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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 493 matches for " Akihiko; "
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Cyclosporin A inhibits the growth of neonatal MHC-expressing myotubes independent of NFATc1 and NFATc3 in the mechanically overloaded soleus muscle of mice  [PDF]
Kunihiro Sakuma, Akihiko Yamaguchi
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2011.11002
Abstract: ABSTRACT The molecular signaling pathway linked to hyper-trophy of the anti-gravity/postural soleus muscle af-ter mechanical overloading has not been identified. Using Western blot and immunohistochemical analy-ses, we investigated whether the amounts of NFATc3, GSK-3?, NFATc1, and neonatal MHC change in the mechanically overloaded soleus muscle after cyc-losporine A (CsA) treatment. Adult male ICR mice were subjected to a surgical ablation of the gas-trocnemius muscle and treated with either CsA (25 mg/Kg) or vehicle once daily. They were sacrificed at 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days post-injury. Mechanical over-loading resulted in a significant increase in the wet weight and the cross-sectional area of slow and fast fibers of the soleus muscle in placebo-treated mice but not CsA-treated mice. After 4 days of mechanical overloading, we observed a similar co-localization of neonatal MHC and NFATc3 in several myotubes of both mice. The placebo-treated mice possessed larger myotubes with neonatal MHC than CsA-treated mice. At 7 days, mechanical overloading induced marked expression of neonatal MHC in myotubes and/or myofibers. Such neonatal MHC-positive fibers emerged less often in the hypertrophied soleus mus-cle subjected to treatment with CsA. CsA treatment did not significantly change the amount of GSK-3? protein in the soleus muscle. The modulation of growth in neonatal MHC-positive myofibers by CsA treatment may inhibit the hypertrophic process in the soleus muscle after mechanical overloading.
Selection of Suitable Safety Activities and Experience of Safety Condition Establishment  [PDF]
Akihiko Hidaka, Atsumi Miyake
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.51001
Abstract: In recent years, Japanese manufacturing firms have been building factories in the developing countries of Southeast Asia and employing local personnel. Using local employees who were basically people of the agricultural countries implies difficulties in both technical and safety terms. This study examines how quickly and effectively the companies going into the developing countries establish a standard of safety. The authors focus on Vietnam and Thailand as representative countries. To their surprise, the authors find that all 27 companies that answered their questionnaire had introduced “5S activities” at startup and were continuing to use them. In addition, nearly 80% of the companies began using “KY activities”, “Safety proposal activities”, and “Examinations of accidents” soon after startup. One of the authors Akihiko Hidaka, when serving as the president of the Thai subsidiary of a Japanese chemical company, developed safety activities to reduce work-related accidents. And he knew that the kinds of safety activities he developed were same as above 4 activities. So he evaluated these activities and judged them to be effective. The authors conclude that “5S activities”, “KY activities”, “Safety proposal activities”, and “Examinations of accidents” were the activities best able to improve safety effectively and quickly in developing countries. The authors describe the safety activities carried out at the Thai company and then describe the most important features of the methods used to establish safety conditions at the firm.
Toward Circumventing Collinearity Effect in Nonlinear Spectral Mixture Analysis by Using a Spectral Shape Measure  [PDF]
Wei Yang, Akihiko Kondoh
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2016.53015
Abstract: Nonlinear spectral mixture analysis (NSMA) is a widely used unmixing algorithm. It can fit the mixed spectra adequately, but collinearity effect among true and virtual endmembers will decrease the retrieval accuracies of endmember fractions. Use of linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) can effectively reduce the degree of collinearity in the NSMA. However, the inadequate modeling of mixed spectra in the LSMA will also yield retrieval errors, especially for the cases where the multiple scattering is not ignorable. In this study, a generalized spectral unmixing scheme based on a spectral shape measure, i.e. spectral information divergence (SID), was applied to overcome the limitations of the conventional NSMA and LSMA. Two simulation experiments were undertaken to test the performances of the SID, LSMA and NSMA in the mixture cases of treesoil, tree-concrete and tree-grass. Results demonstrated that the SID yielded higher accuracies than the LSMA for almost all the mixture cases in this study. On the other hand, performances of the SID method were comparable with the NSMA for the tree-soil and tree-grass mixture cases, but significantly better than the NSMA for the tree-concrete mixture case. All the results indicate that the SID method is fairly effective to circumvent collinearity effect within the NSMA, and compensate the inadequate modeling of mixed spectra within the LSMA.
