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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7597 matches for " Ajmal Khan "
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Muhammad Ajmal Khan
The Professional Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Objectives: To pick up high risk determinants and factors influencing the outcome of the management in tetanus. Study Design: Aprospective analytical case series study. Setting: Tetanus ward, DHQ Hospital, Punjab Medical College Faisalabad. Subjects & Method:All cases during one year (Jan 2000 to 31 Dec 2000) presenting through emergency ward and referred cases were admitted and treatedin tetanus ward. The cases included in study were above 5 years of age. Results: Sixty cases (41 male and 19 females) were studied duringone year. Thirty cases were described as high risk. The classical symptoms; trismus, dysphagia and muscular spasm were present in allcases. Twelve risk factors were high lighted in one year. Household injuries leading to septic wounds in males and illegal septic abortionswere concluded as the highest risk factors. Injuries inflicted after road traffic accidents in males presented with shortest incubation periodand were declared as higher risk factors, with 67% mortality. Eleven ladies with septic abortion were admitted and six out of them expired(mortality rate 55%). Eleven patients presenting with no known injuries, five of them expired. The overall case fatality rate during one yearwas 40%. Conclusion: We picked up twelve high risk factors during one year study and found that house hold injuries caused maximummortality (75%) in females and road traffic accident was fatal in males (67%) mortality. It was found that all the cases were non immunized.The basis of prevention is immunization. Health education is required in our society to follow the immunization programme. The cost-effectiveapproach is required in our country to lessen the financial burden and reduce the hospital stay.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Objectives: The effective control of seizure needs continuous use of muscle relaxant. Role of magnesium sulphate infusion inthis context is new in the management of tetanus seizures and needed to be studied . Study Design: Prospective ObservationalSetting: DHQ. Hospital Faisalabad. Tetanus Ward. Patients and Methods: All patients during nine months (May 2002 to Jan2003) were treated according to our protocol using adequate doses of magnesium sulphate (titrating it with deep tendon reflexes).Results: Total 32 cases were collected with median age 33. Male to female ratio was 2:1. Average incubation period was 15days. Twenty one patients recovered from the illness. Mortality was more in females(18.75 %) as compared to males (15.62 %).The highest risk factor in female resistant to therapy was tetanus due to septic abortions. Eleven patients were found refractoryto the treatment and required ventilatory support and I.C.U. coverage, ultimately expired. Conclusion: Magnesium sulphateinfusion was found helpful in the reduction of spasm in tetanus patients. It minimized the nursing monitoring and proved to be costeffective therapy.
Planning for the Solid Waste Management of Central Park in New Capital Development of Afghanistan  [PDF]
Sifatullah Mukhtar, Wafaurehman Wafa, Haroon Halimzai, Ajmal Khan Shams
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.76073

Kabul New City is a new capital development and a modern city development of Afghanistan covering total area of 740 km2. In 2009 Afghan cabinet approved developing New Capital to fulfill the requirement of growing population. For sustainable development, it has been planned to have a green belt and central park about 1298 hectares within the city. It is having positive impact on human health along with the economic, social and environmental benefits. Hence, for sustaining the urban parks, their proper maintenance is a foremost problem. The solid waste management is duly considered in planning stage of development, otherwise, it would encounter major challenges during operation and maintenance of Park. The projected waste generation in KNC park area is required to be assessed, therefore, surveys of Bagh-e-Babur in existing Kabul are carried out for the visitors’ projection and solid waste generation. The highest visitors and waste were estimated in declining order of summer, spring, fall, and winter. Kabul New City Central Park results speculate that the total visitors’ projection is going to be 6,745,313 per year generating about 337 metric tons wastes/year (0.05 kg/visitor/day). 10 Vehicles of capacity 8 m3 are required to collect waste from central park towards the Transfer Station while 4 vehicles of 23 m3 are required for collection of waste from TS to Landfill. Moreover, 700 containers of 240 liters are required in the park. Furthermore, different sites were indicated in map for composting area where after the development it would be considered.

