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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13271 matches for " Alain Clément "
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Faut-il nourrir les pauvres ? / Do we have to feed the poor ?
Alain Clément
Anthropology of Food , 2008,
Abstract: L’obligation alimentaire à l’égard des pauvres est un thème récurrent dans l’histoire de la pensée économique. Cette ardente obligation morale du souverain à l’égard de son peuple, encore fort présente dans la période moderne de notre histoire, tend progressivement à s’émousser au fil du temps. De plus en plus de contreparties, en travail notamment, sont exigées de la part de ceux qui apportent leur secours. La responsabilité du pauvre lui-même à l’égard de sa situation est mise en avant le plus souvent pour restreindre l’aide collective publique. La confiance dans les lois du marché dès le XVIIIe siècle déresponsabilise de plus en plus l’état nourricier. Pourtant cette réponse s’avère dans bien des cas insuffisante. Dès le milieu du XIXe siècle, une évolution idéologique sur la question sociale prépare l’avènement de l’état providence. Mais la critique de son action aujourd’hui renoue avec les vieilles idéologies du mauvais pauvre. Food obligation towards poor people is recurrent in the history of economic thought. This imperfect obligation from the government to the people, although very strong during the modern period, has gradually diminished since. More and more labour is required by those who bring help. Individual responsibility of the poor himself is now often stressed upon in order to reduce public assistance. Trust in economic laws, from the XVIIIth century onwards, implied reduction of the role of the nurturing State. However, this attitude is not really efficient. Since the middle of XIXth century, the ideological evolution of social affairs has brought about the welfare state. Contemporary criticism of its action reminds us of the old ideology of the “bad poor”.
Unsupervised Segmentation Method of Multicomponent Images based on Fuzzy Connectivity Analysis in the Multidimensional Histograms  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Georges Laussane Loum, Alain Clément
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.33024
Abstract: Image segmentation denotes a process for partitioning an image into distinct regions, it plays an important role in interpretation and decision making. A large variety of segmentation methods has been developed; among them, multidimensional histogram methods have been investigated but their implementation stays difficult due to the big size of histograms. We present an original method for segmenting n-D (where n is the number of components in image) images or multidimensional images in an unsupervised way using a fuzzy neighbourhood model. It is based on the hierarchical analysis of full n-D compact histograms integrating a fuzzy connected components labelling algorithm that we have realized in this work. Each peak of the histo- gram constitutes a class kernel, as soon as it encloses a number of pixels greater than or equal to a secondary arbitrary threshold knowing that a first threshold was set to define the degree of binary fuzzy similarity be- tween pixels. The use of a lossless compact n-D histogram allows a drastic reduction of the memory space necessary for coding it. As a consequence, the segmentation can be achieved without reducing the colors population of images in the classification step. It is shown that using n-D compact histograms, instead of 1-D and 2-D ones, leads to better segmentation results. Various images were segmented; the evaluation of the quality of segmentation in supervised and unsupervised of segmentation method proposed compare to the classification method k-means gives better results. It thus highlights the relevance of our approach, which can be used for solving many problems of segmentation.
Analysis of the Relevance of Evaluation Criteria for Multicomponent Image Segmentation  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Georges Laussane Loum, Alain Clément, Bertrant Vigouroux
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.46042
Abstract: Image segmentation is an important stage in many applications such as image, video and computer processing. Generally image interpretation depends on it. The materials and methods used to demonstrate are described. The results are presented and analyzed. Several approaches and algorithms for image segmentation have been developed, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficiency and to make an objective comparison of different segmentation methods. This general problem has been addressed for the evaluation of a segmentation result and the results are available in the literature. In this work, we first presented some criteria of evaluation of segmentation commonly used in image processing with reviews of their models. Then multicomponent synthetic images of known composition are applied to these criteria to explore the operation and evaluate its relevance. The results show that choosing an assessment method depends on the purpose, however the criterion of Zeboudj appears powerful for the evaluation of region segmentations for properly separated classes, on the contrary the criteria of Levine-Nazif and Borsotti are adapted to the methods of classification and permit to build homogeneous regions or classes. The values of the Rosenbeger criterion are generally low and similar, so hard to make a comparison of segmentations with this criterion.
Performance of a New Method of Multicomponent Images Segmentation in the Presence of Noise  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Olivier Asseu, Alain Clément, Bertrand Vigouroux
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.311134
Abstract: Any undesirable signal limiting to a degree or another the integrity and the intelligibility of a useful signal can be considered as noise. In the general rule, the good performance of a system is assured only if the level of power of the useful signal exceeds by several orders of magnitude that of the noise (signal to noise of a several tens of decibels). However certain elaborate methods of treatment allow working with very low signal to noise ratio in an optimal way any a priori knowledge available on the signal useful to interpret. In this work, we evaluate the robustness of the noise on a new method of multicomponent image segmentation developed recently. Two types of additional noises are considered, which are the Gaussian noise and the uniform noise, with varying correlation between the different components (or planes) of the image. Quantitative results show the influence of the noise level on the segmentation method.
