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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13562 matches for " Alaa El-Husseini "
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New players tip the scales in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses
Joshua N Levinson, Alaa El-Husseini
Molecular Pain , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-1-12
Abstract: In the brain, excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is mainly mediated by two neurotransmitters: glutamate which is released at excitatory glutamatergic synaptic contacts, and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) which is released at inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Neural information processing is believed to be mediated by integration of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs [1-3]. Therefore, precise controls must exist to maintain an appropriate number of one type of synaptic input relative to the other. This process is thought to be governed by homeostatic feedback mechanisms, however factors involved remain elusive [4,5]. Impressive work carried out in recent years has begun to address the roles of molecules involved in synapse formation. A theme that has emerged from these studies is that glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses consist of complex, yet distinct networks of proteins on the postsynaptic side. The major challenge in this field now is to understand how this molecular machinery is involved in synapse formation and specificity.The discovery of a protein complex that regulates postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering and the formation of dendritic spines has revealed some of the mechanisms involved in excitatory synapse development. Two main groups of key regulators of excitatory synapse formation have been identified, namely postsynaptic scaffolding proteins and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). In the first group, several proteins including members of the PSD-95 family, shank, and homer have been shown to promote excitatory synapse maturation (reviewed in [6]). Much work has focused on postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), one of the most abundant proteins in the PSD [6]. PSD-95 clustering at synapses occurs early in development, prior to other postsynaptic proteins [7], and discs large, a Drosophila homolog of PSD-95, is required for normal neuromuscular junction development in larva [8]. In addition, PSD-95 enhances AMPA-type glutamate recepto
Proteins That Promote Filopodia Stability, but Not Number, Lead to More Axonal-Dendritic Contacts
Pamela Arstikaitis,Catherine Gauthier-Campbell,Kun Huang,Alaa El-Husseini,Timothy H. Murphy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016998
Abstract: Dendritic filopodia are dynamic protrusions that are thought to play an active role in synaptogenesis and serve as precursors to spine synapses. However, this hypothesis is largely based on a temporal correlation between filopodia formation and synaptogenesis. We investigated the role of filopodia in synapse formation by contrasting the roles of molecules that affect filopodia elaboration and motility, versus those that impact synapse induction and maturation. We used a filopodia inducing motif that is found in GAP-43, as a molecular tool, and found this palmitoylated motif enhanced filopodia number and motility, but reduced the probability of forming a stable axon-dendrite contact. Conversely, expression of neuroligin-1 (NLG-1), a synapse inducing cell adhesion molecule, resulted in a decrease in filopodia motility, but an increase in the number of stable axonal contacts. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of NLG-1 reduced the number of presynaptic contacts formed. Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins such as Shank1b, a protein that induces the maturation of spine synapses, increased the rate at which filopodia transformed into spines by stabilization of the initial contact with axons. Taken together, these results suggest that increased filopodia stability and not density, may be the rate-limiting step for synapse formation.
Recent advances in basic neurosciences and brain disease: from synapses to behavior
Guo-Qiang Bi, Vadim Bolshakov, Guojun Bu, Catherine M Cahill, Zhou-Feng Chen, Graham L Collingridge, Robin L Cooper, Jens R Coorssen, Alaa El-Husseini, Vasco Galhardo, Wen-Biao Gan, Jianguo Gu, Kazuhide Inoue, John Isaac, Koichi Iwata, Zhengping Jia, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Mikito Kawamata, Satoshi Kida, Eric Klann, Tatsuro Kohno, Min Li, Xiao-Jiang Li, John F MacDonald, Karim Nader, Peter V Nguyen, Uhtaek Oh, Ke Ren, John C Roder, Michael W Salter
Molecular Pain , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-2-38
Abstract: One key factor to promote the progress of science is to exchange scientific ideas and new discovery through meetings. Scientific meeting provides critical chance for investigators to communicate new ideas, discuss different/conflicting results, and set up potential collaborations. Annual meeting of the American Society for Neuroscience (SfN) has served the community well in this aspect. However, with the increased membership and the scale of the meeting, SfN meetings only take place in a few cities in US in a rotated manner. Due to tight security control after 9/11, many foreign investigators failed to obtain visiting visa to the meeting in a timely fashion. Considering these factors, a small scale of neuroscience meeting in a more relaxed city should provide better chance for investigators, in particular, principal investigators (PIs) to directly communicate with each other, face-to-face. The 1st international conference on synapse, memory, drug addiction and pain is designed to meet the need. The major aim of this meeting is to provide an opportunity for setting up global scientific exchanges, to provide an active stage for PIs to report novel or unpublished data, to bring neuroscientists working at different level of organism and systems together, and to promote research findings from junior and mid-career investigators.The meeting is organized by Dr. Min Zhuo from the University of Toronto, with the help from Dr. Jianguo Gu from the University of Florida, and in part sponsored by Molecular Pain, University of Toronto (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology as well as Center for the Study of Pain), and Olympus Inc.There are four major themes for the meeting: synapse, Synaptic plasticity, memory, pain, and brain disease. Unlike other meetings, each speaker was given 15 min to talk, and 5 min for discussion. The time slot allowed for each speaker was tightly controlled by each chair (with a timer!), and few speakers went beyond the time permitted. The wine r
Virtual water: an effective mechanism for integrated water resources management  [PDF]
Alaa El-Sadek
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23033
Abstract: In regions, which suffer from water shortage or potential water shortage like the Middle East, water policies and different mitigation measures are formulated. With the increasing population and increasing demand for food and drinking water with the fixed supply of water, the demand management policies have been introduced. Virtual Water has been adopted as an alternative or potential alternative water resource. In the application of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), virtual water has to be considered as a resource of water. In this paper, the practical value of the virtual water concept as well as the possibility of the application of the concept in the regional and national level are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the application of virtual water in agriculture products and virtual water trade of these products. This research concluded that, there is a possibility for the application of the virtual water concept on the national level taking into account water endowments, and other natural and social economic conditions. The virtual water strategy seeks ways to consciously and efficiently utilize the internal and external water resources to alleviate water scarcity. This, however, by no means implies that importing food is the only response the water scarce countries and regions should and can take. Other measures concerning the supply and demand sides of water management are imperative. The argument here is that the virtual water strategy should be an integral component in the whole package of integrated water resources management.
