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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3989 matches for " Alain Chamoux "
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Detection of Change--Points in the Spectral Density. With Applications to ECG Data
Pierre R. Bertrand,Gilles Teyssière,Gil Boudet,Alain Chamoux
Statistics , 2009,
Abstract: We propose a new method for estimating the change-points of heart rate in the orthosympathetic and parasympathetic bands, based on the wavelet transform in the complex domain and the study of the change-points in the moments of the modulus of these wavelet transforms. We observe change-points in the distribution for both bands.
A connection between extracellular matrix and hormonal signals during the development of the human fetal adrenal gland
Chamoux E.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2005,
Abstract: The human adrenal cortex, involved in adaptive responses to stress, body homeostasis and secondary sexual characters, emerges from a tightly regulated development of a zone-specific secretion pattern during fetal life. Its development during fetal life is critical for the well being of pregnancy, the initiation of delivery, and even for an adequate adaptation to extra-uterine life. As early as from the sixth week of pregnancy, the fetal adrenal gland is characterized by a highly proliferative zone at the periphery, a concentric migration accompanied by cell differentiation (cortisol secretion) and apoptosis in the central androgen-secreting fetal zone. After birth, a strong reorganization occurs in the adrenal gland so that it better fulfills the newborn's needs, with aldosterone production in the external zona glomerulosa, cortisol secretion in the zona fasciculata and androgens in the central zona reticularis. In addition to the major hormonal stimuli provided by angiotensin II and adrenocorticotropin, we have tested for some years the hypotheses that such plasticity may be under the control of the extracellular matrix. A growing number of data have been harvested during the last years, in particular about extracellular matrix expression and its putative role in the development of the human adrenal cortex. Laminin, collagen and fibronectin have been shown to play important roles not only in the plasticity of the adrenal cortex, but also in cell responsiveness to hormones, thus clarifying some of the unexplained observations that used to feed controversies.
DNA repair gene ERCC2 polymorphisms and associations with breast and ovarian cancer risk
Dominique Bernard-Gallon, Rémy Bosviel, Laetitia Delort, Luc Fontana, Alain Chamoux, Nadège Rabiau, Fabrice Kwiatkowski, Nasséra Chalabi, Samir Satih, Yves-Jean Bignon
Molecular Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-7-36
Abstract: High levels of DNA damage, caused by excessive exposure to carcinogens, might be responsible for increased breast cancer susceptibility in women known to have significantly reduced DNA repair proficiencies [1]. In particular, dysfunctions of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway are known or suspected to be involved in cancer. The DNA helicase encoded by the excision repair cross-complementing group 2 gene ERCC2 (formely XPD) is one of seven nucleotide excision repair enzymes that cause Xeroderma Pigmentosum when mutated in germ line [2]. Several polymorphisms have been identified in this gene and particularly the Asp312Asn ERCC2 polymorphism which consists of the substitution of a G to A resulting in an amino acid change in the coding region, and the Lys751Gln which consists in a A to C substitution in the coding region [3]. A change of amino acid is able to modify the effect of protein more or less, which can translate by an effect on the systems of repair and consequently on the carcinogenesis. Conflicting data on the roles of these polymorphisms on cancer risk including breast and ovarian cancers have been described [4-6].The objective of this study was to establish the role of two functional polymorphisms of a DNA repair gene ERCC2 in the risk of breast or ovarian cancer. We investigated the possible interactions between these polymorphisms and specific environmental factors (reproductive factors, body mass index, tobacco smoking...) which could influence the risk of cancer.In this breast cancer population (Table 1), no significant differences were found between breast cancer cases and controls. A trend to the increase in breast cancer risk could be observed with heterozygous women for the SNP at position 312 of ERCC2 protein (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.93–1.21) after adjustment for age. For ovarian cancer (Table 2), there was no significant modification in the risk for the two studied SNP.Results concerning interactions between environmental factors and risk
Urinary Interleukin-8 Is a Biomarker of Stress in Emergency Physicians, Especially with Advancing Age — The JOBSTRESS* Randomized Trial
Frédéric Dutheil, Marion Trousselard, Christophe Perrier, Gérard Lac, Alain Chamoux, Martine Duclos, Geraldine Naughton, George Mnatzaganian, Jeannot Schmidt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071658
Abstract: Background Emergency physicians are exposed to greater stress during a 24-hour shift (24 hS) than a 14-hour night shift (14 hS), with an impact lasting several days. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is postulated to be a chronic stress biomarker. However, no studies have tracked IL-8 over several shifts or used it for monitoring short-term residual stress. The IL-8 response to the shifts may also increase with age. Conveniently, IL-8 can be measured non-intrusively from urine. Methods We conducted a shifts-randomized trial comparing 17 emergency physicians’ urinary IL-8 levels during a 24 hS, a 14 hS, and a control day (clerical work on return from leave). Mean levels of IL-8 were compared using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Independent associations of key factors including shifts, stress, and age with IL-8 levels were further assessed in a multivariable generalized estimating equations model. Results Mean urinary IL-8 levels almost doubled during and after a 24 hS compared with a 14 hS or a control day. Furthermore, IL-8 levels failed to return to control values at the end of the third day after the shift despite a rest day following the 24 hS. In the multivariable model, engaging in a 24 hS, self-reported stress, and age were independently associated with higher IL-8 levels. A 24 hS significantly increased IL-8 levels by 1.9 ng (p = .007). Similarly, for every unit increase in self-reported stress, there was a 0.11 ng increase in IL-8 levels (p = .003); and for every one year advance in age of physicians, IL-8 levels also increased by 0.11 ng (p = .018). Conclusion The 24 hS generated a prolonged response of the immune system. Urinary IL-8 was a strong biomarker of stress under intensive and prolonged demands, both acutely and over time. Because elevated IL-8 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and negative psychological consequences, we suggest that emergency physicians limit their exposure to 24 hS, especially with advancing age.