Study of a Kit of GSM Radio Operator Site for Event-Driven Movable Coverage: Application to the Deployment of a Site of the Orange Operator in Ivory Coast  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Georges Laussane Loum, Koné Adama, Alain Clément
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.411092
Abstract: The mobile communication is nowadays one of the basic needs of humanity. It is essential to the flourishing of human beings. Considering this reality, the need to use its mobile phone is become more important and diversified. The subscribers of the various mobile telephone operators are increasingly demanding. This situation poses the problems of the cover mobile network to the operators and leads them to opt for several solutions and investments. The mobile operators in order to satisfy their customers use a policy of pushing the limits of network coverage in time and space for festive moments in targeted zones. Thus, we have conducted a study on the topic: study of a kit of GSM radio site for event-driven movable coverage. This work is applied to GSM (Global system mobile) network of the operator Orange-Ci, leader of mobile telephony in Ivory Coast. We thus proceeded under investigation initially of the various aspects of the ordinary sites (motionless radio site) which are already deployed with Orange-Ci in order to impregnate us infrastructures and equipment used. This study revealed us that a radio site comprises 4 parts: infrastructures, installations and energy equipments, installations and radio equipments, and installations and equipment of transmission. After the first analysis, we made a study of the movable site. The study of the movable site enabled us to see the various possible solutions to fulfill the basic functions of a movable radio site. After analysis we retained that our radio site will be built on a truck on which a mast of 25 m maximum length for the antennas will be embarked, it will be fed by a generator also embarked on the truck and the solution of transmission selected is the transmission by satellite more precisely technology VSAT. We choose the various equipments (radio, transmission, energy) according to features which we defined to constitute the kit of movable radio site.
Pure Condition of Both 6R Serial and 3-PRS Parallel Robots Using Grassmann-Cayley Algebra  [PDF]
Luc Djimon Clément Akonde, Alain Adomou, Tognon Clotilde Guidi
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2018.84016
Abstract: This research presents Pure Condition approach, which has used in analyzing simultaneously the singularity configuration and the rigidity of mechanism. The study cases analysis is implemented on variable joints orientation of 6R (Revolute) Serial Manipulators (SMs) and variable actuated joints position of 3-PRS (Prismatic-Revolute-Spherical) Parallel Manipulators (PMs) using Grassmann-Cayley Algebra (GCA). In this work we require in Projective Space both Twist System (TS) and Global Wrench System (GWS) respectively for serial and parallel manipulators which represent the Jacobian Matrix (J) in symbolic approach to Plücker coordinate vector of lines and unify framework on static and kinematics respectively. This paper, works, is designed to determine geometrically at symbolic level the vanished points of inverse form of this Jacobian Matrix (J) which called superbracket in GCA. The investigation vary to those reported early by introducing GCA approach on the singularity of serial robot, variable joints orientation and actuated positions on robot manipulators (RMs) to analyze rigidity frame work and singularity configuration which involve simultaneously Pure Condition. And the results also revealed a single singularity condition which contains all particulars cases and three general cases such as the shoulder, elbow and wrist singularity for SMs while double, single and undermined singularities respectively for 3-PRS, 3-PRS and 3-PRS PMs which contain all generals and particulars cases.
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rheological Properties of Hydrocolloids Gums from Triumfetta cordifolia and Bridelia thermifolia Barks  [PDF]
Clément Saidou, Robert Ndjouenkeu, Denis Roux, Jean Bosco Tchatchueng, Alain Heyraud, Nadia El Kissi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.46080
Abstract: Triumfetta cordifolia and Bridelia thermifolia are two shrubs from tropical region of Africa. Their gums are traditionally extracted from fresh barks and used in traditional recipes (thickening and aromatization of sauces, improvement of the swelling of maize and bean cakes) and in the process of decantation of traditional beer. In order to valorize these barks in dried form, study of the effect of drying temperature on the rheological properties of their gums was carried out. In this respect, the fresh barks were dried at 40℃, 50℃, 60℃, 70℃ and 80℃ and the viscosity of their extracts was measured. The drying kinetic of the barks showed two falling rate periods represented by two drying constants k1 and k2. The absolute viscosity of the extracts decreased beyond drying temperatures higher than 70℃ and 80℃respectively for T cordifolia and B. Thermifolia. The decreasing viscosity is attributed mainly to a reorganization of polysaccharide chains. The temperatures range lower than 70℃ could be retained to dry the barks and to extract gums without deteriorating their properties.
