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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2964 matches for " Akiko Yamada "
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Japanese Version of the Parent Health Locus of Control Scales: Validity and Reliability  [PDF]
Akiko Yamada, Akemi Yamazaki
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.99072
Abstract: The Parent Health Locus of Control (PHLOC) Scales measure parents’ beliefs about the factors that affect their children’s health. The aim of our study was to develop a Japanese version of the Parent Health Locus of Control (JPHLOC) Scales and to verify its validity and reliability. The JPHLOC scales consist of six scales: Professional Influence, Parental Influence, Child Influence, Media Influence, Fate Influence, and God, Buddha, and the Spirits Influence. Our questionnaire was administered to 231 principal caregivers from Japan whose children were under 6 years of age. The items, related to the “God, Buddha, and the Spirits Influence” scale, showed a floor effect. The exploratory factor analysis indicated that JPHLOC’ six factors functioned similarly to the PHLOC’ factors. The Fate Influence and Child Influence factor structures in JPHLOC scales were different from the corresponding factor structures in the original PHLOC scales in the functioning of only one item. There were statistically significant correlations between JPHLOC scales and Japanese version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), which add evidence to the criterion-related validity of JPHLOC scales. Furthermore, applying the known-groups method, our study showed that there was a significant difference across the JPHLOC scale scores, owning to differences in the children’s and caregivers’ demographics, which provides an evidence for construct validity. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the six scales were estimated between 0.73 and 0.93. In a test-retest study, the interclass correlation coefficients for the six scales were ranged between 0.80 and 0.90. The results suggested that the JPHLOC scales have sufficient reliability and validity. The JPHLOC scales are applicable to the caregivers of healthy children. We confirm that the PHLOC scales are also applicable to Japanese caregivers.
Selective changes in the α-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction in the senescent rat urinary bladder  [PDF]
Tomomi Aita, Akira Ishihata, Akiko Yamada, Yumi Katano
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.429115
Abstract: The urinary bladder is innervated and functionally regulated by the autonomic nervous system. In order to elucidate the mechanism of functional changes in aged rat urinary bladder, we studied the influence of senescence on, 1) the α-adrenergic contractile response to phenylephrine in the urinary bladder body and trigone, 2) the muscarinic contractile response to carbachol in the body and trigone. The binding characteristics of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) to muscarinic cholinoceptors were compared in young and aged bladder. Bladders from young (2 - 3 month-old) and aged (27 month-old) male Fischer 344 rats were isolated, cut into strips and mounted in the organ bath, then the developed tension was recorded. Histologically, the aged bladder did not show pathologic changes such as inflammation and hypertrophy. Carbachol-induced contraction in aged rat bladder was identical to that obtained in young rat. In the receptor binding assay, [3H]QNB maximal binding capacity and Kd value were not significantly changed in aged bladder. In contrast, a selective α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, elicited greater contractions both in the aged body and trigone than those in young rats. The augmentation of α-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions in aged bladder may induce urinary dysfunction such as voiding difficulty.
Cathepsin L Inhibition Prevents Murine Autoimmune Diabetes via Suppression of CD8+ T Cell Activity
Akiko Yamada,Naozumi Ishimaru,Rieko Arakaki,Nobuhiko Katunuma,Yoshio Hayashi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012894
Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from defects in central and peripheral tolerance and characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of islet β cells. To determine whether specific lysosomal proteases might influence the outcome of a T cell–mediated autoimmune response, we examined the functional significance of cathepsin inhibition on autoimmune T1D-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice.
