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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3994 matches for " Alain Cariou "
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Introduction au dossier L’Asie centrale
Alain Cariou
EchoGéo , 2009,
Abstract: Avec les bouleversements géopolitiques qui affectent le continent asiatique depuis deux décennies l’Asie centrale n’est plus tout à fait cet espace géographique incertain écarté de la communauté internationale, voire même oublié des atlas dont les cartes étaient généralement centrées sur les territoires voisins plus lisibles et médiatiques du Moyen-Orient, de l’Inde, de la Chine ou de la Russie. Constituée par les cinq ex-républiques socialistes soviétiques du Kazakhstan, du Kirghizstan, de l...
Le nouveau Xinjiang : intégration et recompositions territoriales d’une périphérie chinoise
Alain Cariou
EchoGéo , 2009,
Abstract: Le Xinjiang est généralement présenté comme l’archétype de la périphérie chinoise en raison de son enclavement, de son retard de développement et de son peuplement constitué de minorités nationales. Pourtant, depuis peu, cette périphérie présente le paradoxe d’un développement accéléré qui la singularise des autres provinces intérieures de la Chine par son premier rand pour son IDH et son PIB. Cette évolution s’explique par son r le géostratégique d à sa richesse en ressources naturelles et à sa position frontalière ce qui lui confère la fonction de tête de pont commerciale de la Chine en Asie centrale. L’achèvement du réseau routier et ferroviaire transcontinental porteur de migrations Han participe de la politique nationale de sécurisation et d’intégration économique et culturelle du Xinjiang ce que traduit le rapide déclin des minorités nationales. This paper analyses recent geographic change in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Xinjiang plays a geostratégic role in China due to abundance of natural resources such as oil, gas an coal but also for its particular geographic location in the heartland of Central Asia. The area gives to China an high potentiel for trade with the newly independent Central Asian republics and Eurasia. That’s the reason why central government take active measures for an acceleration of the economic development in the region with the aim of promoting regional security, cultural and économic integration. Nowadays, an unprecedent change taken place in Xinjiang with the improvements in transportation infrastructure. The expansion of the transcontinantal railway and highways between Est China to Central Asia has created a fast growing economies and the increase of Han migration. The rapide decline of the proportion of ethnic minority nationality is the result of a political strategy of Chinese national expansion and territorial intergation in order to control the Xinjiang.
Comparison between Flotrac-Vigileo and Bioreactance, a totally noninvasive method for cardiac output monitoring
Sophie Marqué, Alain Cariou, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Pierre Squara
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7884
Abstract: Consecutive patients, requiring PAC-CCO monitoring following cardiac surgery, were also monitored by the two other devices. CO values obtained simultaneously by the three systems were recorded continuously on a minute-by-minute basis.Continuous recording was performed on 29 patients, providing 12,099 simultaneous measurements for each device (417 ± 107 per patient). In stable conditions, correlations of NICOM and Vigileo with PAC-CCO were 0.77 and 0.69, respectively. The bias was -0.01 ± 0.84 for NICOM and -0.01 ± 0.81 for Vigileo (NS). NICOM relative error was less than 30% in 94% of the patients and less than 20% in 79% vs. 91% and 79% for the Vigileo, respectively (NS). The variability of measurements around the trend line (precision) was not different between the three methods: 8 ± 3%, 8 ± 4% and 8 ± 3% for PAC-CCO, NICOM and Vigileo, respectively. CO changes were 7.2 minutes faster with Vigileo and 6.9 minutes faster with NICOM (P < 0.05 both systems vs. PAC-CCO, NS). Amplitude of changes was not significantly different than thermodilution. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting significant CO changes were 0.91 and 0.95 respectively for the NICOM and 0.86 and 0.92 respectively for the Vigileo.This study showed that the NICOM and Vigileo devices have similar monitoring capabilities in post-operative cardiac surgery patients.Until recently, continuous cardiac output (CO) monitoring required an invasive method, via a pulmonary artery catheter for thermodilution. During the past decade, several less invasive methods have been proposed [1,2]. Among these techniques, the FloTrac-Vigileo? which uses arterial pressure signal monitoring to assess stroke volume, has given interesting preliminary results, but still requires an arterial catheterization [3]. A totally Non Invasive CO Monitoring (NICOM?) device, based on chest bioreactance, has been used in the majority of patients after cardiac surgery and could be useful in monitoring critically ill patien
Bench-to-bedside review: Fulfilling promises of the Human Genome Project
Jean-Daniel Chiche, Alain Cariou, Jean-Paul Mira
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1491
Abstract: In 1995, the genomic sequence of the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae was the first complete genomic sequence of a free-living organism to be published [1]. Since then, scientists have totally sequenced the genomes of more than one hundred bacteria and completed genetic maps of large multicellular organisms [2,3,4,5]. The draft sequence of the human genome, recently published by the Human Genome Project public consortium [6] and by a private company [7], represents a milestone in science. Today, the genetic blueprint for a human is nearly completed and covers 96% of the genome. Embedded within our genomes are the sequences of the approximately 30,000 genes that underlie human biology and medicine. As we enter the post genome-sequencing era, we are already facing new challenges. Successful translation of this structural knowledge into clinical benefits will depend upon our ability to relate individual genes to specific diseases, to find the genetic variations that influence an individual's risk of becoming ill, and to use genetic information to tailor drug therapy. The purpose of this review is to put some of the predictable consequences of the advances in genomics into clinical perspective.Most common diseases and many drug responses have been shown to be influenced by inherited differences in our genes. Thus, studying generic variance can improve our understanding and treatment of disease. If a region of the human genome is sequenced from two randomly chosen individuals, 99.3% of the examined DNA will be identical [8]. Much of the genetic variation between individuals lies in differences known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); a single base is swapped for an alternate, and both versions exist in the general population at frequencies greater than 1% [8]. As SNPs constitute the bulk of human genetic variation, they can be used to track inheritance of genes in traditional family-based linkage studies. By epidemiological association, SNPs can also be used to te
