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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 323 matches for " Aizan Hirai "
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National survey of the association of depressive symptoms with the number of off duty and on-call, and sleep hours among physicians working in Japanese hospitals: a cross sectional study
Koji Wada, Toru Yoshikawa, Takahisa Goto, Aizan Hirai, Eisuke Matsushima, Yoshifumi Nakashima, Rie Akaho, Michiko Kido, Takashi Hosaka
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-127
Abstract: A cross-sectional study as a national survey was conducted by mail. The study population was 10,000 randomly selected physicians working in hospitals who were also members of the Japan Medical Association (response rate 40.5%). Self-reported anonymous questionnaire was sent to assess the number of days off-duty, overnight work, and on-calls, and the average number of sleep hours on days not working overnight in the previous one month. Depressive state was determined by the Japanese version of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations between depressive symptoms and the studied variables.Among the respondents, 8.3% of men and 10.5% of women were determined to be depressed. For both men and women, depressive state was associated with having no off-duty days and averaging less than 5 hours of sleep on days not doing overnight work. Depressive state was positively associated with being on-call more than 5 days per month for men, and more than 8 days per month for women, and was negatively associated with being off-duty more than 8 days per month for men.Some physicians need some support to maintain their mental health. Physicians who do not take enough days-off, who reduced sleep hours, and who have certain number of days on-calls may develop depressive symptoms.Physicians' mental health is essential not only for physicians themselves but also for patients. Many mental health issues have been reported for physicians such as fatigue, depression, and burnout [1-3], which may be due to too much stress, less organizational support in hospitals, and certain traits of physicians, including being perfectionists and workaholics [4,5].Depression among physicians has been often reported among medical residents [6,7], and may develop due to long working hours [8,9]. Thus, some countermeasures, such as limiting the number of hours of work among medical residents have been implemented in some countries [10]. H
The Menu-Induced Core of an Economy with an Excludable Public Good  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Hirai
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.44039
Abstract:

This paper introduces a core concept in an economy with an excludable public good. In the economy, we assume that each coalition is allowed to achieve an allocation via a menu, a kind of a nonlinear price. Our core concept is called the menu-induced core that is defined as the set of allocations achievable by menus that are robust against all coalitional improvements achieved via menus. We show that the menu-induced core is nonempty. We also investigate certain properties of the menu-induced core that show the difference between the menu-induced core and the core defined in a standard way.

Solvent-Induced Phase-Inversion and Electrical Actuation of Dielectric Copolymer Films  [PDF]
Yeonju Jang, Toshihiro Hirai
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.23023
Abstract: Block copolymers posses inherently the ability of form a variety of phase-separated microdomain structures. The lengths of block segments and the selectivity of the solvent are primary factors affecting the resultant morphology. This paper investigated the effect of casting solvents on the morphologies and electrical actuation of poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-PnBA-PMMA) triblock copolymer films comprising PMMA hard segment and PnBA soft segment. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy observation revealed that PMMA and PnBA segments were assembled into various micro- and nano-sized phase structures where either of them formed continuous phase. This implies that continous phase could be inversed by used casting solvents. Solvent-dependent phase morphologies had a significant effect on the electrical actuation results. Increase of the PnBA contents and the continuous phases of PnBA soft segments improved both of electrical actuation and dielectric constant, indicating that solvent-induced phase separation modulates the electrical actuation of dielectric films. The significance of the role of solvent selectivity and the major continuous phase of the polymer in defining the morphology and electrical actuation of the self-assembled block copolymer structure are discussed.
Distinct Transforming Activity of ABL Family Tyrosine Kinase Oncogenes Is Induced by Their C-Terminal Domain*  [PDF]
Keiko Okuda, Hideyo Hirai
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2013.33A005
Abstract: The TEL/ARG oncogene is similar in structure to the TEL/ABL fusion found in human leukemia, however, we have demonstrated previously that the expression of TEL/ARG in Ba/F3 cells does not sustain strong activity of proliferation, whereas, that of TEL/ABL appeared to induce immediate cell proliferation. To study the molecular basis of the difference in the transforming activity of TEL/ARG and TEL/ABL, TEL/ARG mutants that swapped the kinase domain or C-terminus of ARG with the corresponding domain in ABL were generated, and each mutant was expressed in Ba/F3 cells. A TEL/ARG mutant containing the ABL kinase domain was similar to TEL/ARG in this study, but replacing the ARG C-terminal domain with that of ABL resulted in accelerated proliferation that was similar to that of TEL/ABL. When expressed in primary mouse bone marrow cells by retroviral transduction, spontaneous colony formation in methylcellulose culture was observed, in a fashion dependent on the C-terminal portion of ABL. These results indicate that distinct bio-phenotypes associated with these oncogenes are likely to be regulated by their C-termini, and the C-terminus of ARG contains a functional subdomain that impairs the growth signal induced by ABL family tyrosine kinase.
