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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4536 matches for " Akiko Suzuki "
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Consórcios intermunicipais para a destina??o de RSU em aterros regionais: estudo prospectivo para os municípios no Estado do Paraná
Suzuki, Juliana Akiko Noguchi;Gomes, Jo?o;
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-41522009000200002
Abstract: the goal of this prospective study was to identify, to analyze and to map groups of municipalities that could form intermunicipal trusts with the purpose of disposing the municipal solid waste generated internally in regional landfills to be located within the trust’s territory. the variables considered were urban population, road system, geographical location of the urban centers and water basin divisions. among the advantages of constituting such trusts are: the reduction of areas used as landfills, the increase in scale allowing the hiring of professional landfill operation service and the concentration of environmental inspection actions. as a result, 377 from the 399 municipalities in the state of paraná were divided into 58 intermunicipal trusts, comprehending 97,3% of the urban population of the state. this article also presents the methodology applied and the factors that could influence its implementation.
Evaluation with Heart Rate Variability for the Treatment Effect of Aminophylline in Patients with Bradycardia after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Preliminary Study  [PDF]
Noriyuki Ishikawa, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akiko a Misaw, Yuichi Takano, Yoichi Shimada
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.31003
Abstract: After cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), the autonomic nervous system (ANS) becomes impaired and then, bradycardia can develop. In view of this, we performed to prescribe aminophylline as pharmacotherapy for bradycardia. The study population consisted of 36 patients with cervical SCI. Bradycardia developed in 20 patients (55.6%), of these patients, 8 showed spontaneous recovery. Twelve patients had persistent bradycardia, therefore, aminophylline was administered at 0.5 mg/kg/hr by intravenous infusion. Their average heart rate increased within 24 hours after the start of infusion. In heart rate variability analysis for 7 preliminarily selected patients, the spectral waveforms of “oligowave type” indicating ANS impairment tended to appear in relatively early phase after injury (i.e., 2 days to 2 weeks after injury), whereas “normal type” was observed in the late phase (i.e., at 4 weeks). “Sympathetic block type” was observed throughout the follow-up period (2 days to 4 weeks). “Sympathetic block type” was also observed in a non-bradycardic patient on day 2. These results underscore the importance of treating ANS impairment with aminophylline while keeping in mind that bradycardia can occur even in post-SCI patients without clinical manifestations.
A Conjugate Property between Loss Functions and Uncertainty Sets in Classification Problems
Takafumi Kanamori,Akiko Takeda,Taiji Suzuki
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: In binary classification problems, mainly two approaches have been proposed; one is loss function approach and the other is uncertainty set approach. The loss function approach is applied to major learning algorithms such as support vector machine (SVM) and boosting methods. The loss function represents the penalty of the decision function on the training samples. In the learning algorithm, the empirical mean of the loss function is minimized to obtain the classifier. Against a backdrop of the development of mathematical programming, nowadays learning algorithms based on loss functions are widely applied to real-world data analysis. In addition, statistical properties of such learning algorithms are well-understood based on a lots of theoretical works. On the other hand, the learning method using the so-called uncertainty set is used in hard-margin SVM, mini-max probability machine (MPM) and maximum margin MPM. In the learning algorithm, firstly, the uncertainty set is defined for each binary label based on the training samples. Then, the best separating hyperplane between the two uncertainty sets is employed as the decision function. This is regarded as an extension of the maximum-margin approach. The uncertainty set approach has been studied as an application of robust optimization in the field of mathematical programming. The statistical properties of learning algorithms with uncertainty sets have not been intensively studied. In this paper, we consider the relation between the above two approaches. We point out that the uncertainty set is described by using the level set of the conjugate of the loss function. Based on such relation, we study statistical properties of learning algorithms using uncertainty sets.
Gene Expression Changes Associated with the Loss of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein M Function  [PDF]
Jun-ichi Takino, Kentaro Nagamine, Mikoto Suzuki, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Takamitsu Hori
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2017.72007
Abstract: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by the nonenzymatic reaction of sugars with proteins. Glycation may adversely affect proteins, such as by inducing a loss of function. It has been shown that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs) accumulate in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Previously, we showed the formation of intracellular Glycer-AGEs upon exposure of hepatocytes to fructose in vitro, and identified an RNA-binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (HNRNPM), as a target for glycation. However, the impact of glycated HNRNPM in NASH remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined gene expression changes caused by HNRNPM knockdown, and investigated the up- and down-regulated genes as noninvasive biomarker candidates for NASH. Microarray analysis after HNRNPM knockdown showed that the levels of 138 transcripts were increased, while those of 100 transcripts were decreased as compared with those in the control. Gene Ontology-based functional analysis showed that 14 upregulated and 9 downregulated genes were associated with the extracellular space, which may enable their detection using blood tests. Among these, six of the up- and down-regulated genes were associated with the extracellular exosome. These results suggest that the loss of HNRNPM function by glycation is reflected extracellularly. Therefore, the identified genes may serve as noninvasive biomarkers for Glycer-AGEs-related NASH.