Bench-to-bedside review: Severe lactic acidosis in HIV patients treated with nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Yann-Erick Claessens, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Jean-Paul Mira, Alain Cariou
Critical Care , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/cc2162
Abstract: Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are effective antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Treatment with NRTIs has been associated with mitochondrial toxicity [1] responsible for adverse events including hepatic steatosis [2], myopathy [3], neuropathy [4], myelotoxicity [5] and overproduction of lactate [1].Symptomatic lactic acidosis following the use of NRTIs was first described by Jolliet and Widmann [6] and by Chatta and colleagues [7] in HIV-infected patients treated with azidothymidine. Several reports since then have established that other NRTIs can induce lactic acidosis [8-30]. This severe adverse event is infrequent but its occurrence may be underestimated [31]. Progression of lactic acidosis can lead to irreversible multiple organ failure despite drug withdrawal [8].In the present review, based on Medline research and using personal data, we describe the pathophysiology and the clinical spectrum of lactic acidosis in an attempt to define a population with a poor prognosis. Based on clinical data and experimental evidence, we discuss the use of L-carnitine as a specific treatment for life-threatening NRTI-induced lactic acidosis.The main function of mitochondria is to produce energy through electron-chain transport and oxidative phosphorylation (summarised in Fig. 1). The core of the pathway is a complex of five subunits (subunits I–V) located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Electrons pass the chain from various substrates, providing energy to the proton pump that creates an electrochemical gradient between mitochondria and their environment. Different substrates can enter the electron-chain transport at complex I (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NADH]–coenzyme Q oxidoreductase) or complex II (succinate–coenzyme Q oxidoreductase), which provide electrons to complex III (coenzyme QH2–cytochrome oxidoreductase). Complex III then reduces cytochrome c, which passes electrons to c
La résistance de vagues de carènes. Calcul de la fonction de Green par intégration mumérique et par une méthode asymptotique. Deuxième Partie Hull Resistance to Waves. Computing the Green Hunction by Numerical Integration to Flow Metering
Cariou A.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1978027
Abstract: Cet article est le prolongement de deux publications dejà parues dans cette revue [I] [5]. On rappelle que le calcul de la résistance de vague d'une carène par éléments finis sur un ouvert borné nécessite la connaissance de la fonction de Green du problème à grande distance. Cette fonction est très difficile à calculer par une intégration numérique classique. Dans ce qui suit on rappelle donc les résultats et les méthodes des précédents articles et on achève la justification d'une méthode asymptotique pour le calcul de la fonction de Green. This article is the second of two already published in this journal. The wave resistance of a hull is calculated by finite elements on a bounded domain. For this, the Green function of the problem atgreat distance must be known. It is very difficult to calculate this function by a conventional numerical integration. This article reviews the results and methods of the preceding articles, and an asymptotic method for colculating the Green function s justified.
Une méthode de calcul par éléments finis de la résistence de vague des corps flottants ou immergés en théorie linéaire A Finite Elements Method for Computing the Resistance of Floating Or Submerged Bodies to Wave Action Using a Linear Theory
Cariou A.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1978004
Abstract: Pour calculer le potentiel de l'écoulement autour d'un corps en mouvement rectiligne uniforme, soit en fluide illimité (engin sous-marin), soit sur une mer infinie (corps flottant ou voisin de la surface libre), on se place dans le cadre du problème de Neumann extérieur ou du problème de Neumann Kelvin. Pour résoudre ces problèmes on se propose de délimiter autour de la carène un domaine fluide fini (,ri) dont les frontières sont : la carène (SC), une surface (SE) entourant la carène et éventuellement la portion de surface libre (SI.) limitée par les lignes de flottaison de SC et SE. La solution à l'intérieur de (,ri) est déterminée à l'aide d'une méthode d'éléments finis et elle est raccordée à la solution en domaine infini elle-même calculée grace aux fonctions de Green du problème (ou solutions élémentaires). For computing the flow potential around a body in uniform rectilinear movement, either in an unlimited fluid (subsea croft) or on an infinite sea (body floating near the free surface), consideration must be given ta the outside Neumann problem or ta the Neumann Kelvin problem. Ta solve these problems, this article proposes ta delimit a finite fluid realm (T:) around the body. The limits of this realm are: I) the body (SC), 2) a surface (SE) surrounding the body, and eventually 3) the portion of free surface (SU bounded by the waterlines of SC and SE. The solution within iri) is determined by a finite elements method, and it is related ta the solution in on infinite realm which in turn is computed by the Green functions of the problem (or elementary solutions).