Psychiatric Co-Morbidity and Quality of Life in Egyptian Type 2 Diabetic Patients  [PDF]
Alaa Wafa, Mohamed Adel El-Hadidy
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.711082
Abstract: Background: Diabetes is a risk factor for depression, but little is known about anxiety and other psychiatric disorders and quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety in diabetic patients in our locality and to assess the quality of life in type 2 DM. Subjects & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in outpatient clinics of specialized medical hospital, Mansoura university for a period of one year. From 217 diabetes mellitus subjects, only 202 patients were matched with 247 healthy people as a control group. All subjects were examined by using socioeconomic data, clinical data, and anthropometric examinations to assess body mass index and waist circumference. All patients were interviewed by using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) version 5, MINI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scales. Laboratory investigation in the form of fasting and two-hour postprandial blood sugar (FBS & 2hpp) and HbA1C levels were done. Results: 18.3% were found to be major depressive disorder; and 2.5% panic disorder, 1% other phobia. Generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were found in one patient, no patients were found to be diagnosed as Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or substance abuse. Although there was no statistically significant difference between subjects and control groups regarding height, there was statistically significant difference between weights, BMI, with more scores among DM group. Moreover our study showed that HbA1c, fasting blood sugar, two hours post prandial blood sugar were more among DM patients and control groups. Anxiety, depression, and poorer quality of life were found to be more prevalent among DM patients than control groups. Conclusion: DM is associated with depression anxiety disorder with poorer quality of life.
Modeling of Water Flow and Nitrate Transport to Subsurface Drains  [PDF]
Alaa El-Sadek, Mona Radwan
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2018.71005
Abstract: In this study,?the water flow and nitrate transport to a subsurface drain, using a simplified and detailed model, are simulated for the specific hydro-geological conditions of Elverdinge and Assenede, Belgium. Previously, the DRAINMOD-N model proved to be able to simulate nitrate concentrations and drainage well for an?in-situleaching experiment, the?Hooibeekhoeve?in the community of Geel (north-eastern part of Belgium), conducted in 1992-1995. In this study, the calibrated model is used to simulate the nitrate leaching for the winter period 2000-2001 in Elverdinge and Assenede and is compared to a model with a simplified nitrate transport description. The comparative analysis between both model approaches reveals that the simplified model is able to predict sufficiently accurate the observed nitrate leaching. The detailed approach however has the advantage of giving?a more accurate estimate of the nitrogen mineralization, N deposition and denitrification, resulting in a more precise modeling of the nitrate leaching to surface waters and groundwater.
A Method of Moment Approach in Solving Boundary Value Problems  [PDF]
Hilal M. El Misilmani, Karim Y. Kabalan, Mohamad Y. Abou-Shahine, Mohammed Al-Husseini
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2015.73007
Abstract: Several available methods, known in literatures, are available for solving nth order differential equations and their complexities differ based on the accuracy of the solution. A successful method, known to researcher in the area of computational electromagnetic and called the Method of Moment (MoM) is found to have its way in this domain and can be used in solving boundary value problems where differential equations are resulting. A simplified version of this method is adopted in this paper to address this problem, and two differential equations examples are considered to clarify the approach and present the simplicity of the method. As illustrated in this paper, this approach can be introduced along with other methods, and can be considered as an attractive way to solve differential equations and other boundary value problems.
Modeling of Nitrate Leaching during the Fall–Winter Season in Artificially Drained Soils
Alaa El-Sadek
The Scientific World Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2002.204
Alaa El-Halees
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications , 2011,
Abstract: In academic institutions, student comments about courses can be considered as a significant informative resource to improve teaching effectiveness. This paper proposes a model that extracts knowledge from students' opinions to improve and to measure the performance of courses. Our task is to use user-generated contents of students to study the performance of a certain course and to compare the performance of some courses with each others. To do that, we propose a model that consists of two main components: Feature extraction to extract features, such as teacher, exams and resources, from the user-generated content for a specific course. And classifier to give a sentiment to each feature. Then we group and visualize the features of the courses graphically. In this way, we can also compare the performance of one or more courses.
Monuments or Functioning Buildings: Legal Protection over Five Case-Study Historic Hammams in the Mediterranean
Alaa El Habashi
Archnet-IJAR : International Journal of Architectural Research , 2008,
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