Anger Expression Style among Nurses Working in General Hospitals of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan  [PDF]
Suriya Khatoon, Syed Yousaf Shah, Ajmal Khan, Syed Arif Ali
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.94034
Abstract: Background: Nowadays, the medical environment has become more competitive in terms of fulfilling various desires of client and to deliver improved service. Repetitive and continued stress may lead anger. Anger is defined as a natural emotion that triggers self-protection mechanism in oneself in a stressful condition. Extreme stress or if duration and intensity of anger are uncontrollable then it could have a negative impact on physical health which can further cause difficulties such as inadequate life, interpersonal issues and depression. Objectives: To find out anger expression style among nurses who work in the hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, and to assess the association between interpersonal problems and levels of anger expression. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Dow University Hospital and Civil Hospital Karachi from July to August 2017. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on two parts: the first part was related to demographic form and it was comprised of 10 questions. The second part has two forms, which includes the Stat Trait anger inventory (STAIX) and Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (KIIP-SC). Results: Data were gathered from 196 participants working in shifts. More than half of the study participants were young (26 - 35-year-old). To the extent that interpersonal problems were regarded, nurses were negatively associated with state anger and trait anger where positive associations were found with anger control, anger in and anger out. This research exhibited consistent moderate correlation for cold vindictive among anger control, anger in and anger out. This study exhibited that the groups that had the most difficulty with interpersonal problems are the anger-in and out groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that anger expression types trait-anger, stat-anger, anger in, anger control and anger out were not at higher side and showed weaker characteristics of respective subgroups. Similarly, interpersonal problems were also at the lower side and exhibiting lighter characteristics of respective subgroups.
The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Attitudes; Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support  [PDF]
Ayesha Ajmal, Mohsin Bashir, Muhammad Abrar, Muhammad Mahroof Khan, Shahnawaz Saqib
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.84047
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on employee attitudes, job satisfaction and organizational commitment as well as the mediating role of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from banking sector of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The main objective was to focus the employee’s perception about the organizational support and employees’ satisfaction and organizational commitment. The mediation effect of perception of organizational support was analyzed between the relationship of intrinsic & extrinsic rewards and employee attitudes like organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The study revealed that employees felt positively about intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Limitations and future directions had also been discussed.
Exploitation of Concatenated Olive Plastome DNA Markers for Reliable Varietal Identification for On-Farm Genetic Resource Conservation  [PDF]
Muhammad Noman, Wajya Ajmal, Muhammad Ramzan Khan, Armghan Shahzad, Ghulam Muhammad Ali
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.619299
Abstract: Rapid and reliable identification of olive plants using DNA markers has been attempted in the past but the selection of polymorphic regions for discrimination at varietal level remained obscure. Recent sequencing of plastid genome of the olive flaunts high resolution Cp markers for olive DNA fingerprinting. Using this information, we designed a combination of chloroplast markers to amplify genes recruited in photosynthesis, ribosomal and NADH energy metabolism for varietal identification of olive plants. Concatenated DNA sequences of more than 100 unknown and 10 reference plants samples were analyzed using various bioinformatics and phylogenetic tools. Conserved blocks of nucleotide sequences were detected in multiple alignments. Phylogenetic reconstruction differentiated the unknown plants into various clusters with known varieties. Further narrowing down of the samples through UPGMA tree clearly separated the plants into Arbosana, Frantoio and Koroneiki as the major varieties. Multiple alignments of these clusters revealed important variety specific SNPs including G and T nucleotides at specific positions. Sequence identifying at intra cultivar level was more than 98.79% while it dropped to 97%, and even to 96% at inter varietal level. Furthermore, a neighbor net network analysis separated these three clusters, thus validating the results of UPGMA tree. Over all, out of 100 plants samples, 49 plants were identified that fall into 10 varieties including Arbosana, Carolea, Chetoui, Coratina, Domat, Frantoio, Gemlik, Koroneiki,Leccino and Moraiolo. The maximum number of known plants belongs to Frantoio and Gemlik (8 each). The least number of samples was identified from Carolea, Domat and Moraiolo with 2 samples each. However, 51 plants could not be identified, as plants were not clustered with any of reference control. Our results have implications in on-farm conservation of olive germplasm and provision of genuine material for multiplication of authentic varieties. This strategy can be extended to varietal identification of other plant species.