Differences in Self-Assessment Regarding Eating Behaviors among Female University Students Living in Japan, Korea, and Austria  [PDF]
Mihoko Tominaga, Masanori Taguchi, Akiko Suzuki, Ho-Sook Youn, Kyubok Cho, Johannes Scherling, Roswith Roth, Yoshiko Ikawa
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312219
Abstract: Objective: To investigate cross-cultural differences in self-assessments of eating behaviors of female university students who bear responsibility for their own eating behaviors and who will, in the future, likely determine a family’s eating style. Design: A cross-cultural comparison. Setting: Japan, South Korea, and Austria. Subjects: Female university students from Japan (n = 276), Korea (n = 103), and Austria (n = 127). The survey comprised a questionnaire containing ten sections about eating behaviors (eating habits, regular meal times, and frequency of food intake) and eating attitudes. Results: Eating behaviors and attitudes differed significantly among the three cultures. Japanese students practiced healthier eating behaviors than did Korean and Austrian students, on the basis of their variety of food intake and regular consumption of three meals, but rated themselves lower on healthy eating behaviors. Austrian students tended to have more independent attitudes toward eating and food preparation (e.g., “I want to eat only my favorite dishes”) than Japanese or Korean students. Conclusions: Effects of cultural differences in psychological processes, such as self-cognition, emotion, motivation, and values, on self-assessment of eating behaviors is suggested.
Reversal Rate of Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population: The Niigata Preventive Medicine Study
Shinsuke Okada,Akiko Suzuki,Hiroshi Watanabe,Toru Watanabe,Yoshifusa Aizawa
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/623593
Abstract: The reversal rate from clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors—components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. Methods and Results. Among 35,534 subjects who received the annual health examinations at the NiigataHealth Foundation (Niigata, Japan), 4,911 subjects had clustering of 3 or more of the following CVD risk factors: (1) body mass index (BMI) ≥25 Kg/m2, (2) blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg in systolic and/or ≥85 mm Hg in diastolic, (3) triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, (4) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL in men, ≤50 mg/dL in women, and (5) fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dL. After 5 years 1,929 subjects had a reversal of clustering (39.4%). A reversal occurred more often in males. The subjects with a reversal of clustering had milder level of each risk factor and a smaller number of risk factors, while BMI was associated with the least chance of a reversal. Conclusion. We concluded that a reversal of clustering CVD risk factors is possible in 4/10 subjects over a 5-year period by habitual or medical interventions. Gender and each CVD risk factor affected the reversal rate adversely, and BMI was associated with the least chance of a reversal.
Experimental optimization of probe length to increase the sequence specificity of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays
Shingo Suzuki, Naoaki Ono, Chikara Furusawa, Akiko Kashiwagi, Tetsuya Yomo
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-373
Abstract: To investigate the specificity for single nucleotide mismatches, we designed a custom array with probes of different length (14- to 25-mer) tethered to the surface of the array and all possible single nucleotide mismatches, and hybridized artificially synthesized 25-mer oligodeoxyribonucleotides as targets in bulk solution to avoid the effects of cross-hybridization. The results indicated the finite availability of target molecules as the probe length increases. Due to this effect, the sequence specificity of the longer probes decreases, and this was also confirmed even under the usual background conditions for transcriptome analysis.Our study suggests that the optimal probe length for specificity is 19–21-mer. This conclusion will assist in improvement of microarray design for both transcriptome analysis and mutation screening.High-density oligonucleotide microarrays allow analysis of the genome-wide expression of genes in living organisms [1] and for genome-wide screens of genetic variation and disease-causing mutations [2,3]. The Affymetrix GeneChip system is one of the most commonly used high-density oligonucleotide microarray systems because each probe is synthesized in the precise location and millions of probes can be contained on an array. In the Affymetrix GeneChip system, the expression of each transcript is measured using a set of probe pairs, i.e., a perfect match (PM) probe that matches a fragment of the corresponding gene exactly and a mismatch (MM) probe containing a single nucleotide mismatch in the center. It is generally assumed that the MM probe provides a measure of cross-hybridization to corresponding PM probes, and thus subtracting the signal intensities of MM probes from those of PM probes allows canceling of the effect of cross-hybridization [4].However, it has been pointed out that around 30% of probe pairs consistently give negative signals, which means that the difference between PM and MM probe intensity does not always reflect the true t
Restoration of Mismatch Repair Functions in Human Cell Line Nalm-6, Which Has High Efficiency for Gene Targeting
Tetsuya Suzuki, Akiko Ukai, Masamitsu Honma, Noritaka Adachi, Takehiko Nohmi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061189
Abstract: Gene targeting is a powerful approach in reverse genetics. The approach has been hampered in most of human cell lines, however, by the poor targeting efficiency. Nalm-6, a human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, exhibits exceptionally high gene targeting efficiency and is used in DNA repair and the related research fields. Nonetheless, usage of the cell line is still limited partly because it lacks expression of MSH2, a component of mismatch repair complex, which leads to increased genome instability. Here, we report successful restoration of MSH2 expression in Nalm-6 cells and demonstrate that the recovery does not affect the high targeting efficiency. We recovered the expression by introduction of cDNA sequences corresponding to exons 9 to 16 at downstream of exon 8 of the MSH2 gene. Endogenous exons 9 to 16 were deleted in the cell line. The MSH2 expression substantially reduced spontaneous HPRT mutation frequency. Moreover, gene targeting efficiency in the MSH2-expressing cells was similar to that in the MSH2-lacking cells. In fact, we generated heterozygously REV3L knockout and the catalytically dead mutants in the MSH2-proficient Nalm-6 cells with efficiency of 20–30%. The established cell line, Nalm-6-MSH+, is useful for reverse genetics in human cells.
