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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 38 matches for " Akua Agyeman-Budu "
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Trends in multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infections among asymptomatic residents in the middle belt of Ghana
Agyeman-Budu Akua,Brown Charles,Adjei George,Adams Mohammed
Malaria Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-22
Abstract: Background Malaria is the most important cause of mortality and morbidity in children living in the Kintampo districts in the middle part of Ghana. This study has investigated the multiplicity of infection (MOI) within asymptomatic residents of the Kintampo districts, and the influence of age and seasonality on MOI, by studying the distribution of the polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum antigen merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2). Methods DNA was extracted from an asymptomatic cohort of children and adults infected with P. falciparum during the period November 2003 to October 2004. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out and multiplicity of infection (MOI) was determined. Results Children under 10 years of age had an average MOI of 2.3 while adults 18 years and above had an average MOI of 1.4. Children below five years had high and low average MOIs of 2.8 in the March/April survey and 0.9 in the May/June survey respectively. A similar trend in the monthly distribution of MOI was observed for the entire cohort. IC/3D7 strains outnumbered the FC27 strains throughout the year by a ratio of about 4:1 with the difference between the prevalence of the two strains being least marked in the March/April survey, at the beginning of the rainy season. MOI was not linked to the level of malaria transmission as measured by the entomological inoculation rate. Discussion/conclusion The impact of interventions, introduced since this baseline study was carried out on the parasite diversity of asymptomatic residents will be the subject of further investigations.
Accuracy of Rapid Tests for Malaria and Treatment Outcomes for Malaria and Non-Malaria Cases among Under-Five Children in Rural Ghana
Frank Baiden, Jayne Webster, Mathilda Tivura, Rupert Delimini, Yvonne Berko, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Akua Agyeman-Budu, Akosua B. Karikari, Jane Bruce, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Daniel Chandramohan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034073
Abstract: Background WHO now recommends test-based management of malaria across all transmission settings. The accuracy of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and the outcome of treatment based on the result of tests will influence acceptability of and adherence to the new guidelines. Method We conducted a study at the Kintampo hospital in rural Ghana to evaluate the performance of CareStart, a HRP-2 based RDT, using microscopy as reference. We applied IMCI treatment guidelines, restricted ACT to RDT-positive children and followed-up both RDT-positive (malaria) and RDT-negative (non-malaria) cases over 28 days. Results 436 children were enrolled in the RDT evaluation and 391 (children with haemoglobin >8.0 gm/dl) were followed-up to assess treatment outcomes. Mean age was 25.4 months (s.d. 14.6). Sensitivity and specificity of the RDT were 100.0% and 73.0% respectively. Over the follow-up period, 32 (18.5%) RDT-negative children converted to positive, with 7 (4.0%) of them presenting with fever. More children in the non-malaria group made unscheduled visits than children in the malaria group (13.3% versus 7.7%) On all scheduled follow-up visits, proportion of children having a temperature higher than that recorded on day 0 was higher in the non-malaria group compared to the malaria group. Reports of unfavourable treatment outcomes by caregivers were higher among the non-malaria group than the malaria group. Conclusions The RDT had good sensitivity and specificity. However a minority of children who will not receive ACT based on RDT results may develop clinical malaria within a short period in high transmission settings. This could undermine caregivers' and health workers' confidence in the new guidelines. Improving the quality of management of non-malarial febrile illnesses should be a priority in the era of test-based management of malaria. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00832754
Epidemiology of malaria in the forest-savanna transitional zone of Ghana
Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Asante, Martin Adjuik, George Adjei, Elizabeth Awini, Mohammed Adams, Sam Newton, David Dosoo, Dominic Dery, Akua Agyeman-Budu, John Gyapong, Brian Greenwood, Daniel Chandramohan
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-220