On the Differences in the Intraseasonal Rainfall Variability between Western and Eastern Central Africa: Case of 10–25-Day Oscillations
Alain Tchakoutio Sandjon,Armand Nzeukou,Clément Tchawoua,Tengeleng Siddi
Journal of Climatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/434960
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the space-time structures of the 10–25 day intraseasonal variability of rainfall over Central Africa (CA) using 1DD GPCP rainfall product for the period 1996–2009, with an emphasis on the comparison between the western Central Africa (WCA) and the eastern Central Africa (ECA) with different climate features. The results of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) analysis have shown that the amount of variance explained by the leading EOFs is greater in ECA than WCA (40.6% and 48.1%, for WCA and ECA, resp.). For the two subregions, the power spectra of the principal components (PCs) peak around 15 days, indicating a biweekly signal. The lagged cross-correlations computed between WCA and ECA PCs time series showed that most of the WCA PCs lead ECA PCs time series with a time scale of 5–8 days. The variations of Intraseasonal Oscillations (ISO) activity are weak in WCA, when compared with ECA where the signal exhibits large annual and interannual variations. Globally, the correlation coefficients computed between ECA and WCA annual mean ISO power time series are weak, revealing that the processes driving the interannual modulation of ISO signal should be different in nature or magnitude in the two subregions. 1. Introduction The monitoring and prediction of climate in the tropics remain a crucial problem in the scientific community. It is well-known that many regions in the tropics are vulnerable to climate change because their resources are highly rainfall dependent. Amongst these regions, Central Africa (CA) is particularly vulnerable because the majority of its population is rural and practice rain-fed agriculture [1]. A strong rainfall intensity can result in devastating floods, whereas a weak rainfall is usually associated with droughts, thus affecting living conditions and the economy of the densely populated region in many sectors such as agriculture, livestock, and energy [2, 3]. The CA extends from 15°S to 15°N and 0–50°E mainly over the land and part of Atlantic and Indian Oceans on its edges (Figure 1). The topography of the region is quite various, including highlands, mountains, and Plateaus. The western part (15°S–15°N; 0–30°E) is consisting of the zones of intense precipitation, especially over the Congo Basin [4]. Some of the highest rainfall totals are reported over Mountain Cameroon, at its western edge, where mean annual rainfall exceeds 10 meters. The Congo basin was proven to experience one of the world’s most intense thunderstorms and highest frequency of lightning flashes [5, 6]. The western central Africa is
Predicting Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality from Morbidity Data
Lise Denoeud, Clément Turbelin, Séverine Ansart, Alain-Jacques Valleron, Antoine Flahault, Fabrice Carrat
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000464
Abstract: Background Few European countries conduct reactive surveillance of influenza mortality, whereas most monitor morbidity. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a simple model based on Poisson seasonal regression to predict excess cases of pneumonia and influenza mortality during influenza epidemics, based on influenza morbidity data and the dominant types/subtypes of circulating viruses. Epidemics were classified in three levels of mortality burden (“high”, “moderate” and “low”). The model was fitted on 14 influenza seasons and was validated on six subsequent influenza seasons. Five out of the six seasons in the validation set were correctly classified. The average absolute difference between observed and predicted mortality was 2.8 per 100,000 (18% of the average excess mortality) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was 0.89 (P = 0.05). Conclusions/Significance The method described here can be used to estimate the influenza mortality burden in countries where specific pneumonia and influenza mortality surveillance data are not available.
Treatment with the arginase inhibitor Nw-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine restores endothelial function in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis
Clément Prati, Alain Berthelot, Bernadette Kantelip, Daniel Wendling, Céline Demougeot
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/ar3860
Abstract: AIA rats were treated with nor-NOHA (40 mg/kg/d, ip) for 21 days after the onset of arthritis. A group of untreated AIA rats and a group of healthy rats served as controls. ED was assessed by the vasodilatory effect of acetylcholine (Ach) on aortic rings. The role of superoxide anions, prostanoids, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway was studied. Plasma levels of IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by ELISA kits. Arthritis severity was estimated by a clinical, radiological and histological analysis.Nor-NOHA treatment fully restored the aortic response to Ach to that of healthy controls. The results showed that this beneficial effect is mediated by an increase in NOS activity and EDHF and reduced superoxide anion production as well as a decrease in the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, thromboxane and prostacyclins synthases. In addition, nor-NOHA decreased IL-6 and VEGF plasma levels in AIA rats. By contrast, the treatment did not modify arthritis severity in AIA rats.The treatment with an arginase inhibitor has a potent effect on ED in AIA independently of the severity of the disease. Our results suggest that this new pharmacological approach has the potential as a novel add-on therapy in the treatment of RA.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by articular and extra-articular manifestations involving cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for 30 to 50% of all deaths [1]. Recent studies showed that atherosclerosis lesions occur earlier and have a more rapid evolution in RA patients than in the general population [1]. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis and has been identified in patients with RA, even in the early diagnosed arthritis [1]. It is generally defined as impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation to specific stimuli and characterized by an imbalance between vasoconstr
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