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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19522 matches for " Alain Le "
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In the Heart of Victoria: the Emergence of Hong Kong’s Statue Square as a Symbol of Victorian Achievement Au C ur de Victoria: la création du Statue Square à Hong Kong comme symbole de la réussite victorienne
Alain Le?Pichon
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.151
Abstract: Depuis sa fondation au début des années 1840, plus de quarante ans s’écoulèrent sans que la cité coloniale de Victoria à Hong Kong ait disposé d’un vrai centre architectural ou d’une grande place centrale encadrée de batiments prestigieux. L’une des raisons tenait au fait que dans une colonie qui était à l’origine, et qui est restée depuis, essentiellement une cité portuaire construite sur le bord d’une le montagneuse, les étendues de terrain plat étaient quasi inexistantes. Cependant, en l’espace d’une quinzaine d’années, vers la fin du règne de Victoria, un vaste programme de poldérisation eut pour effet de faire reculer le front de mer. Et c’est au beau milieu de ces nouveaux terrains que, petit à petit, sans grande vision d’ensemble, le Statue Square vit le jour. Tout autour de la place, de splendides batiments de style colonial furent construits et complétèrent un ensemble architectural que l’on peut lire comme la fière signature de l’époque victorienne. Le présent article examine le processus qui donna naissance au Statue Square et les valeurs symboliques incarnées dans cette place.
The Economist et la controverse sur les brevets, 1850-1875 The Economist and the Patent Controversy, 1850-1875
Alain Le?Pichon
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.2187
Abstract: The opening of Great Exhibition of 1851 coincided with the start of a long debate on the law of patents. The question was whether patents were an encouragement to economic development or a hindrance. For The Economist which had been founded a few years earlier in the wake of the debate on the Corn Laws, the straightforward answer was that they were a hindrance and should be abolished. This article examines the arguments used by The Economist and shows that its analysis technological progress in the Victorian industry foreshadowed some of today’s concerns.
Epidemiology of School-Related Injuries in Belgium. A Better Knowledge for a Better Prevention  [PDF]
Christelle Senterre, Michèle Dramaix, Alain Levêque
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.46048

The landmark Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children around the World have right to safe environment. In Belgium, as in many countries, children spend, on average, 4.5 weekdays at school, during nearly 8 hours per day. Studies have shown that, the risk of school-related injury exceeds the risk during leisure time. Literature reports that school accidents account for 10 to 30% of all accidents among pupils. Despite that, few papers treat of the school-related injuries. Consequently, based on 1540 accidents forms from an insurance company, injury places, mechanisms involved, body parts injured and nature of injuries were described. Head injuries, upper and lower limbs injuries were investigated in more details. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to assess the relationships between the variables and multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the three specific types of injuries cited above. Gender ratio (M/F) was equal to 1.6 with 25.9% of children under 6 years, 29.4% of 6 - 9 years, 26.9% of 10 - 12 years and 17.8% from 13 years or more. The major places of injuries were the playground (56.9%) and the physical education (19.7%). Falls were observed in 52.1% of cases and contacts were reported in 24.3%. The head injuries account for 40.6%, the upper limbs for 32.0% and the lower limbs injuries for 20.2%. The bruises and the scratches were observed in 23.8% and the wounds in 21.5%. Fractures were reported in 16.1%. In conclusion, having a routine access to the data from the insurance companies could be an important source of information for an injury surveillance system in which the school injuries will be included. Taking into account this data will require an awareness of all the concerned persons about the relevance of such a system and a harmonization of the accidental forms.

Injury-Related Profiles among School-Aged Children in Cameroon: Analysis Based on the “First Survey—Health Young People”  [PDF]
Christelle Senterre, Alain Levêque, Danielle Piette, Michèle Dramaix
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.42015
Abstract: Aims: Establish profiles of young “at risk” of injuries, first, on an overall point of view and, secondly, for some types of injuries (sport, home, road traffic, school and work injuries). Methods: We have taken nearly 50 variables into consideration: 17 variables for construction of the socioeconomic status, 9 variables for the investigation of symptoms, 11 concerning drugs, 5 for healthy habits, 3 for investigating the violence behavior, 4 concerning the school, 3 for subjective health and finally 3 for social network. We have used the principal component analysis, the multiple correspondence analysis and the weighted-frequency score for reducing the number of them. After these reductions, 15 variables were available for analyses. The relationship between injuries and investigated factors was assessed using the Pearson’s chi-square test. We also calculated odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) to estimate the strengths of the associations. To further assess these relationships but also for taking into account the potentials confounding effects of some variables, logistic regression model and multinomial logistic regression model were applied. Results: The whole injury prevalence was equal to 45.6% and among the injured, the proportion of the several types was equal to 33.8% for sport injuries, 32.2% for home injuries, 16.6% for traffic injuries, 11.6% for school injuries and 5.7% for work injuries. We can say that, in light of the variables studied, the “at risk” profile for having reported an injury is being a boy, being younger, having drug experiences, with the violent profile, and declaring several symptoms. There are no consistent and marked deviations in this study from the findings obtained in previous studies. Conclusion: Analyzing injuries in general is interesting but for preventing them it is important to know in which activities children and students are engaged when they are injured.