Abstract: Active surveillance of clinical malaria was carried out in a cohort of children below five years of age (n = 335) and the prevalence of malaria was estimated in a cohort of subjects of all ages (n = 1484) over a 12-month period. Participants were sampled from clusters drawn around sixteen index houses randomly selected from a total of about 22,000 houses within the study area. The child cohort was visited thrice weekly to screen for any illness and a blood slide was taken if a child had a history of fever or a temperature greater than or equal to 37.5 degree Celsius. The all-age cohort was screened for malaria once every eight weeks over a 12-month period. Estimation of Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) and characterization of Anopheline malaria vectors in the study area were also carried out.The average parasite prevalence in the all age cohort was 58% (95% CI: 56.9, 59.4). In children below five years of age, the average prevalence was 64% (95% CI: 61.9, 66.0). Geometric mean parasite densities decreased significantly with increasing age. More than 50% of all children less than 10 years of age were anaemic. Children less than 5 years of age had as many as seven malaria attacks per child per year. The attack rates decreased significantly with increasing cut-offs of parasite density. The average Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) was of 6.1. All three pyrimethamine resistance mutant alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dhfr gene were prevalent in this population and 25% of infections had a fourth mutant of pfdhps-A437G. The main vectors were Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae and the EIR was 269 infective bites per person per year.The transmission of malaria in the forest-savanna region of central Ghana is high and perennial and this is an appropriate site for conducting clinical trials of anti-malarial drugs and vaccines.Over 500 million episodes of malaria occur yearly, predominantly in sub-Saharan African children under five years of age, resulting in the d
Issues of Tropical Forest Transformation in Ashanti Region: Testing Traditional Perception And Assumption
MK Agyeman
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2012,
Abstract: Studies have revealed that there was a dramatic loss of forests in West Africa during the 20th century due to pressure of population growth and poverty. However some scholars have challenged this view. This paper adopts a political ecology approach to argue that the dominant global discourse of tropical deforestation obscures the more complex process that contributes to changes in forest cover and landscapes. The paper examines how livelihood strategies, trade, and ecology have interacted to alter production cycles, tenure systems and the extent and composition of forest cover during the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. Consequently, a focus on forest cover change as opposed to deforestation could provide a better understanding of the relationship between forest and forest farming systems. Subsequently, the paper suggests more effective ways of engaging in sustainable tropical forest management in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.
Career in the bank for collection in times of financial crisis
Ioana Florentina BUDU
Economia : Seria Management , 2009,
Abstract: Staffing a collection call centre, in a period of crisis, requires more than hiring the most qualified applicants. Collection managers must define a recruiting, hiring and staffing plan to meet inbound call service levels and maximize outbound calling during optimal customer contact times, usually on nights and weekends. Job candidates who have prior telephone job experience, especially in telemarketing or customer service, have proven to be successful collectors because of their skill sets and experience. Screening collectors through testing has proven to be a reliable tool to assist managers in the selection process. Staffing the call centre operation with the right balance between full time and part time collectors will assist in meeting department targets. There are many creative ways to schedule collectors to cover all the required hours. Management must be prepared to offset ‘irregular’ staffing hours, especially on nights and weekends, with incentive, perks and benefits so they can recruit and retain a reliable staff to place outbound calls during the best times to reach the customer. A consistent hiring policy that is constantly evaluated and improved will help reduce turnover by recruiting and staffing the most qualified collectors for the job
Economic Dimensions of Tono and Vea Inland Fisheries of the Upper East Region of Ghana
M Okrah, KO Agyeman
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2012,
Abstract: This research sought to explore and understand the contribution of the fishery subsector of the Tono and Vea irrigation projects within the context of employment, income and revenue generations. The central argument of the study is that the continuous investment and appropriation of the fishery resources is being guided by an access regime in operation. Adopting a case study design, it triangulated both secondary and primary sources of data for effective analysis. Through random and systematic sampling, 192 fishermen and fishmongers were selected for the study. Structured and semi-structured interview techniques were used to solicit views from primary sources and complemented with relevant secondary documents from the organisations investigated (ICOUR and MoFA). Empirical results revealed that the access regime to the fishery was significantly open access and growth in the profit variable of the fishery was more induced by tonnes of fish catch than price. The fishery can play its proper role of improving upon direct and ancillary fishery income and employment when the ‘livelihood approach’ is used to value the river fisheries and the ecosystem for sustainable rural livelihoods.
