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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6821 matches for " Alan Bostrom "
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Association of Attitudes and Beliefs towards Antiretroviral Therapy with HIV-Seroprevalence in the General Population of Kisumu, Kenya
Craig R. Cohen, Michele Montandon, Adam W. Carrico, Stephen Shiboski, Alan Bostrom, Alfredo Obure, Zachary Kwena, Robert C. Bailey, Rosemary Nguti, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004573
Abstract: Background Since antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available in the developed world, the prevalence of unprotected sex and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV have increased. We hypothesized that a similar phenomenon may be occurring in sub-Saharan Africa concomitant with the scale-up of HIV treatment. Methods We conducted a general population-based survey in Kisumu, Kenya. Participants completed an interview that included demographics as well as ART-related attitudes and beliefs (AB) and then underwent HIV serological testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of AB about ART indicated two factors: 1) ART-related risk compensation (increased sexual risk taking now that ART is available); and 2) a perception that HIV is more controllable now that ART is available. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of these factors with HIV-seroprevalence after controlling for age. Findings 1,655 (90%) of 1,844 people aged 15–49 contacted, including 749 men and 906 women, consented to participate in the study. Most participants (n = 1164; 71%) had heard of ART. Of those who had heard of ART, 23% believed ART was a cure for HIV. ART-related risk compensation (Adjusted (A)OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.16–1.81), and a belief that ART cures HIV (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.22–3.76) were associated with an increased HIV seroprevalence in men but not women after controlling for age. In particular, ART-related risk compensation was associated with an increased HIV-seroprevalence in young (aged 15–24 years) men (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.12–2.19). Conclusions ART-related risk compensation and a belief that ART cures HIV were associated with an increased HIV seroprevalence among men but not women. HIV prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa that target the general population should include educational messages about ART and address the changing beliefs about HIV in the era of greater ART availability.
Study Results, A Question of Styles, Strategies, or (mis) Matching?
Lena Bostrom,Staffan L?fqvist
Journal of Studies in Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/jse.v2i4.2410
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence students' academic performance and also to improve teaching. The background to the study is the transition from elite to mass education in universities. It is based on the academic performance of 21 students during the first year of a teacher education. Based on academic performance, the study examines what distinguishes a high-performing, middle and a low-performing group with respect to learning styles preferences and approaches to learning. Using descriptive statistics and phenomenographic methodology, the study shows that those who are most successful use deep strategies and have auditory / visual dominant perceptual preferences. The low-achievers use surface strategies, have tactile or kinesthetic dominance and display a lack of confidence in their studies as a result of the earlier failure. This article discusses how the results can be explained and why they may be of interest to today′s university education and teacher education.
Cosmological Constant and the Final Anthropic Hypothesis
Milan M. Cirkovic,Nick Bostrom
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The influence of recent detections of a finite vacuum energy ("cosmological constant") on our formulation of anthropic conjectures, particularly the so-called Final Anthropic Principle is investigated. It is shown that non-zero vacuum energy implies the onset of a quasi-exponential expansion of our causally connected domain ("the universe") at some point in the future, a stage similar to the inflationary expansion at the very beginning of time. The transition to this future inflationary phase of cosmological expansion will preclude indefinite survival of intelligent species in our domain, because of the rapid shrinking of particle horizons and subsequent depletion of energy necessary for information processes within the horizon of any observer. Therefore, to satisfy the Final Anthropic Hypothesis (reformulated to apply to the entire ensemble of universes), it is necessary to show that (i) chaotic inflation of Linde (or some similar model) provides a satisfactory description of reality, (ii) migration between causally connected domains within the multiverse is physically permitted, and (iii) the time interval left to the onset of the future inflationary phase is sufficient for development of the technology necessary for such inter-domain travel. These stringent requirements diminish the probability of the Final Anthropic Hypothesis being true.
A New Discretization of Classical and Quantum General Relativity
O. Bostrom,M. Miller,L. Smolin
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: We propose a new discrete approximation to the Einstein equations, based on the Capovilla-Dell-Jacobson form of the action for the Ashtekar variables. This formulation is analogous to the Regge calculus in that the curvature has support on sets of measure zero. Both a Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation are proposed and we report partial results about the constraint algebra of the Hamiltonian formulation. We find that the discrete versions of the diffeomorphism constraints do not commute with each other or with the Hamiltonian constraint.
An XMM-Newton View of the Radio Galaxy 3C 411
Allison Bostrom,Christopher S. Reynolds,Francesco Tombesi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/119
Abstract: We present the first high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton observations of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 411. After fitting various spectral models, an absorbed double power-law continuum and a blurred relativistic disk reflection model (kdblur) are found to be equally plausible descriptions of the data. While the softer power-law component ($\Gamma$=2.11) of the double power-law model is entirely consistent with that found in Seyfert galaxies (and hence likely originates from a disk corona), the additional power law component is very hard ($\Gamma$=1.05); amongst the AGN zoo, only flat-spectrum radio quasars have such hard spectra. Together with the very flat radio-spectrum displayed by this source, we suggest that it should instead be classified as a FSRQ. This leads to potential discrepancies regarding the jet inclination angle, with the radio morphology suggesting a large jet inclination but the FSRQ classification suggesting small inclinations. The kdblur model predicts an inner disk radius of at most 20 r$_g$ and relativistic reflection.