El Ni o in the City: Vulnerability assessment in Tijuana during the winter of 1997-98
Alain Winckell,Michel Le Page
Geofísica internacional , 2003,
Abstract: A pilot study of the hydrologic response of the basins that include the city of Tijuana and a characterization by means of a Geographical Information System of the hazards resulting from the considerable rainfall brought about by the 1997-98 El Ni o, provide an assessment and classification of the actions needed to mitigate the dangers of future extreme meteorological events.
g-coupling (g_B*Bpi,g_D*Dpi); A quark model with Dirac equation
Damir Becirevic,Alain Le Yaouanc
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/1999/03/021
Abstract: We discuss the strong coupling of heavy mesons to a pion g, in the heavy quark limit. This quantity is quite remarkable since its values as estimated by different methods (various quark models and the QCD sum rules), are surprisingly different. The present quark models are mostly based on free spinors and their predictions depend crucially on the choice of the light quark mass. We propose a quark model based on the Dirac equation in a central potential, which gives a more refined description of Dirac spinors. We show that within such a Dirac model, the value of g is stable and large: g = 0.6(1), where we assume no quark current renormalization ((g_A)q = 1). Such a large result is strongly constrained by requiring that the model parameters fit the spectrum; we show that this implies a large ``effective'' light mass. It is also supported phenomenologically by a similar situation with heavy baryons, as well as by experience with nucleon (if one invokes additivity). We also calculate the couplings to heavy meson excitations, and show that the Adler-Weisberger sum rule is well saturated by a few levels (in contrast to the case of small g). We discuss uncertainties of our approach, and rise several questions which remain to be answered. The main mystery is the large, unusual discrepancy with QCD sum rules for g, whereas a good agreement is found for orbital excitations.
Sound travellingwaves in wind instruments as solutions to non linear homogeneous gas dynamics equations
Alain-Yves Le Roux
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: The sound propagation is usually described by a linear homogeneous wave equation, though the air flow in a duct is described by the gas dynamics equations, using a variable cross section, which corresponds to a non linear non homogneous system. The aim of this paper is to exhibit a common periodic solution to both models, with several free parameters such as frequency or amplitude, able to represent any sound. By taking in account a friction term linked to the material (wood or brass for instance) of the duct, it is possible to build an analytic such solution when the cross section fullfills some condition which corresponds exactly to the general shape of the wind instruments. The conclusion is that in the wind intruments, the shape brings the linearity.
A mathematical model for Tsunami generation using a conservative velocity-pressure hyperbolic system
Alain-Yves Le Roux
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: By using the Hugoniot curve in detonics as a Riemann invariant of a velocity-pressure model, we get a conservative hyperbolic system similar to the Euler equations. The only differences are the larger value of the adiabatic constant (= 8.678 instead of 1.4 for gas dynamics) and the mass density replaced by a strain density depending on the pressure. The model is not homogeneous since it involves a gravity and a friction term. After the seismic wave reaches up the bottom of the ocean, one gets a pressure wave propagating toward the surface, which is made of a frontal shock wave followed by a regular decreasing profile. Since this regular profile propagates faster than the frontal shock waves, the amplitude of the pressure wave is strongly reduced when reaching the surface. Only in the case of a strong earth tremor the residual pressure wave is still sufficient to generate a water elevation with a sufficient wavelengths enable to propagate as a SaintVenant water wave and to become a tsunami when reaching the shore. We describe the construction of the model and the computation of the wave profile and discuss about the formation or not of a wave.
Avoiding the Bloat with Stochastic Grammar-based Genetic Programming
Alain Ratle,Michèle Sebag
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: The application of Genetic Programming to the discovery of empirical laws is often impaired by the huge size of the search space, and consequently by the computer resources needed. In many cases, the extreme demand for memory and CPU is due to the massive growth of non-coding segments, the introns. The paper presents a new program evolution framework which combines distribution-based evolution in the PBIL spirit, with grammar-based genetic programming; the information is stored as a probability distribution on the gra mmar rules, rather than in a population. Experiments on a real-world like problem show that this approach gives a practical solution to the problem of intron growth.
Statistical Vibroacoustics and Entropy Concept
Alain Le Bot,Antonio Carcaterra,Denis Mazuyer
Entropy , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/e12122418
Abstract: Statistical vibroacoustics, also called statistical energy analysis (SEA) in the field of engineering, is born from the application of statistical physics concepts to the study of random vibration in mechanical and acoustical systems. This article is a discussion on the thermodynamic foundation for that approach with particular emphasis devoted to the meaning of entropy, a concept missing in SEA. The theory focuses on vibration confined to the audio frequency range. In this frequency band, heat is defined as random vibration that is disordered vibration and temperature is the vibration energy per mode. Always in this frequency band, the concept of entropy is introduced and its meaning and role in vibroacoustics are enlightened, together with the related evolutionary equation. It is shown that statistical vibroacoustics is non-equilibrium thermodynamics applied to the audio range.
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