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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 111998 matches for " Akeem O. Lasisi "
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Disability and Quality of Life among Elderly Persons with Self-Reported Hearing Impairment: Report from the Ibadan Study of Aging  [PDF]
Akeem O. Lasisi, Oye Gureje
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2013.22016
Background: Despite a high prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) among the elderly, the effect on their quality of life (QOL) has not been well studied in this environment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of disability and profile of QOL among elderly persons (aged ≥65 years) with HI. Design of Study: Cross-sectional. Setting: Eight contiguousYoruba-speaking states in Nigeria. Methods: Face-to-face interviews of respondents selected using a multi-stage, stratified area probability sampling of households; HI was based on self report and observer confirmation and the QOL was measured with the World Health Organization brief version (WHOQOL-Bref). Results: The prevalence of disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) was 35.4% while it was 10.1% in Instrumental ADL. Prevalence increased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.05). Disability in ADL (P = 0.01), poor family interaction (P = 0.01), poor community involvement (P = 0.01) cognitive impairment (P = 0.05) and poor report of overall health (P = 0.05) were significantly more common among the elderly with HI than those without. No significant differences were found in regard to current depression or the likelihood of experiencing verbal, physical or emotional abuses. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, chronic medical conditions and disability confirmed the salient effect of HI on the decrement in the physical domains (P = 0.05). Conclusion: HI is associated with high prevalence of disability and has adverse effect on the quality of life. This observation strengthens the need for hearing rehabilitation in the policy formulation on the care of the elderly in resource-poor settings.
Neonatal Hearing Screening Using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission in a Sub-Urban Population in Nigeria  [PDF]
Moronke D. Akinola, Paul A. Onakoya, Olukemi Tongo, Akeem O. Lasisi
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.34038

Objective: To determine the proportion of neonates with referral result on testing with transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and the associated risk factors. Method: Prospective evaluation of all neonates born in the Hospital within 6 months using the TEOAE. A hand-held Etymotic Research Otoacoustic Emission Scanner (Ero-scan Combo) was used with the child sleeping in the cot or the mother’s hand. Right and left ears were tested separately and the result was displayed automatically as “pass” when 100% of the in-built criteria were met and “refer” if otherwise. The subjects that passed in both ears were regarded as passes, while those with a refer in either the right/left ears or both ears were regarded as referrals and were thus subjected to rescreening in six weeks or on discharge from the special care baby unit. Analysis was done to find association between the outcome of TEOAE and the clinical and epidemiological risk factors. Result: TEOAE was carried out on 386 neonates, (194 males (50.3%) and 192 females (49.7%)). The mean age at screening was 2.3 days (SD = 1.5), the mean gestational age was 38.0 weeks (SD = 2.7) while the mean birth weight was 2.9 kg (SD = 0.7) and the mean Apgar score at 1 and 5 minute were 8.3 (SD = 1.0) and 9.8 (SD = 0.6). At the first step hearing screening, referral rate was 112 (29.0%); at the second stage, 31 (8.5%) neonates had referral in one or both ears. Fisher’s exact test showed that prematurity, multiple births, jaundice and small birth weight were significantly associated with a referral outcome. However, logistic regression revealed prematurity as a significant predictor of referral outcome with a negative predictive value of 12.61. Conclusion: The referral rate is high with prematurity as a significant predictor. This study calls for commencement of newborn hearing screening and strengthening of the public health measures in the developing countries.

Day Case Thyroidectomy under Local/Regional Block in a Tropical Sub-Urban Teaching Hospital in a Developing Country-Preliminary Report
Musa Adewale,Philip A.O. Adeniyi,Lasisi Akeem,Agboola Oladeji,Oyegunle Ayodele
Surgery Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/sjour.2011.7.12
Abstract: Throidectomy is routinely performed under general anaesthesia and patient is often admitted for a few days. This has been found unnecessary because complications following thyriodectomy are very rare. Day case surgery is an ideal way of utilizing heath resources to maximum, cheap and conserves hospital beds. A prospective study performing thyroidectomy under regional anaesthesia as day cases. Department of Surgery, Endocrine Unit, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. In a 36 month period, April 2007 to March 2010, about 150 patients with simple nodular/multinodualr goiter were strictly selected for the study. Patients selected for the surgery were 135 females and 15 males with age range of 27-55 years and a mean age of 40.5 years±9.3 SD. Three had nodular goiter, seven with isthmus enlargement and 140 had simple multinodular goiter (two as recurrent). Three had lobectomy, seven had isthmusectomy with bilateral partial lobectomies; the remaining had near total thyroidectomy including the patients with recurrent goiter. There were no complications, all were discharged between 6-8 h post operative except one of the patients with recurrent goiter who had two pints of blood and was discharged at 20 h, post surgery. She also had transient hypocalcaemia. Thirty five patients had headache which responded to simple analgesic. About 95% of the patients were satisfied with procedure and would recommend it to others, 3% were satisfied but would not recommend it while 2% were indifferent. Day case thyroidectomy is safe and feasible even in rural and sub-urban centres. The earlier part of this study was partly presented at the 43rd Scientific Conference of the International College of Surgeons Annual Conference, Nigerian section in July, 2008.