Immittance Matching for Multi-dimensional Open-system Photonic Crystals
Jun Ushida,Masatoshi Tokushima,Masayuki Shirane,Akiko Gomyo,Hirohito Yamada
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.155115
Abstract: An electromagnetic (EM) Bloch wave propagating in a photonic crystal (PC) is characterized by the immittance (impedance and admittance) of the wave. The immittance is used to investigate transmission and reflection at a surface or an interface of the PC. In particular, the general properties of immittance are useful for clarifying the wave propagation characteristics. We give a general proof that the immittance of EM Bloch waves on a plane in infinite one- and two-dimensional (2D) PCs is real when the plane is a reflection plane of the PC and the Bloch wavevector is perpendicular to the plane. We also show that the pure-real feature of immittance on a reflection plane for an infinite three-dimensional PC is good approximation based on the numerical calculations. The analytical proof indicates that the method used for immittance matching is extremely simplified since only the real part of the immittance function is needed for analysis without numerical verification. As an application of the proof, we describe a method based on immittance matching for qualitatively evaluating the reflection at the surface of a semi-infinite 2D PC, at the interface between a semi-infinite slab waveguide (WG) and a semi-infinite 2D PC line-defect WG, and at the interface between a semi-infinite channel WG and a semi-infinite 2D PC slab line-defect WG.
Cytocompatibility of Siloxane-Containing Vaterite/Poly(l-lactic acid) Composite Coatings on Metallic Magnesium
Shinya Yamada,Hirotaka Maeda,Akiko Obata,Ulrich Lohbauer,Akiko Yamamoto,Toshihiro Kasuga
Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ma6125857
Abstract: Poly(l-lactic acid)-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V) or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV) were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the Mg substrate with 2.3–2.8 MPa of tensile bonding strength. Soaking test for 7 days in α-modified minimum essential medium revealed that the morphological instability of the PLLA/V film caused a higher amount of Mg 2+ ion to be released from the coating sample. On the other hand, in the case of the coating with the PLLA/SiV film, no morphological change even after the soaking test was observed, owing to the suppression of the degradation rate. In cell culture tests, the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1) was significantly enhanced by both coatings, in comparison with the uncoated magnesium substrate. The cell morphology revealed that a few less-spread cells were observed on the PLLA/V film, while more elongated cells were done on the PLLA/SiV film. The cells on the PLLA/SiV film exhibited an extremely higher alkaline phosphatase activity after 21 days of incubation than that on the PLLA/V one. The PLLA/SiV film suppressed the early corrosion and enhanced cytocompatibility on metallic magnesium.
The Process of How Elderly Patients with Lung Cancer Who Are Receiving Molecularly Targeted Therapy with Oral Agents Establish Self-Management  [PDF]
Akiko Fukawa
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.913131
Abstract: Purpose: In Japan, many elderly cancer patients are receiving chemotherapy using oral molecularly targeted drugs. They receive treatment in outpatient setting and have a need to self-manage at home. The purpose of this study was to clarify how elderly patients with lung cancer who are undergoing treatment with molecularly targeted drugs in outpatient setting establish self-management. Methods: The study used Kinoshita’s Modified Grounded Theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 patients (eight males and nine females). Results: This study identified six categories: Accepting life with cancer, Maintaining activities of daily living without feeling shackled by cancer, Reconsidering how to continue being themselves in daily life until life comes to an end, Using trial and error to integrate treatment and daily living, Formulating their criteria for continuing treatment, and Obtaining help from caregivers. Conclusion: The self-management process in elderly patients consisted of maintaining treatment and integrating treatment with daily living. And they are exploring the effects of treatment and side effects in order to live their own life. Implications for Nursing: In many elderly patients with lung cancer the purpose of treatment is curative extension of survival and improved quality of life. Our findings suggest that is important we help patients to identify how patients want to live, identify ways to improve their quality of life, and share the goals of treatment between the patient and the caregiver.
A Novel DC Therapy with Manipulation of MKK6 Gene on Nickel Allergy in Mice
Megumi Watanabe,Naozumi Ishimaru,Meinar Nur Ashrin,Rieko Arakaki,Akiko Yamada,Tetsuo Ichikawa,Yoshio Hayashi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019017
Abstract: Although the activation of dermal dendritic cells (DCs) or Langerhans cells (LCs) via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of metal allergy, the in vivo molecular mechanisms have not been identified and a possible therapeutic strategy using the control of dermal DCs or LCs has not been established. In this study, we focused on dermal DCs to define the in vivo mechanisms of metal allergy pathogenesis in a mouse nickel (Ni) allergy model. The effects of DC therapy on Ni allergic responses were also investigated.