Risk Assessment of Land Subsidence in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, Using Remote Sensing and GIS  [PDF]
Richa Bhattarai, Akihiko Kondoh
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2017.62010
Abstract: Land subsidence is identified as a global problem and intensive studies are being conducted worldwide to detect and monitor risk of this problem. Risk assessment of land subsidence is simply an evaluation of the probability and frequency of occurrence of land subsidence, exposure of people and property to the subsidence and consequence of that exposure. Remote sensing technology was used to extract information of land subsidence in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Also, Disaster Risk Index method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) along with Geographic Information System (GIS) tools were used to assess risk of land subsidence in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Subsidence volume for locations Central Kathmandu, Chauni, Lalitpur, Imadol, Thimi, Madhyaour Thimi, New Baneshwor, Koteshwor and Gothatar was calculated using a simple mathematical formula. The subsidence depth for these locations was found to be in a range of 1 cm to 17 cm and the maximum subsidence velocity was found to be 4.8 cm/yr. This study revealed that the location where maximum subsidence was observed (i.e. Central Kathmandu and Lalitpur) was found to be at high risk of experiencing land subsidence induced damage. Other location where subsidence was observed was found to be at medium risk and the rest of the Kathmandu valley was found to be at low risk with current data situation. This study can be considered as the first step towards other comprehensive study relating to land subsidence risk assessment. The outcome of this research provides a basic understanding of the current situation that can further assist in developing prevention and risk management techniques.
Government Expenditure Financing in the Money-in-the-Production-Function Model  [PDF]
Akihiko Kaneko, Daisuke Matsuzaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.82008
Abstract: In this study, we consider a scenario in which the government resorts to an income and inflation tax to finance its expenditures in the money-in-the-production-function model. We show that a financing shift from the inflation tax to the income tax increases the real money holdings-to-capital ratio because the accumulation of capital is less favorable than holding money. We also find that a country’s economic growth rate is maximized if all government expenditures are financed through an income tax. For welfare maximization, the government should set the income tax rate higher than the growth maximizing tax rate and reimburse the excess revenue using money contraction.
Coevolution in a One Predator–Two Prey System
Akihiko Mougi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013887
Abstract: Our understanding of coevolution in a predator–prey system is based mostly on pair-wise interactions.
Dissipative hydrodynamic effects on the quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density
Monnai, Akihiko
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: The quark-gluon plasma behaves as a relativistic viscous fluid in high-energy heavy ion collisions. I develop a causal dissipative hydrodynamic model at finite baryon density for RHIC and LHC to estimate the net baryon rapidity distribution. The net baryon number is found to be carried to forward rapidity by the flow, effectively enhancing the transparency of the collisions. This suggests that the energy available for the production of a hot medium could be larger than that naively implied from experimental data. Also the distribution can be sensitive to baryon dissipation as much as to shear and bulk viscosity.
Dissipative hydrodynamic evolution of hot quark matter at finite baryon density
Monnai, Akihiko
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: High-energy heavy ion collider experiments at RHIC and LHC have revealed that relativistic hydrodynamic models describe the hot and dense quark matter quantitatively. In this study, I develop a novel dissipative hydrodynamic model at finite baryon density to investigate the net baryon rapidity distribution. The results show that the distribution is widened in hydrodynamic evolution, which implies that the transparency of the collisions is effectively enhanced. This suggests that the kinetic energy loss for medium production at the initial stage could be larger. Furthermore, the net baryon distribution is found sensitive to baryon diffusion, implying that dissipative hydrodynamic modeling would be important for understanding the hot medium.
Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid
Konagaya Akihiko
BMC Bioinformatics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-7-s5-s10
Abstract: Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.
GSK-3β and memory formation
Akihiko Takashima
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2012.00047
Abstract: In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), tau hyperphosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation are strongly associated with dementia, a characteristic and early feature of this disease. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is a pivotal kinase in both the normal and pathological phosphorylation of tau. In the diseased state, hyperphosphorylated tau is deposited in NFTs, the formation of which, drive the disease process. GSK-3β which is also involved in long-term depression induction, interacts with tau to inhibit synaptic long-term potentiation. Strong lines of evidence suggest that the activation of GSK-3β is responsible for the memory deficits seen in both advanced age and AD. In this review, we will focus on the role of GSK-3β in brain function, particularly in memory maintenance. We will examine human and mouse studies which suggest a role for GSK-3β in memory maintenance and the eventual development of memory deficits.
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