Postcardiac arrest syndrome: from immediate resuscitation to long-term outcome
Nicolas Mongardon, Florence Dumas, Sylvie Ricome, David Grimaldi, Tarik Hissem, Frédéric Pène, Alain Cariou
Annals of Intensive Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2110-5820-1-45
Abstract: Cardiovascular support relies on conventional medical and mechanical treatment of circulatory failure. Hemodynamic stabilization is a major objective to limit secondary brain insult. When the cause of cardiac arrest is related to myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary revascularization is associated with improved prognosis; early angiographic exploration should then be discussed when there is no obvious extracardiac cause. Therapeutic hypothermia is now the cornerstone of postanoxic cerebral protection. Its widespread use is clearly recommended, with a favorable risk-benefit ratio in selected population. Neuroprotection also is based on the prevention of secondary cerebral damages, pending the results of ongoing therapeutic evaluations regarding the potential efficiency of new therapeutic drugs.Sudden death remains a major public health issue, despite improvements in prehospital management and standardization of advanced life support through wide diffusion of international guidelines [1]. Both incidence and poor prognosis are striking: according to official statistics, approximately 100,000 people are supported for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the United States each year. However, it is estimated that the real number of sudden death is two to three times higher. Even more problematic, less than 10% of patients admitted to the hospital after successfully resuscitated OHCA will leave the hospital without major neurological impairments.For patients who survive the initial phase of prehospital care, the course is usually marked by two types of events:1. Syndrome originally described as an early reperfusion syndrome (or "postresuscitation disease"), which usually appears between the 4th and 24th hour in the form of a stereotypical feature whose extreme form involves a state of shock, high fever, and severe biological disorders [2].2. Poor neurological prognosis because two thirds of patients who survive the early phase will subsequently develop neurofun
Risk factors for post-ICU red blood cell transfusion: a prospective study
Sophie Marque, Alain Cariou, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Vincent Mallet, Frédéric Pene, Jean-Paul Mira, Jean-Fran?ois Dhainaut, Yann-Erick Claessens
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc5041
Abstract: A prospective, monocentric observational study was conducted over a 6-month period in a 24-bed medical ICU in a French university hospital. Between June and December 2003, 550 critically ill patients were consecutively enrolled in the study.A total of 428 patients survived after treatment in the ICU; 47 (11% of the survivors, 8.5% of the whole population) required RBC transfusion within 7 days after ICU discharge. Admission for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 341.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20.35–5734.51), presence of an underlying malignancy (OR 32.6, 95%CI 3.8–280.1), female sex (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.2–24.9), Logistic Organ Dysfunction score at ICU discharge (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.1–1.9) and age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.12) were independently associated with RBC transfusion after ICU stay. Haemoglobin level at discharge predicted the need for delayed RBC transfusion. Use of vasopressors (OR 0.01, 95%CI 0.001–0.17) and haemoglobin level at discharge from the ICU (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.007–0.09; P < 0.001) were strong independent predictors of transfusion of RBC 1 week after ICU discharge.Sepsis, underlying conditions, unresolved organ failures and haemoglobin level at discharge were related to an increased risk for RBC transfusion after ICU stay. We suggest that strategies to prevent transfusion should focus on homogeneous subgroups of patients and take into account post-ICU needs for RBC transfusion.Anaemia is a common feature in critically ill patients. In the recent ABC study [1], haemoglobin level at admission was below the normal range in 63% of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A low haemoglobin level is associated with poor prognosis in critically ill patients [1,2], as was previously described in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction [3].Because anaemia commonly occurs in the ICU, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequent practice in the management of critically ill patients to compensate for acute bleeding and to increase tissue oxygen d
Síntesis bioestratigráfica del Calloviense de Ricla (Zaragoza. Cordillera Ibérica)
Sequeiros, E.,Cariou, E.
Estudios Geologicos , 1984,
Abstract: A biostratigraphic outline about the Callovian of Ricla (Zaragoza) is introduced upon a sample of 567 ammonoids along a profil of 70 m. The Lower Callovian (Bullatus and Rehmanni subzones and Voultensis/Michalskii and Patina subzones), Middle Callovian (Jason and Coronatum zones) and Upper Callovian (Athleta and Lamberti? zones) are identified. Quantitative interpretation is added. Se presenta en esta nota un avance de esquema bioestratigráfico para el Calloviense de Riela (Zaragoza) sobreuna muestra de 567 ammonoideos a lo largo de un perfil de 70 metros. Se ha identificado el Calloviense inferior (subzonas Bullatusy Rehmanni, subzonas Voultensis/Michalskii y Patina), Calloviense medio (zonas Jason y Coronatum) y Calloviense superior (zonas Athleta y Lamberti?). Se a ade una interpretación cuantitativa.
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