In Situ Patrolling of Regulatory T Cells Is Essential for Protecting Autoimmune Exocrinopathy
Naozumi Ishimaru,Takeshi Nitta,Rieko Arakaki,Akiko Yamada,Martin Lipp,Yousuke Takahama,Yoshio Hayashi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008588
Abstract: Migration of T cells, including regulatory T (Treg) cells, into the secondary lymph organs is critically controlled by chemokines and adhesion molecules. However, the mechanisms by which Treg cells regulate organ-specific autoimmunity via these molecules remain unclear. Although we previously reported autoimmune exocrinopathy resembling Sj?gren's syndrome (SS) in the lacrimal and salivary glands from C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7)-deficient mice, it is still unclear whether CCR7 signaling might specifically affect the dynamics and functions of Treg cells in vivo. We therefore investigated the cellular mechanism for suppressive function of Treg cells via CCR7 in autoimmunity using mouse models and human samples.
The Effect of Eating Sea Cucumber Jelly on Candida Load in the Oral Cavity of Elderly Individuals in a Nursing Home
Akira Yano,Akiko Abe,Fumie Aizawa,Hidetoshi Yamada,Kentaro Minami,Miki Matsui,Mitsuo Kishi
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11124993
Abstract: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled study of elderly individuals in a nursing home to investigate the effect of the consumption of jelly containing sea cucumber on their oral Candida load. The jelly contained a hydrolysate of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, which contained triterpene glycosides called holotoxins. The holotoxins worked as a fungicide, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations for Candida albicans were 7 μg/mL. Eight individuals in the nursing home took the sea cucumber jelly for a week and their oral Candida were counted before and after the intervention. Nine individuals took a control jelly without S. japonicus. The sea cucumber jelly showed inhibitory effects on the oral Candida. Thus, daily consumption of the S. japonicus jelly has the potential to reduce the oral Candida load in the elderly in nursing homes.
Altered specificity of single-chain antibody fragments bound to pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza virus after conversion of the phage-bound to the soluble form
Yoshihiro Kaku, Akira Noguchi, Akiko Okutani, Satoshi Inoue, Kiyoshi Tanabayashi, Yoshie Yamamoto, Akitoyo Hotta, Michio Suzuki, Naoko Sugiura, Akio Yamada
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-483
Abstract: Human single-fold scFv libraries (Tomlinson I?+?J) underwent selection for the ability to bind H1N1pdm virus particles. Three rounds of panning brought 1152 phage-bound scFvs, of which 58 clones reacted with H1N1pdm specifically or preferentially over sH1N1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After conversion of the scFvs to soluble form, 7 clones demonstrating high/stable expression were finally obtained. However, all the soluble scFvs except No. 29 were found to have lost their specificity/preference for H1N1pdm in ELISA. The specificity/preference of No. 29 was also confirmed by immunofluorescence assay and immunoprecipitation, and the viral nucleoprotein was identified by ELISA as its target protein. The change in specificity associated with scFv conversion from phage-bound to soluble form could be due to loss of phage scaffold pIII protein, which likely provides structural support for the scFv antigen-binding site. It is also possible that the similar antigenic properties of H1N1pdm and sH1N1 led to the observed alterations in scFv specificity.Using a phage display library, we obtained 7 soluble scFv clones reactive against H1N1pdm; however, only 1 showed specificity/preference toward H1N1pdm. Our results confirmed that using phage display libraries was highly advantageous for the rapid development of molecules to detect target antigens. However, our results also indicated that this strategy might not have been effective for selecting H1N1pdm-specific antibodies during the 2009 pandemic, where the co-circulating sH1N1 virus shared similar antigenic properties. This suggests that it might be advisable to use a synthetic scFv phage display library by strategically considering the characteristics of target antigens and the potential situations.The periodic occurrence of influenza type A virus with novel antigenic properties, also known as a pandemic, has posed serious threats to the human population. Aiming to mitigate the disease burden posed by pand
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