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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 503 matches for " Akin Budi "
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Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer delta-doped phosphorus in silicon
Daniel W Drumm, Akin Budi, Manolo C Per, Salvy P Russo and Lloyd C L Hollenberg
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-111
Abstract: The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using VASP, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in SIESTA, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated delta-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%.
Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon
Daniel W. Drumm,Akin Budi,Manolo C. Per,Salvy P. Russo,Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-111
Abstract: The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunneling microscope lithography. We develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of these systems which is size-limited due to computational tractability. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localized basis functions, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated \delta-layers. In obtaining agreement between plane-wave and delocalized methods, we show that the valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%.
Cross Entropy Method for Solving Generalized Orienteering Problem  [PDF]
Budi Santosa, Nur Hardiansyah
iBusiness (IB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2010.24044
Abstract: Optimization technique has been growing rapidly throughout the years. It is caused by the growing complexity of problems that require a relatively long time to solve using exact optimization approach. One of complex problems that is hard to solve using the exact method is Generalized Orienteering Problem (GOP), a combinatorial problem including NP-hard problem. Recently, there has been plenty of heuristic method development to solve this problem. This research is an implementation of cross entropy (CE) method in real case of GOP. CE is an optimization technique that relatively new, using two main procedures; generating sample solution and parameter updating to produce better sample for next iteration. At this research, GOP problem that occurs at finding optimal route consist of 27 cities in eastern China is investigated. Results indicate that CE method give better performance than those of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Harmony Search (HS).
Innovation and Investment: Nasdaq-Listed Companies of Israel  [PDF]
Mustafa Seref Akin
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.14031
Abstract: Using a cross-section of Nasdaq-listed Israeli companies, we examine the impact of R & D spending on their market values and the ecosystem for start-ups in Israel. We find a very strong positive association between the two, learning that $1 million of spending in R & D associated with an increase of $5 million of market value. Among all countries outside the U.S., Israel is third after Canada and China in terms of the number of stocks registered on Nasdaq. Since 1981, sixty-one companies have registered, and their total R & D spending in 2009 reached $3.750 billion, which is approximately equal to the total R & D expenditure of Turkey. In the region, Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries cannot accomplish to register in Nasdaq. Israel’s great success comes from the strong dedication and cooperation between private and public sectors in research and venture capital. Israel spends 4.7% of its GDP for R & D, which is equal to the total expenditure of MENA.
Does Venture Capital Spur Patenting? Evidence from State-Level Cross-Sectional Data for the United States  [PDF]
Mustafa Seref Akin
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2011.24030
Abstract: We test the venture capital and patenting hypothesis state-level cross-section data for the United States, whereas previous research has been industry and firm based. We categorize R&D funds (federal research, industry research and academic research funds). We include the income level (gdp per capita) and size of the states (gdp, population, civilian labor force). We consider human capital factors as adding science and research holders of each state through different categories (doctoral sciences and engineering degree holders, graduate students of science and engineering, post doctorate students). Finally, we include the grants received by the Small Business Innovation Center. Even after controlling so many variables, our results suggest that venture funding has a strong positive impact on patenting in state-level cross-section data. A one billion dollar increase in venture capital is associated with an increase in 440 patents whereas a one billion dollar increase in corporate R&D is associated with an increase in 140 patents. Kortum and Lerener [1] find that a dollar of venture capital is seven times more powerful in stimulating pattern than a dollar of corporate R&D. Our research suggests that this difference is three times.
Contaminant Properties of Hospital Clinical Laboratory Wastewater: A Physiochemical and Microbiological Assessment  [PDF]
Beril Salman Akin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.75057

Hospital laboratory wastewater has been considered to significantly change the degree of contamination of especially the hospital wastewater. The present study investigated the hospital clinical laboratory wastewater and the pollution loads were assessed for pathogens, heavy metals, and organic materials. Composite samples were collected from clinical laboratory wastewater of a 350-bed hospital for a six-month period. Analyses for pH, TSS (Total Suspended Solid), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), PO4-P, and Cl as well as heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Al, and Mn) were made in order to physiochemical properties of the samples. Bacterial isolation (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobaumanii, CNS—Coagulase- Negative Staphylococcus) and antigen-antibody analyses were conducted in order to find the microbiological pollution load of the wastewater. As a result of the study it was found that the hospital clinical laboratory wastewater was alkaline and COD/BOD ratio reached to a range of 10 - 12 in the wastewater. It was concluded that although the heavy metal concentrations were within the sewage discharge limits the said levels could pose health risk. It was also found that the wastewater entailed health risk due to pathogens.

