal effectively with the economic, social, and environmental impacts of climate change. Many US states, Tribes, and local communities have also begun to take action to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to the impact of climate change, especially on disadvantaged communities. While recognition of the urgency of action on climate change is growing in government and in large parts of the business and financial sector, it has taken over 40 years to get to this point. While an understanding of the reality and impact of climate change has grown, significant efforts to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and stabilize global warming have not occurred. The problem that society faces is not the absence of scientific knowledge, but rather the need to reduce GHG emissions and create resilient and adaptive responses to climate change. This paper concludes that future successes will need more effective collaboration between government, business, and society to address climate change and greater public understanding of the impacts of climate change on human health and economic well-being.

Supplementing fibroblast growth factor 2 during bovine oocyte in vitro maturation promotes subsequent embryonic development  [PDF]
Kun Zhang, Alan D. Ealy
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.22017
Abstract: The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is a novel model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. In this study we investigated the glycolipid metabolic changes with phlorizin-treatment, which inhibits intestinal glucose uptake and renal glucose reabsorption, in male SDT rats. Phlorizin (100 mg/kg, b.i.d., s.c.) was administered for 4 weeks to SDT rats from 20 to 24 weeks of age. As a result, phlorizin reduced the development of hyperglycemia and decreased the hemoglo-bin A1c (HbA1c) levels. In the liver, phlorizin increased mRNA levels of glucokinase, the enzymes related with the glycogen cascade and the proteins associated with lipid metabolism. In conclusion, chronic administration of phlorizin in SDT rats produced a good glycemic control and an improvement in liver function.
Analytical bootstrap methods for censored data
Alan D. Hutson
Advances in Decision Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s1173912602000081
Abstract: Analytic bootstrap estimators for the moments of survival quantities are derived. By using these expressions recommendations can be made as to the appropriateness of bootstrap estimation under censored data conditions.
Estimating Neuronal Information: Logarithmic Binning of Neuronal Inter-Spike Intervals
Alan D. Dorval
Entropy , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/e13020485
Abstract: Neurons communicate via the relative timing of all-or-none biophysical signals called spikes. For statistical analysis, the time between spikes can be accumulated into inter-spike interval histograms. Information theoretic measures have been estimated from these histograms to assess how information varies across organisms, neural systems, and disease conditions. Because neurons are computational units that, to the extent they process time, work not by discrete clock ticks but by the exponential decays of numerous intrinsic variables, we propose that neuronal information measures scale more naturally with the logarithm of time. For the types of inter-spike interval distributions that best describe neuronal activity, the logarithm of time enables fewer bins to capture the salient features of the distributions. Thus, discretizing the logarithm of inter-spike intervals, as compared to the inter-spike intervals themselves, yields histograms that enable more accurate entropy and information estimates for fewer bins and less data. Additionally, as distribution parameters vary, the entropy and information calculated from the logarithm of the inter-spike intervals are substantially better behaved, e.g., entropy is independent of mean rate, and information is equally affected by rate gains and divisions. Thus, when compiling neuronal data for subsequent information analysis, the logarithm of the inter-spike intervals is preferred, over the untransformed inter-spike intervals, because it yields better information estimates and is likely more similar to the construction used by nature herself.
The evolution of the Global Burden of Disease framework for disease, injury and risk factor quantification: developing the evidence base for national, regional and global public health action
Alan D Lopez
Globalization and Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-1-5
Abstract: Whether it is through scientific curiosity, administrative edict or public health planning necessity, most countries have initiated some form of data collection and health surveillance/monitoring systems to provide information on health priorities. In some cases, such as the Bills of Mortality of the London Parishes, these attempts date back well over 300 years [1]. Cause of death statistics for the population of England and Wales have been collected for almost 200 years, and in most developed countries, for at least a century [2]. Further, many developed countries have instituted incidence registers for major diseases of public health importance, such as cancer, or routinely conduct health surveys to measure the prevalence of disease or risk factor exposures [3,4]. In poorer countries, national registration and certification of all deaths is less common, due to the cost of establishing and maintaining such a system, and often the mortality data collected are incomplete and of poor quality [5]. 'Verbal autopsy' procedures, using structured interviews with the family of the deceased, provide a history of symptoms experienced by the deceased, but translating these into reliable cause of death information for populations has only met with limited success [6-9]. Moreover, reliable information on the incidence and prevalence of diseases, injuries and risk factors is rarely available in developing countries, and what data are collected, particularly hospital records, are unlikely to reflect the true pattern of disease and injury in the community due to biases arising from the nature of conditions typically treated in hospitals and the ability of sectors of the population to afford tertiary care.As a result, while most countries have some information about prevalence, incidence and mortality from some diseases and injuries, and some information on population exposure to risk factors, it is generally fragmented, partial, incomparable and diagnostically uncertain. Setting he
Drugs of abuse and the adolescent athlete
Alan D Rogol
Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-36-19
Abstract: This review notes the rationale, physiology, performance enhancement, adverse events and the detection of doping with insulin, rhGH, rhIGF-I, erythropoietin, and anabolic-androgenic steroids.Can one grow more rapidly during childhood and early adolescence to a taller than genetically programmed adult height or to a more robust body composition given anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), human growth hormone (rhGH), insulin-like growth factor (rhIGF-I), insulin or erythropoietin? Does such growth permit an adolescent to increase his/her performance goals-- whether faster (citius) in many events, higher (altius) in jumping events and stronger (fortius)? Why would one consider that possible? The more successful late childhood and early adolescent age athletes are often more physically mature than their age-peers [1]. Early adolescent development seemingly permits them to use the strength and power in sport and performance that their average (or even slowly) developing age-peers have not yet attained. The exceptions might be those athletes in the more aesthetic sports in which flexibility and a lower center of gravity are more important than size and strength. These are virtually exclusively in females [1].Most boys' sports require high levels of strength and power; however, at elite levels of competition technique is a strong measure of success; for the athlete must produce, control and efficiently use the energy in a fashion that maximizes athletic performance; for example, explosive power in some jumping sports or overall technical skill in the pole vault. Earlier developing children are taller and stronger than their age-peers. That may confer an advantage at younger ages; however, sport-specific skills are important. It is because of these that some of the "later blooming" adolescents catch-up in performance with their earlier developing peers and likely overtake them; for they have had the discipline to attain the requisite skills and are perhaps at lesser risk to "
Research following a foundation in the applied optics group at University of Kent
Alan D. Kersey
Photonic Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13320-011-0031-6
Abstract: This paper summarizes research activities at University of Kent over the period from September 1981 through November 1984. Subsequent researches undertaken in the US Naval Research Laboratory and two start-up companies are also described.
A sequential test procedure for monitoring a singular safety and efficacy outcome
Alan D Hutson
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2003,
Abstract: In this note we describe a modification of the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) developed for the purpose of “flagging” a significant increase in the mortality rate of a treatment relative to a control while ensuring that double-blinding and the Type I error for the primary test of efficacy, also based on mortality rates, is not compromised.
Local and Global Existence Theorems for the Einstein Equations
Rendall Alan D.
Living Reviews in Relativity , 2000,
Abstract: This article is a guide to the literature on existence theorems for the Einstein equations which also draws attention to open problems in the field. The local in time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is treated first. Next global results for solutions with symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity which offer useful comparisons is presented. This is followed by a survey of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with given singularity structure. The article ends with some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme.
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