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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12686 matches for " Aijun Hao "
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Toll-like receptor 4 mediates microglial activation and production of inflammatory mediators in neonatal rat brain following hypoxia: role of TLR4 in hypoxic microglia
Yao Linli,Kan Enci Mary,Lu Jia,Hao Aijun
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-10-23
Abstract: Background Hypoxia induces microglial activation which causes damage to the developing brain. Microglia derived inflammatory mediators may contribute to this process. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to induce microglial activation and cytokines production in brain injuries; however, its role in hypoxic injury remains uncertain. We investigate here TLR4 expression and its roles in neuroinflammation in neonatal rats following hypoxic injury. Methods One day old Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia for 2 h. Primary cultured microglia and BV-2 cells were subjected to hypoxia for different durations. TLR4 expression in microglia was determined by RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection and antibody neutralization were employed to downregulate TLR4 in BV-2 and primary culture. mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was assessed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and NF-κB levels were determined by flow cytometry, colorimetric and ELISA assays respectively. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) mRNA and protein expression was quantified and where necessary, the protein expression was depleted by antibody neutralization. In vivo inhibition of TLR4 with CLI-095 injection was carried out followed by investigation of inflammatory mediators expression via double immunofluorescence staining. Results TLR4 immunofluorescence and protein expression in the corpus callosum and cerebellum in neonatal microglia were markedly enhanced post-hypoxia. In vitro, TLR4 protein expression was significantly increased in both primary microglia and BV-2 cells post-hypoxia. TLR4 neutralization in primary cultured microglia attenuated the hypoxia-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS. siRNA knockdown of TLR4 reduced hypoxia-induced upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, ROS and NO in BV-2 cells. TLR4 downregulation-mediated inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in primary microglia and BV-2 cells was accompanied by the suppression of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, HIF-1α antibody neutralization attenuated the increase of TLR4 expression in hypoxic BV-2 cells. TLR4 inhibition in vivo attenuated the immunoexpression of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS on microglia post-hypoxia. Conclusion Activated microglia TLR4 expression mediated neuroinflammation via a NF-κB signaling pathway in response to hypoxia. Hence, microglia TLR4 presents as a potential therapeutic target for neonatal hypoxia brain injurie
The Operator of Genetic Algorithms to Improve its Properties
Aijun Li
Modern Applied Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v4n3p60
Abstract: Based on the traditional genetic algorithm, proposed an improved adaptive genetic algorithm, the experimental results show that the improved adaptive genetic algorithm results than standard genetic algorithm much better and effective to improve the convergence of genetic algorithm optimization of speed and efficiency.
Changes of dendritic cells and fractalkine in type 2 diabetic patients with unstable angina pectoris: a preliminary report
Kang Yao, Hao Lu, Rongchong Huang, Shuning Zhang, Xiaowu Hong, Hongyu Shi, Aijun Sun, Juying Qian, Yunzeng Zou, Junbo Ge
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-10-50
Abstract: The study population consisted of 39 diabetic patients (DM:18 without CAD; DM + UAP: 21 with UAP), 18 non-diabetic UAP patients (UAP), and 15 healthy control (Normal). Peripheral blood DCs and its subsets were measured by three color flow cytometry. Serum levels of fractalkine, IL-12, and IFN-α were also measured. The functional status of the monocyte-derived DCs was analyzed by flow cytometry and allogeneic mixed T lymphocytes reaction.The percent and absolute numbers of DCs and mDC within the total leukocyte population was similar for Normal and DM, while significantly lower in DM + UAP. pDC numbers were not significantly altered. Serum fractalkine in DM + UAP was highest among the four groups (p = 0.04 vs. UAP, p = 0.0003 vs. DM, p < 0.0001 vs. Normal). Circulating mDC inversely correlated with serum fractalkine (r = -0.268, p = 0.01) level. Compared with DM and UAP, the costimulatory molecules CD86 and proliferation of T cells stimulated by DCs were significantly increased in DM + UAP group.Our study suggested that increases in the fractalkine level and the number and functional changes of blood DCs might contribute to diabetic coronary atherosclerosis and plaque destabilization.Atherosclerosis and its clinic consequence, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), are the main cause of death in diabetic patients[1]. Coronary atherosclerotic plaques in diabetics tended to develop earlier and be more extensive and unstable compared with none diabetes[2,3]. Inflammation and immune reactions play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis and also diabetes associated vascular complications[4-6]. Immune responses induced by apoproteins and active moieties localized in the lipid fraction of the atheroma have been suggested to be involved in the inflammation response[7]. These antigens would attract antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and subsequent T cells activation in atherosclerotic plaque. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent APCs with the unique ability to in
Notch-1 Signaling Regulates Microglia Activation via NF-κB Pathway after Hypoxic Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro
Linli Yao, Enci Mary Kan, Charanjit Kaur, S. Thameem Dheen, Aijun Hao, Jia Lu, Eng-Ang Ling
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078439
Abstract: Neuroinflammation mediated by the activated microglia is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic brain injury; however, the underlying mechanism of microglia activation remains unclear. Here, we show that the canonical Notch signaling orchestrates microglia activation after hypoxic exposure which is closely associated with multiple pathological situations of the brain. Notch-1 and Delta-1 expression in primary microglia and BV-2 microglial cells was significantly elevated after hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced activation of Notch signaling was further confirmed by the concomitant increase in the expression and translocation of intracellular Notch receptor domain (NICD), together with RBP-Jκ and target gene Hes-1 expression. Chemical inhibition of Notch signaling with N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alany1- S-phenyglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a γ-secretase inhibitor, effectively reduced hypoxia-induced upregulated expression of most inflammatory mediators. Notch inhibition also reduced NF-κB/p65 expression and translocation. Remarkably, Notch inhibition suppressed expression of TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6 pathways. In vivo, Notch signaling expression and activation in microglia were observed in the cerebrum of postnatal rats after hypoxic injury. Most interestingly, hypoxia-induced upregulation of NF-κB immunoexpression in microglia was prevented when the rats were given DAPT pretreatment underscoring the interrelationship between Notch signaling and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, we conclude that Notch signaling is involved in regulating microglia activation after hypoxia partly through the cross talk between TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6/NF-κB pathways. Therefore, Notch signaling may serve as a prospective target for inhibition of microglia activation known to be implicated in brain damage in the developing brain.