Some Properties of Probiotic Yoghurt Ice Cream Supplemented with Carob Extract and Whey Powder  [PDF]
Mutlu B. Guler-Akin, Busra Goncu, Musa Serdar Akin
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.614095
Abstract: In this study, some properties of probiotic yoghurt ice cream supplemented with carob extract and whey powder and viability of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium BB-12 on ice-cream were investigated. For this purpose 6 different ice cream was produced with different ratios whey powder and carob extract. The viable probiotic bacteria counts were determined on 1st, 7th, 30th, 60th and 90th days of storage. Addition of carob extract and whey powder significantly affected all properties of ice-creams. Results showed that the most positive effect on physical, sensory and microbiological properties was observed on sample D which produced with 1% carob extract and 1% whey powder addition.
Anti-Hypertensive Prescription and Cost Patterns in an Outpatient Department of a Teaching Hospital in Lagos State Nigeria  [PDF]
Akin Osibogun, Tochi Joy Okwor
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.44021

Introduction: Hypertension is a public health problem with a high prevalence in Nigeria. The cost of prescription medications is thought to be a barrier for many patients to access the healthcare they need. This study was aimed at identifying associated co-morbid conditions, the prescribing patterns and cost of prescription for the treatment of hypertension in an outpatient clinic at Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. A total of 147 prescriptions were obtained from the case notes of patients treated at the LUTH outpatient department between February 2012 and August 2012. For each prescription, the number of drugs, the class and combinations of antihypertensives were recorded. The monthly cost of a 30-day anti-hypertensive supply based on the recommended daily dose was calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54(+/-14) years and of the 147 prescriptions, 77(52.4%) was for females and 70(47.6%) was for males. The mean systolic blood pressure was 141.6 mmHg (+/-20.5SD) and mean diastolic blood pressure was 86.5 mmHg (+/-13.3SD). Of the 147 prescriptions, 112(76.2%) were for patients with co-morbidities. The frequency of prescription of the various classes of anti hypertensives are; diuretics 117(79.6%), angiotensin receptor blockers 78(53.1%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 65(44.2%), calcium channel blockers 65 (44.2%) beta blockers 54(36.7%) and centrally acting agents 12(8.2%). Average cost per month was =N=6611.47 (US$44). There was a statistically significant association between co morbid conditions and high cost of prescriptions with 73.7% of those with diabetes and 63.2% of those with renal disease having cost of prescriptions within the high cost group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The cost per month is high and it is recommended that hypertension should be addressed as part of an integrated care program. Ingenious ways of health care financing also have to be promoted.

Are there differences between unconditional and conditional demand estimates? implications for future research and policy
Budi Hidayat
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-6-15
Abstract: The demand for outpatient care in three alternative providers was modeled using a multinomial logit regression for samples unconditional on being ill (N = 16485) and conditional on being ill (N = 5055). The ill sample was constructed from two measures of health status – activity of daily living impairments and severity of illness – derived from the second round of panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey. The recycling prediction method was used to predict the distribution of utilization rates based on having health insurance and income status, while holding all other variables constant.Both unconditional and conditional estimates yield similar results in terms of the direction of the most covariates. The magnitude effects of insurance on healthcare demand are about 7.5% (public providers) and 20% (private providers) higher for unconditional estimates than for conditional ones. Further, exogenous variables in the former estimates explain a higher variation of the model than that in the latter ones. Findings confirm that health insurance has a positive impact on the demand for healthcare, with the highest effect found among the lowest income group.Conditional estimates do not suffer from statistical selection bias. Such estimates produce smaller demand effects for health insurance than unconditional ones do. Whether to rely on conditional or unconditional demand estimates depends on the purpose of study in question. Findings also demonstrate that health insurance programs significantly improve access to healthcare services, supporting the development of national health insurance programs to address under-utilization of formal healthcare in Indonesia.Several published studies on healthcare demand estimate the probabilities of using healthcare services conditional on being ill sample [1-4]. The ill sample is usually generated from self-assessments of health status. Conditional estimates are the preferred method because an individual's decision to seek treatmen
Budi Hartanto
Jurnal Informatika , 2007,
Abstract: Tiling is a process to create a repetitive - larger size - image. However if the picture on the left side of the original image is not continuous to the picture on its right side, the tiling image will have a virtual vertical line called seam. Meanwhile the virtual horizontal line will appear if the picture on the top side of the original image is not continuous to the picture on its bottom side. The research performed here tries to generate a seamless tiling image by finding the closest match of the fractional source image to the partially build resulted image. From the experiment, it can be shown that the quality of the resulted image are affected by the number of similar elements in the source image, the number of fractional images created from the source image, and the width of the overlap area. Source image with a lot of similar element, high number of fractional images, and wider size of the overlap area have been proven to yield a seamless tiling image.
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