Salivary and Serum IgA Evaluation of Patients with Oro-Facial Squamous Cell Carcinoma  [PDF]
Taye J. Lasisi, Bidemi O. Yusuf, Olawale A. Lasisi, Efiong E. U. Akang
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2013.21011
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate salivary and serum levels of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in patients with oro-facial squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Patients with oro-facial squamous cell carcinoma attending the Oral Pathology and Radiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria were included. Seventy subjects comprising 22 patients with untreated OSCC, 18 patients with OSCC receiving treatment and 30 healthy, age and gender matched individuals were included. Serum and salivary samples from the participants were analysed for IgA levels using ELISA technique. Results: The mean value of serum IgA in OSCC patients receiving treatment was significantly lower compared with healthy controls (p = 0.03), while no significant difference was observed comparing untreated OSCC patients with treated and healthy controls. The salivary IgA levels did not show any significant difference between the three groups (p = 0.73). Also, there was no correlation between serum and salivary levels of IgA among the subjects. Conclusions: Serum IgA appeared to be better index than salivary IgA levels in monitoring response to treatment in patients with oro-facial carcinoma.
A Note on the Precision of Stratified Systematic Sampling  [PDF]
Akeem O. Kareem, Isaac O. Oshungade, Gafar M. Oyeyemi
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.52013
Abstract: Conflicting views had greeted the use of systematic sampling for sample selection and estimation in stratified sampling in terms of the precision of the population mean base on the inherent characteristics of the population. These conflicting views were analyzed using Cochran data (1977, p. 211) [1]. When the population units are ordered, variance of systematic sampling for all possible systematic samples provides equal, non-negative and most precise estimates for all the variance functions considered i.e.\"\" , unlike when a single systematic sample is used and when variance of simple random sampling is used to estimate selected systematic samples.
Rural Livelihood in South-West Nigeria: Strategies, Assets Ownerships and the Non-Farm Income
Ajibola Akeem Olusola,K.O. Adenegan
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2011.344.348
Abstract: The proliferation of Non-farm activities as a source of income to complement the once sole agricultural income in the rural part of Nigeria is an issue that calls for serious policy attention. It has been variously referred to as consumption smoothening measure or coping strategy against agricultural failure among other reasons. However, the fact remain that income from non-farm activities has become an integral part of the rural economy that requires empirical evaluation to enhance the emergence of a comprehensive agricultural and rural development plan in Nigeria. In view of this study assesses the livelihood strategies and the determinants of rural non-farm income in South-West Nigeria using a multi-stage random sample of 300 respondents. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were evaluated which confirmed the existence of non-farm activities alongside the farm activities despite the fact the respondents are still in their active working and productive age. Livelihood strategies in the area involve asset ownerships of both livestock and durable household assets. Common non-farm activities in the area are artisan, trade and commerce, etc which are mostly self-supervised and being funded through farm earnings. Non-farm activities have a higher profit level than the farming activities and such factors that determine its level of income are: Gender, household size, years of non-farm experience and exposure. Towards promoting such activities with policy instrument, attention must be paid to female-headed households, training and provision of vital information on highly profitable non-farm enterprises to the ruralites.