Assessment of Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision (CLES) among Nursing Students, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan  [PDF]
Suriya Khatoon, Syed Yousaf Sha, Ajmal Khan, Zulfiqar Ali, Syed Arif Ali
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.94037
Abstract: Background: In nursing education for better teaching and essential professional skills, the clinical practice plays a substantial role. Practice at clinical settings permits students to convert theoretic knowledge into the knowledge of the skills mandatory for the care of the patient. Clinical learning environment (CLE) is an important part in education of nursing and has a sizable influence on the students’ learning. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine perception and satisfaction of nursing students with their CLEs in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at three nursing institutes of Hyderabad from December 2018 to January 2019 among 342 nursing students. Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) assessment tool was used as the instrument to identify the students’ perception about the learning environment in clinical setting. Results: The mean age of the participants was 25.6 ± 4.93 with majority of them male (70.7%). Three domains, pedagogical atmosphere, supervisory relationship and nurse teacher role in clinical practice showed good reliability of more than 70%. Highest domains vise mean score was obtained for nursing premises on the ward (3.315) whereas lowest for nurse teacher role in clinical practice (NT) (3.062). Analysis of variance revealed that three domains supervisory relationship, leadership style of the ward manager and premises of nursing showed significant mean score difference among supervisor title. Conclusion: It was found that students valued positive supervision, ward manager leadership style premises of nursing on the ward as positive CLE. Learning environment varies between gender, clinical settings and supervision. Medicine ward appeared to deliver the finest learning situations for the nursing program.
Biogeochemical processes in the continental slope of Bay of Bengal: I. Bacterial solubilization of inorganic phosphate
Das,Surajit; Lyla,P.S; Ajmal Khan,S;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2007,
Abstract: microorganisms play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycles of various marine environments, but studies on occurrence and distribution of such bacteria in the marine environment from india are meager. we studied the phosphate solubilizing property of bacteria from the deep sea sediment of bay of bengal, india, to understand their role in phosphorous cycle (and thereby the benthic productivity of the deep sea environment). sediment samples were obtained from 33 stations between 10°36? n - 20°01? n and 79°59? e - 87°30? e along 11 transects at 3 different depths i.e. ca. 200 m, 500 m, 1000 m in each transect. total heterotrophic bacterial (thb) counts ranged from 0.42 to 37.38x104 cfu g-1 dry sediment weight. of the isolates tested, 7.57% showed the phosphate solubilizing property. the phosphate solubilizing bacterial genera were pseudomonas, bacillus, vibrio, alcaligenes, micrococcus, corynebacterium and flavobacterium. these strains are good solubilizers of phosphates which ultimately may play a major role in the biogeochemical cycle and the benthic productivity of the exclusive economic zone (eez) of bay of bengal, because this enzyme is important for the slow, but steady regeneration of phosphate and organic carbon in the deep sea. rev. biol. trop. 55 (1): 1-9. epub 2007 march. 31.
Combining Ability of Gossypium hirsutum L. Parents for Seed Oil Content
F. M. Azhar,S. U. K. Ajmal,A. I. Khan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: The mean squares obtained from the analysis of seed-oil content of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes showed that effects of general combining ability and specific combining ability, and of reciprocals were significant. However the larger proportion of variance was resulted from (gca) effects, indicating that additive genes were predominant in the inheritance of the character. The results suggest that there is a potential for improving oil content in hirsutum species, and rapid progress may be made by following pedigree selection method. The comparison of the parents indicated that `NIAB 78`, `B 557` and `Acala 1517` were the best general combiners for oil content. The performance of the parents in their specific combinations suggest that it is not necessary always that good general combiners give good hybrids, sometime parents with low or poor GCA may have the potential to give promising hybrids. The combinations `NIAB 78` x `B 557`, `NIAB 78` x `Acala 1517 A`, and `B 557` x `Acala 1517 A` had higher values than other crosses for oil content.
Improved Bit Plane Splicing LSB Technique for Secret Data Hiding in Images Using Linear Congruent Method
Ibrahim M. Hussain,M. Kamran Khan,Mohammad Naseem,Aisha Ajmal
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose two algorithms based on the popular Bit Plane Splicing Least Significant Bit (LSB) Technique for secret data hiding inside images. One major disadvantage of Bit Plane Splicing LSB technique is its low hiding capacity which results in severe degradation of the cover image upon hiding large amount of data. The proposed algorithms overcome this issue by imposing hiding rules based on the intensity level of pixels. In addition the method for data hiding is done in a non sequential manner using linear congruent random number generators. Experiment results show that the proposed techniques called Optimum Intensity Based Distributed Hiding (OIBDH) technique and Linear Congruent Optimum Intensity Based Distributed Hiding with Key (LC-OIBDH-k) outperforms Bit Plane Splicing LSB technique as they have better hiding capacity with less degradation in the cover image. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms are tested using absolute entropy curves and results show that our proposed techniques have lower absolute entropy difference compared to Bit Plane Splicing LSB technique in all the tested images and for different secret data sizes.
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