Mutation Analysis of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses Collected in Japan during the Peak Phase of the Pandemic
Jean-étienne Morlighem,Shintaro Aoki,Mami Kishima,Mitsue Hanami,Chihiro Ogawa,Amadu Jalloh,Yukari Takahashi,Yuki Kawai,Satomi Saga,Eiji Hayashi,Toshiaki Ban,Shinyu Izumi,Akira Wada,Masayuki Mano,Megumu Fukunaga,Yoshiyuki Kijima,Masashi Shiomi,Kaoru Inoue,Takeshi Hata,Yukihiro Koretsune,Koichiro Kudo,Yuji Himeno,Aizan Hirai,Kazuo Takahashi,Yuko Sakai-Tagawa,Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto,Yoshihiro Kawaoka,Yoshihide Hayashizaki,Toshihisa Ishikawa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018956
Abstract: Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection quickly circulated worldwide in 2009. In Japan, the first case was reported in May 2009, one month after its outbreak in Mexico. Thereafter, A(H1N1) infection spread widely throughout the country. It is of great importance to profile and understand the situation regarding viral mutations and their circulation in Japan to accumulate a knowledge base and to prepare clinical response platforms before a second pandemic (pdm) wave emerges.
Chromosomal differentiation of schistosomes: what is the message?
Hirohisa Hirai
Frontiers in Genetics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00301
Abstract: As the only group of flukes with dioecism, schistosomes are unique organisms; they not only have intriguing biological and evolutionary aspects but also are responsible for major public health problems in the developing world. Schistosomiasis caused by this fluke affects approximately 210 million people in 76 countries. In order to facilitate the discovery of eradication methods for this disease, fundamental biological outcomes must be made available. Whole genome sequence data represent one such resource applicable to discovering eradication methods and measures. Herein, I describe three remarkable chromosomal changes and briefly discuss the differentiation of the Asian and African groups of this parasite taxon. Chromosomal data and evolutionary aspects will enable us to exploit genomic information for advancing schistosome studies.
Entropy Oriented Trading: A Trading Strategy Based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Yoichi Hirai
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: The author proposes a finance trading strategy named Entropy Oriented Trading and apply thermodynamics on the strategy. The state variables are chosen so that the strategy satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. Using the law, the author proves that the rate of investment (ROI) of the strategy is equal to or more than the rate of price change.
Remarkable suppression of Josephson current on d-wave superconductor junction
Takashi Hirai
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Josephson current in superconductor/insulator/superconductor junction is studied theoretically. It is well known that when the zero-energy resonance state exists both side of superconducting interface, the behaver of the temperature dependence of the critical Josephson current is striking enhancement at low temperature. On the other hand it is reported that if $d+is$-wave exists at the interface, Josephson current is suppressed at low temperature. In this paper, we discuss the existence of the imaginary part of the pair potential at the interface and remarkable suppresses of dc Josephson current on d-wave superconductor 110-junction.
Initial condition of scalar perturbation in inflation
Shiro Hirai
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: A formula for the power spectrum of curvature perturbations having any initial conditions in inflation is obtained. Based on the physical conditions before inflation, the possibility exists that the initial state of scalar perturbations is not only the Bunch-Davies state, but also a more general state (a squeezed state). For example, the derived formula for the power spectrum is calculated using simple toy cosmological models. When there exists a radiation-dominated period before inflation, the behavior of the scalar perturbation is revealed not to vary greatly; however, from large scales to small scales the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations oscillates around the normal value. In addition, when inflation has a large break and the breaking time is a radiation- dominated period, a large enhancement is revealed to occur which depends on the length of the breaking time.
Parametrization of polarized parton distribution functions
M. Hirai
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Polarized parton distribution functions are determined by using asymmetry A_1 data from longitudinally polarized deep inelastic scattering experiments. From our \chi^2 analysis, polarized u-valence, d-valence, antiquark, and gluon distributions are obtained. We propose one set of leading-order distributions and two sets of next-to-leading-order ones as the longitudinally-polarized parton distribution functions.
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