Development of a Cell-Based Assay Measuring the Activation of FcγRIIa for the Characterization of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies
Minoru Tada, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Takuo Suzuki, Nana Kawasaki
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095787
Abstract: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the important mechanisms of action of the targeting of tumor cells by therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Among the human Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), FcγRIIIa is well known as the only receptor expressed in natural killer (NK) cells, and it plays a pivotal role in ADCC by IgG1-subclass mAbs. In addition, the contributions of FcγRIIa to mAb-mediated cytotoxicity have been reported. FcγRIIa is expressed in myeloid effector cells including neutrophils and macrophages, and it is involved in the activation of these effector cells. However, the measurement of the cytotoxicity via FcγRIIa-expressing effector cells is complicated and inconvenient for the characterization of therapeutic mAbs. Here we report the development of a cell-based assay using a human FcγRIIa-expressing reporter cell line. The FcγRIIa reporter cell assay was able to estimate the activation of FcγRIIa by antigen-bound mAbs by a very simple method in vitro. The usefulness of this assay for evaluating the activity of mAbs with different abilities to activate FcγRIIa was confirmed by the examples including the comparison of the activity of the anti-CD20 mAb rituximab and its Fc-engineered variants, and two anti-EGFR mAbs with different IgG subclasses, cetuximab (IgG1) and panitumumab (IgG2). We also applied this assay to the characterization of a force-oxidized mAb, and we observed that oxidation significantly decreased the FcγRIIa activation by EGFR-bound cetuximab. These results suggest that our FcγRIIa reporter assay is a promising tool for the characterization of therapeutic mAbs, including Fc-engineered mAbs, IgG2-subclass mAbs, and their product-related variants.
Reversal Rate of Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population: The Niigata Preventive Medicine Study
Shinsuke Okada,Akiko Suzuki,Hiroshi Watanabe,Toru Watanabe,Yoshifusa Aizawa
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/623593
Abstract: The reversal rate from clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors—components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. Methods and Results. Among 35,534 subjects who received the annual health examinations at the NiigataHealth Foundation (Niigata, Japan), 4,911 subjects had clustering of 3 or more of the following CVD risk factors: (1) body mass index (BMI) ≥25?Kg/m2, (2) blood pressure ≥130?mm Hg in systolic and/or ≥85?mm Hg in diastolic, (3) triglycerides ≥150?mg/dL, (4) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40?mg/dL in men, ≤50?mg/dL in women, and (5) fasting blood glucose ≥100?mg/dL. After 5 years 1,929 subjects had a reversal of clustering (39.4%). A reversal occurred more often in males. The subjects with a reversal of clustering had milder level of each risk factor and a smaller number of risk factors, while BMI was associated with the least chance of a reversal. Conclusion. We concluded that a reversal of clustering CVD risk factors is possible in 4/10 subjects over a 5-year period by habitual or medical interventions. Gender and each CVD risk factor affected the reversal rate adversely, and BMI was associated with the least chance of a reversal. 1. Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is diagnosed as a clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose metabolism, and dyslipidemia, and the diagnostic criteria have been proposed by several organizations [1–5]. MetS or clustering of CVD risk factors is apparently a risk for new onset of diabetes mellitus [6], kidney dysfunction [7], cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality [8–12]. The components of MetS, namely, the CVD risk factors, have been shown to actually cluster more frequently than to occur by chance, and the actual prevalence of clustering exceeded the predicted one by 1.3, 3.0 and 8.0 for 3, 4, and 5 clustering of CVD risk factors [13]. For such clustering of CVD risk factors in MetS, insulin resistance was initially believed to play a key role [14], but the roles of adipocytokines released from visceral adipose tissue have been increasingly emphasized [15, 16], and waist circumference has become essential for the diagnosis of MetS [1–4]. Furthermore, both inflammation [17] and oxidative stress [18] have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS. In our previous study [19], new onset of MetS was determined as new clustering of 3 or more CVD risk factors during the followup of 5 years in the general population. In this study, we studied the reversal rate from clustering of CVD risk factors during the
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