A connection between extracellular matrix and hormonal signals during the development of the human fetal adrenal gland
Chamoux, E.;Otis, M.;Gallo-Payet, N.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2005001000006
Abstract: the human adrenal cortex, involved in adaptive responses to stress, body homeostasis and secondary sexual characters, emerges from a tightly regulated development of a zone-specific secretion pattern during fetal life. its development during fetal life is critical for the well being of pregnancy, the initiation of delivery, and even for an adequate adaptation to extra-uterine life. as early as from the sixth week of pregnancy, the fetal adrenal gland is characterized by a highly proliferative zone at the periphery, a concentric migration accompanied by cell differentiation (cortisol secretion) and apoptosis in the central androgen-secreting fetal zone. after birth, a strong reorganization occurs in the adrenal gland so that it better fulfills the newborn's needs, with aldosterone production in the external zona glomerulosa, cortisol secretion in the zona fasciculata and androgens in the central zona reticularis. in addition to the major hormonal stimuli provided by angiotensin ii and adrenocorticotropin, we have tested for some years the hypotheses that such plasticity may be under the control of the extracellular matrix. a growing number of data have been harvested during the last years, in particular about extracellular matrix expression and its putative role in the development of the human adrenal cortex. laminin, collagen and fibronectin have been shown to play important roles not only in the plasticity of the adrenal cortex, but also in cell responsiveness to hormones, thus clarifying some of the unexplained observations that used to feed controversies.
Carnot Factor of a Vapour Power Cycle with Regenerative Extraction  [PDF]
Duparquet Alain
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.811107
Abstract: The present paper describes the energy analysis of a regenerative vapour power system. The regenerative steam turbines based on the Rankine cycle and comprised of vapour extractions have been used industrially since the beginning of the 20th century, particularly regarding the processes of electrical production. After having performed worked in the first stages of the turbine, part of the vapour is directed toward a regenerative exchanger and heats feedwater coming from the condenser. This process is known as regeneration, and the heat exchanger where the heat is transferred from steam is called a regenerator (or a feedwater heater). The profit in the output brought by regenerative rakings is primarily enabled by the lack of exchange of the tapped vapour reheating water with the low-temperature reservoir. The economic optimum is often fixed at seven extractions. One knows the Carnot relation, which is the best possible theoretical yield of a dual-temperature cycle; in a Carnot cycle, one makes the assumption that both compressions and expansions are isentropic. This article studies an ideal theoretical machine comprised of vapour extractions in which each cycle partial of tapped vapour obeys these same compressions and isentropic expansions.
Essay on Playfulness and Play in Children’s Art Class: A Reflection Based on Winnicott  [PDF]
Alain Savoie
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.102024
Abstract: From a survey of literature, this article presents some reflections about the value of play and playfulness as, respectively, an activity and a creative attitude of mind to be fostered in art education in children. Indeed, at the heart of any artistic creative impulse sits a playful attitude of the artist towards realitya feature that has been highlighted by the psychoanalyst Winnicott. Following his line of thought, we propose that the art teacher must place the learner in a position of being able to play with her/him, in order to overlap their two areas of playing and establish a learning space. Playfulness and play tend to be confused with impulsive and disruptive behaviours and generally more tolerated at home then school. We claim that artistic activities in school should always be play-based and take place in a playful environment because art and creation emerge from and grow in and as play.
Design of a Performance Measurement Framework for Cloud Computing  [PDF]
Luis Bautista, Alain Abran, Alain April
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.52011
Abstract: Cloud Computing is an emerging technology for processing and storing very large amounts of data. Sometimes anomalies and defects affect part of the cloud infrastructure, resulting in a performance degradation of the cloud. This paper proposes a performance measurement framework for Cloud Computing systems, which integrates software quality concepts from ISO 25010.
Software Engineering Principles: Do They Meet Engineering Criteria?  [PDF]
Kenza Meridji, Alain Abran
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.310114
Abstract: As a discipline, software engineering is not as mature as other engineering disciplines, and it still lacks consensus on a well-recognized set of fundamental principles. A 2006 analysis surveyed and analyzed 308 separate proposals for principles of software engineering, of which only thirty-four met the criteria to be recognized as such. This paper reports on a further analysis of these thirty-four candidate principles using two sets of engineering criteria derived from: A) the engineering categories of knowledge defined by Vincenti in his analysis of engineering foundations; and B) the joint IEEE and ACM software engineering curriculum. The outcome of this analysis is a proposed set of nine software engineering principles that conform to engineering criteria.
Extending Extreme Programming User Stories to Meet ISO 9001 Formality Requirements  [PDF]
Malik Qasaimeh, Alain Abran
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.411074
Abstract: For software organizations needing ISO 9001 certification, including those that have adopted agile methodologies, it is important that their software life cycle processes be able to manage the requirements imposed by this certification standard. However, the user stories in the XP agile methodology do not provide auditors with enough evidence that certain steps and activities have been performed in compliance with ISO 9001. This paper proposes an extension to the user story, based on four sub processes related to the CMMI-DEV model: 1) identification of the source of the user story; 2) categorization of the non functional requirements; 3) identification of the user story relationships; and 4) prioritization of the user stories. These sub processes are aligned with the XP release planning phase, and enhance the ability of user stories to accumulate the information that is mandatory for achieving ISO 9001 certification.
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