Adolescent religiosity and attitudes to HIV and AIDS in Ghana
KN Amoako-Agyeman
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigated the relationships between adolescent religiosity and attitudes to HIV/AIDS based on two major techniques of analysis, factor and regression analysis towards informing preventive school education strategies. Using cross-sectional data of 448 adolescents in junior high school, the study incorporated survey in a self-administered questionnaire and sought to identify underlying factors that affect pupils’ responses, delineate the pattern of relationships between variables and select models which best explain and predict relationships among variables. A seven-factor solution described the ‘attitude’ construct including abstinence and protection, and six for ‘religiosity’. The results showed relatively high levels of religiosity and a preference for private religiosity as opposed to organisational religiosity. The regression analysis produced significant relationships between factors of attitudes to HIV/AIDS and of religiosity. Adolescent with very high private religiosity are more likely to abstain from sex but less likely to use condoms once they initiate: protection is inversely related to religiosity. The findings suggest that religious-based adolescent interventions should focus on intrinsic religiosity. Additionally, increasing HIV prevention information and incorporating culturally relevant and socially acceptable values might lend support to improved adolescent school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programmes.
Social Death through HIV and AIDS Stigmatization and Discrimination in Ghana: A Case Study of the Central Regional Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana  [PDF]
Eric Koka, Collins K. Ahorlu, Dominic K. Agyeman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.36031
Abstract:

Stigmatization of and discrimination against People Living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are increasingly recognized as the single greatest challenge to slowing the spread of HIV and partly the cause of the increased death rate particularly in Africa and Ghana to be specific. The purpose of the study was to identify the causes and effects of stigmatization of and discrimination against PLHIV visiting the Central Regional Hospital of Ghana for treatment and care. The research was conducted with a sample size of 120. Purposive and convenient/accidental sampling techniques were used to select respondents for the study. The study revealed that some people in Ghana stigmatize PLHIV because of the misconceptions they have about the modes of HIV transmission, the myths surrounding HIV and AIDS as well as their socio-cultural backgrounds and orientations. These stigmatizing behaviors towards PLHIV have serious health, social and psychological effects on them in particular and the society at large. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that there should be an intensification of education on HIV and AIDS through the media. This would make the population in Ghana more knowledgeable about the disease, which may help to reduce stigmatization of and discrimination against persons living with HIV.

Performance Evaluation and Measurements of 3G Mobile Communication Networks: A Case Study  [PDF]
Kwame Agyeman-Prempeh Agyekum, Eric T. Tchao, Emmanuel Affum
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.34018
Abstract: Communication networks have undergone rapid developments in the past few decades in many Sub-Saharan African countries. The increasing number of subscribers and demand for greater variety of services in these countries make it difficult for network operators to provide the service varieties subscribers want while maintaining acceptable levels of quality of service. This paper analyzes the radio network of cellular networks in terms of traffic distribution over the existing number of communication channels using MATLAB/Simulink. A scale-free user network, which takes into account user behavior in a realistic physical network, has been used to model a more realistic cause for call blockings in a typical cellular network deployment under a Sub-Saharan environment. Peak recorded traffic distribution was observed to have overwhelmed the existing number of channels provided by the network operators for some cells eventually leading to increase in call drop rates. This high call blocking probability was attributed to poor network monitoring by the network operators to match the ever changing traffic intensities.
A Robust Alternative Virtual Key Input Scheme for Virtual Keyboard Systems  [PDF]
Prince Owusu-Agyeman, Wei Xie, Yao Yeboah
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2016.44009
Abstract: Towards virtual keyboard design and realization, the work in this paper presents a robust key input method for deployment in virtual keyboard systems. The proposed scheme harnesses the information contained within shadows towards robustifying virtual key input. This scheme allows for input efficiency to be guaranteed in situations of relatively lower illumination, a core challenge associated with virtual keyboards. Contributions of the paper are two-fold. Firstly the paper pre-sents an approach towards effectively applying shadow information towards robustifying virtual key input systems; Secondly, through morphological operations, the performance of this input method is boosted by means of effectively alleviating noise and its impacts on overall algorithm performance, while highlighting the necessary features towards an efficient performance. While previous contributions have followed a similar trend, the contribution of this paper stresses on the intensification and improvement of both shadow and finger-tip feature highlighting schemes towards overall performance improvement. Experimental results presented in the paper demon-strate the efficiency and robustness of the approach. The attained results suggest that the scheme is capable of attaining high performances in terms of accuracy while being capable of addressing false touch situations.
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