80 Years after Taung: A review of African Genesis
South African Journal of Science , 2012,
A Moment of Mental Model Clarity: Response to Jones et al. 2011
Matthew D. Wood,Ann Bostrom,Matteo Convertino,Daniel Kovacs
Ecology and Society , 2012, DOI: 10.5751/es-05122-170407
Does socioeconomic disadvantage explain why immigrants in Sweden refrain from seeking the needed medical treatment?
Sarah Wamala,Gunnel Bostrom,Sharareh Akhavan,Carina Bildt
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2427/5882
Abstract: Background: For the last 20 years, Sweden has changed from a homogeneous to multicultural society with about 20% of immigrants born in other countries. The existing Swedish studies have not shown coherent results on how access to health care services varies by ethnicity. The aim of this paper was to analyze the association between country of birth and refraining from seeking medical treatment and whether socioeconomic disadvantage modifies this association. Methods: Cross-sectional Swedish National Survey of Public Health 2004. A population-based sample comprising of 14,732 men (1,382 immigrants) and 17,115 women (1,717 immigrants) aged 21 to 84 years. Country of birth was categorised as being born in Sweden, other OECD countries or other countries (non- OECD). The main outcome was the self-reporting of refraining from seeking medical treatment during the past three months. Data was collected within a three-month period during the spring of 2004 and was based on a postal self-administered questionnaire linked to registry data from Statistics Sweden. The nonresponse rate was 37%. Main results: In spite of the fact that immigrants reported poorer health status, they were more likely to refrain from seeking medical treatment as compared to Swedish-born residents (odds for immigrants from other OECD countries were ORmen = 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.6 and ORwomen = 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and for immigrants from other countries (ORmen = 3.1, 95% CI 2.4-3.4 and ORwomen = 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9). Socioeconomic disadvantage (SDI) did not explain why immigrants fromother OECD countries had increased odds for refraining fromseekingmedical treatment. However SDI explained about 20%of the increased odds for refraining from seeking medical treatment among immigrants from other (non-OECD) countries. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disadvantage does not fully explain why immigrants refrain from seeking medical treatment. Public health strategies towards the goal “care on equal terms” cannot be achieved without addressing wider socioeconomic determinants including interactions between class and ethnicity.
A radio jet drives a molecular and atomic gas outflow in multiple regions within one square kiloparsec of the nucleus of the nearby galaxy IC5063
K. M. Dasyra,A. C. Bostrom,F. Combes,N. Vlahakis
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We analyzed near-infrared data of the nearby galaxy IC5063 taken with the Very Large Telescope SINFONI instrument. IC5063 is an elliptical galaxy that has a radio jet nearly aligned with the major axis of a gas disk in its center. The data reveal multiple signatures of molecular and atomic gas that has been kinematically distorted by the passage of the jet plasma or cocoon within an area of ~1 kpc^2. Concrete evidence that the interaction of the jet with the gas causes the gas to accelerate comes from the detection of outflows in four different regions along the jet trail: near the two radio lobes, between the radio emission tip and the optical narrow-line-region cone, and at a region with diffuse 17.8 GHz emission midway between the nucleus and the north radio lobe. The outflow in the latter region is biconical, centered 240 pc away from the nucleus, and oriented perpendicularly to the jet trail. The diffuse emission that is observed as a result of the gas entrainment or scattering unfolds around the trail and away from the nucleus with increasing velocity. It overall extends for >700 pc parallel and perpendicular to the trail. Near the outflow starting points, the gas has a velocity excess of 600 km/s to 1200 km/s with respect to ordered motions, as seen in [FeII], Pa alpha, or H2 lines. High H2 (1-0) S(3)/S(1) flux ratios indicate non-thermal excitation of gas in the diffuse outflow.
The Sixth Sense-Emotional Contagion; Review of Biophysical Mechanisms Influencing Information Transfer in Groups  [PDF]
Alan McDonnell
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.47035
Abstract: Rioting historically has been known to cause changes in individual cognition, with heightened emotionality, increased excitement and reduced reflective thought. A cross-disciplinary literature review hypothesises emotional states generate corresponding metabolic bio magnetic fields that radiate in patterns reflecting these emotional states. The oscillatory phase of these waves is advanced as being more significant than the power of signal, permitting stochastic effects to magnify signals by appropriating ambient noise. Possible transmission and detection structures in the body are discussed, induced paramagnetic sensitivity in crowd participants in a phase transition process is hypothesised, the effect may be proportional to crowd numbers. It is suspected that positive effects seen in Transcranial Magnetic Therapy used to treat depression may be operating on this mechanism, acting on natural receptors in the limbic system which also capture light and are implicated in mood transitions. A number of paramagnetic neurotransmitters may be implicated.
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