Trends of Temperature and Signature of Solar Activity in Selected Stations in Nigeria  [PDF]
Christiana F. Olusegun, Akeem B. Rabiu, Jared O. H. Ndeda, Emmanuel C. Okogbue
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.42020

This study investigates the variability and periodicity of minimum temperature, maximum temperature and sunspot number—a solar activity index in selected synoptic stations across Nigeria from 1946 to 2010. Annual and semiannual effect of solar activity on minimum temperature was observed in all the six stations. This was indicated in the occurrence of modal periodicities of 6-month and 12-month observed across the six synoptic stations. The synoptic stations are Sokoto (13.01°N, 5.15°E), Ilorin (8.29°N, 4.35°E), Ikeja (6.35°N, 3.20°E), Enugu (6.28°N, 7.33°E), Port-Harcourt (4.51°N, 7.01°E) and Maiduguri (11.51°N, 13.05°E). Similarly, the trends of inter-decadal va-riability of minimum and maximum temperature show a non-uniformity increase over the analyzed period with a slight decrease before 1960. The long term behavior of minimum and maximum temperature shows a warming rate which ranges from 0.1°C/decade to 0.2°C/ decade across the six stations except for maximum temperature at Ilorin and minimum temperature at Sokoto which is at -0.2°C/decade and 0.3°C/decade respectively.

Natural Products: A Minefield of Biomaterials
Oladeji O. Ige,Lasisi E. Umoru,Sunday Aribo
ISRN Materials Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/983062
Natural Products: A Minefield of Biomaterials
Oladeji O. Ige,Lasisi E. Umoru,Sunday Aribo
ISRN Materials Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/983062
Abstract: The development of natural biomaterials is not regarded as a new area of science, but has existed for centuries. The use of natural products as a biomaterial is currently undergoing a renaissance in the biomedical field. The major limitations of natural biomaterials are due to the immunogenic response that can occur following implantation and the lot-to-lot variability in molecular structure associated with animal sourcing. The chemical stability and biocompatibility of natural products in the body greatly accounts for their utilization in recent times. The paper succinctly defines biomaterials in terms of natural products and also that natural products as materials in biomedical fields are considerably versatile and promising. The various types of natural products and forms of biomaterials are highlighted. Three main areas of applications of natural products as materials in medicine are described, namely, wound management products, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. This paper presents a brief history of natural products as biomaterials, various types of natural biomaterials, properties, demand and economic importance, and the area of application of natural biomaterials in recent times. 1. Introduction A biomaterial is regarded as any nondrug material that can be used to treat, enhance or replace any tissue, organ, or function in an organism [1]. While the definition of biomaterial was reframed as a nondrug substance suitable for inclusion in systems which augment or replace the function of bodily tissues or organs [2]. This definition explicitly described biomaterial in relation to drugs and as such, there is a need to clarify the impression that natural products are synonymous with drugs. The definition implies that natural products can be applied as biomaterials by eliminating the ambiguity always associated with natural products as drugs. It must be emphasized that this definition is not regarded as one of the most popular and is not often cited as this one which defines biomaterial as a nonviable material that intends to interact with physiological environment [3]. However, in this study, the following definition will be adopted: biomaterial can be defined as any substance (other than a drug) or combination of substances synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used any time, as a whole or as a part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body [4]. It must be noted that in this study the substances are natural in origin. 1.1. Economy The field of biomaterials working under biological
Aqueous Extract of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Modulates Cadmium-induced Liver Damage in Female Wistar Rats
Akeem O. Lawal,Ebenezer O. Farombi,Adetola F. Lawal
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant known to be highly toxic to large number of tissues in the body. In this study, the protective effects of aqueous extract of potato (Solanum tuberosum) against the hepatotoxic effect of Cadmium (Cd) were investigated in a set of female Wistar rats. The rats were given oral administrations of potato extract for 3 weeks at a dose of 250 mg kg-1 body weight prior to one week intraperitoneal exposure to 4 mg kg-1 Cadmium (Cd) as Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2). Liver damage were monitored using markers of hepatocellular injury such as serum (GOT, Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase; GPT, Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase; ? GT, Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase and ALP, Alkaline Phosphatase). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), GST activity, lipid peroxidation and the expressions of HO-1 and NQO1 were also determined in order to evaluate the antioxidant status of the liver after Cd exposure. The results show that the presence of aqueous extract of Solanum tuberosum significantly reduced the activities of all the serum enzymes in the presence of Cd. The level of GSH and the activity of GST were also significantly increased in the presence of the extract plus Cd when compared with rats exposed to Cd alone. The extract also attenuates lipid peroxidation induced by Cd indicating decrease oxidative damage. Western blot results show addictive effect of the extract and Cd on the expressions of HO-1 and NQO1. Taken together, the presence work shows that aqueous extract of Solanum tuberosum contains active agents that are potent in preventing Cd-induced liver damage in exposed rats.
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