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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 28 matches for " Aklilu Minyilshewa "
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Changes in birth-weight of Hospital-delivered neonates in Addis Ababa
Fikre Enquoselassie, Aklilu Minyilshewa
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: A retrospective study was conducted to establish recent birth-weight changes in singleton live births at Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for about 20 years period, September 1976 September 1996. The overall mean birth-weight was 3126g (SD=502). A decline in mean birth-weight was observed from 3162g (95% CI 3137-3186) and 3162g (95% CI 3149-3176) in the 70's and the 80's, respectively, to 3058g (95% CI 3041-3075) in the 90's. The over all proportion of low birth weight was 8.4%, increasing from 5.8% (95% CI 4.6%-7.3%) in the 70's to 7.1% (95% CI 6.4%-7.8%) in the 80's and to 11.3% (95% CI 10.2%-12.3%)in the 90's. When birth-weight was controlled for sex and maternal characteristics, a significant decrease on birth- weight was observed in the 90's, by about 81g (95% CI 44.3 - 118.5g) as compared to the 1970's. The odds of low birth-weight in the 90's was about 52% higher compared to the 70's: (OR=1.52, 95%CI=1.04-2.22). Similarly important changes in the distribution of pre-term delivery, maternal age, parity, sex ratio, and ante-natal follow-up that might have favored the decrease in birth weight were noted between the 90's and the earlier decades. Mean birth-weight was observed to peak in the months of August, September, and October ranging from 3143g to 3173g and fall between March and July. The proportion of low birth weight negatively correlated with the mean birth-weight was highest (10%) in April and observed to fall between August and October, with the lowest proportion of 6.2% in September. However, there was no considerable seasonal variation in birth-weight. In conclusion, the study has shown that mean birth-weight has declined in the 90's as compared to the earlier two decades and the proportion of low birth- weight increased in Addis Ababa, despite a continuing increase in the socioeconomic status. However, there was no considerable seasonal variation in birth- weight. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2000, 14(2): 169-176)
Science from the third world the story of endod
Aklilu Lemma
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1990,
Abstract: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 4(1), 75-81 (1990).
Science from the third world the story of endod
Aklilu Lemma
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1990,
Abstract: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 4(1), 75-81 (1990).
Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Awash National Park, Ethiopia: Impact of Decentralization on the Use and Management of Resources  [PDF]
Solomon Belay, Aklilu Amsalu, Eyualem Abebe
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.415079
Abstract: We analyzed the magnitude of land use land cover changes and identified drivers of those changes at Awash National Park, Ethiopia, using aerial photographs, satellite images and field observation. Scattered bushland—the most important habitat for the wild animals, declined drastically. Areas under grassland, farmland or open land increased over the study period. Policy and park border demarcation issues were identified as drivers of change before 1995 (before decentralization), whereas livestock grazing was indicated to be the leading driver of change after 1995. Major events and causes that largely explained these changes include immigration of the Ittu community, land tenure system, drought, poaching, use policy issues and regional economic and infrastructural development. Our study reveals that the sustainability of the park calls for an immediate action to reduce the ever increasing human and livestock pressure on park resources.
Reliability and Validity of the Ethiopian Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in HIV Infected Patients
Ayalu Aklilu Reda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016049
Abstract: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language) version of HADs among HIV infected patients.
Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia
Wakgari Deressa, Aklilu Azazh
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-660
Abstract: A cross-sectional study using a pre-tested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was conducted in June 2009 among 622 medical students (Year I to Internship program) at the School of Medicine. The data were entered into Epi Info version 6.04d and analyzed using SPSS version 15 software program. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Differences in proportions were compared for significance using Chi Square test, with significance level set at p < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the magnitude of associations between substance use and socio-demographic and behavioral correlates.In the last 12 months, alcohol was consumed by 22% (25% males vs. 14% females, p = 0.002) and khat use was reported by 7% (9% males vs. 1.5% females, p < 0.001) of the students. About 9% of the respondents (10.6% males vs. 4.6% females, p = 0.014) reported ever use of cigarette smoking, and 1.8% were found to be current smokers. Using multiple logistic regression models, being male was strongly associated with alcohol use in the last 12 months (adjusted OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22-3.76). Students whose friends currently consume alcohol were more likely to consume alcohol (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.50-4.08) and whose friends' use tobacco more likely to smoke (adjusted OR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.83-8.30). Khat use within the past 12 months was strongly and positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 15.11, 95% CI = 4.24-53.91). Similarly, ever use of cigarette was also significantly associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 8.65, 95% CI = 3.48-21.50).Concordant use of alcohol, khat and tobacco is observed and exposure to friends' use of substances is often implicated. Alcohol consumption or khat use has been significantly associated with tobacco use. While the findings of this study suggest that substance use among the medical students was not alarming, but its trend increased among st
Household Responses to Drought in Fentale Pastoral Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Abera Bekele,Aklilu Amsalu
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2012,
Abstract: Fentale pastoralists have been undertaking a set of responses to mitigate the adverse effects of the present day severe recurrent drought on the livelihood sources of the households. This study was conducted to investigate responses that are undertaken to drought by households in Fentale pastoral woreda of Oromia regional state in Ethiopia. A household survey was conducted with 134 households complemented by interviews with informants and with in-depth focus group discussion. The results indicate that households have developed various response mechanisms to deal with the challenges of the severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities. An extent of household responses towards both pastoral and non pastoral activities are varied, in which the household characteristics, specifically, wealth in terms of livestock holding is the decisive factors for the engagement of the household in any one or more of a set of productive activities/response mechanisms. The extent of households' mobility and herd diversification has increased. In addition, households have started to partly practice crop cultivation. Other non-pastoral activities such as agriculture, daily labour, petty trade, fuel wood collection and charcoal selling contributed to about 35% of the total household income.
Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia
Deressa Wakgari,Azazh Aklilu
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-68
Abstract: Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their training and future practice of medicine, and to identify factors associated with the intent to practice in rural or urban settings, or to migrate abroad. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009 among 600 medical students (Year I to Internship program) of the Faculty of Medicine at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p < 0.05. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations. Results Only 20% of the students felt ‘excellent’ about studying medicine; followed by ‘very good’ (19%), ‘good’ (30%), ‘fair’ (21%) and ‘bad’ (11%). About 35% of respondents responded they felt the standard of medical education was below their expectation. Only 30% of the students said they would like to initially practice medicine in rural settings in Ethiopia. However, students with rural backgrounds were more likely than those with urban backgrounds to say they intended to practice medicine in rural areas (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.18-5.26). Similarly, students in clinical training program preferred to practice medicine in rural areas compared to pre-clinical students (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.12-2.99). About 53% of the students (57% males vs. 46% females, p = 0.017) indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the United States of America (42%) or European countries (15%). The attitude towards emigration was higher among Year IV (63%) and Internship (71%) students compared to Year I to Year III students (45-54%). Male students were more likely to say they would emigrate than females (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.10-2.29). Likewise, students with clinical training were more likely to want to emigrate than pre-clinical students, although the difference was marginally significant (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.00-2.49). Conclusions The attitudes of the majority
Effects of Drought on Pastoral Household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Abera Bekele,Aklilu Amsalu
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2012,
Abstract: This study adopted the survey research design to investigate the effect of drought on Pastoral household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim was to give information about drought pattern in the study area, create an understanding of the menace as well as identify appropriate and relevant local level response mechanisms. A household survey was conducted with 134 households and this was complemented by interviews with informants. Meteorological data were also used to map out the time line of drought events in the area. It was observed that severe and recurrent drought of the present time has brought about declining range land resources, poor productivity and declining survival of livestocks. The results indicate that the frequency of drought has been on the increase from year to year. Increased severity of drought has caused huge moisture deficit and has posed multi-dimensional adverse effects on households' livelihood sources. However, households have developed various strategies to deal with the challenges of severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities.
Summation identities for representation of certain real numbers
George Grossman,Akalu Tefera,Aklilu Zeleke
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/78739
Abstract: We present identities used to represent real numbers of the form xum±yvn for appropriately chosen real numbers x, y, u, v and nonnegative integers m and n. We present the proofs of the identities by applying Zeilberger's algorithm.
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