Saturated Fatty Acids Modulate Cell Response to DNA Damage: Implication for Their Role in Tumorigenesis
Li Zeng, Guang-Zhi Wu, Kim Jee Goh, Yew Mun Lee, Chuo Chung Ng, Ang Ben You, Jianhe Wang, Deyong Jia, Aijun Hao, Qiang Yu, Baojie Li
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002329
Abstract: DNA damage triggers a network of signaling events that leads to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. This DNA damage response acts as a mechanism to prevent cancer development. It has been reported that fatty acids (FAs) synthesis is increased in many human tumors while inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) could suppress tumor growth. Here we report that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) play a negative role in DNA damage response. Palmitic acid, as well as stearic acid and myristic acid, compromised the induction of p21 and Bax expression in response to double stranded breaks and ssDNA, while inhibition or knockdown of FASN enhanced these cellular events. SFAs appeared to regulate p21 and Bax expression via Atr-p53 dependent and independent pathways. These effects were only observed in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts and osteoblasts, but not in immortalized murine NIH3T3, or transformed HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines. Accordingly, SFAs showed some positive effects on proliferation of MEFs in response to DNA damage. These results suggest that SFAs, by negatively regulating the DNA damage response pathway, might promote cell transformation, and that increased synthesis of SFAs in precancer/cancer cells might contribute to tumor progression and drug resistance.
Transgenic Bt Rice Does Not Challenge Host Preference of the Target Pest of Rice Leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Xiao Sun, Wen Zhou, Hao Liu, Aijun Zhang, Chao-Ren Ai, Shuang-Shuang Zhou, Chang-Xiang Zhou, Man-Qun Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079032
Abstract: Background Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expresses a synthesized cry2A gene that shows high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile orientation cues and the physical characteristics of the leaf surface play key roles in host location or host-plant acceptance of phytophagous insects. These volatile compounds and physical traits may become altered in Bt rice and it is not known whether this influences the behavior of C. medinalis when searching for oviposition sites. Results The results of electronic nose analysis showed that the Radar map of Bt rice cultivars was analogous to the non- Bt rice cultivars at each growing stage. PCA analysis was able to partly discriminate between some of the Bt vs. non-Bt rice sensors, but could not to separate Bt cultivars from non-Bt cultivars. The total ion chromatogram between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at the seedling, booting and tillering stages were similar and 25 main compounds were identified by GC-MS. For most compounds, there was no significant difference in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at equivalent growth stages. The densities of the tubercle papicles and the trichomes on the upper and lower surfaces were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rice. The target pest, C. medinalis, was attracted to host rice plants, but it could not distinguish between the transgenic and the isogenic rice lines. Conclusions There were no significant differences between the Bt rice line, T2A-1 and the non-Bt rice for volatiles produced or in its physical characteristics and there were no negative impacts on C. medinalis oviposition behavior. These results add to the mounting evidence that Bt rice has no negative impact on the target insect oviposition behavior.
Mesoscale eddy effects on the wintertime vertical mixing in the formation region of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water
Pan Aijun,Liu Qinyu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2005, DOI: 10.1360/982004-757
Abstract: Mesoscale eddy effects on the wintertime vertical mixing in the formation region of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW) are studied using hydrographic data from Argo profiling floats deployed in the Kuroshio recirculation region in February and March of 2001. Anticyclonic (warm) eddy enhances the wintertime vertical mixing and results in the deep mixed layer and the deep thermocline. Consequently, a large volumetric water mass with low potential vorticity corresponding to the prototype of NPSTMW tends to be formed. By contrast, cyclonic (cold) eddy is unfavorable for the vertical mixing process and halts the deepening of the mixed layer and thus the formation of mode water. Further analysis shows that cyclonic eddies prevail in the late 1990s in the formation region of NPSTMW, which lead to significant suppression of the wintertime vertical mixing (96–98) and thus are unfavorable for the formation of NPSTMW; while the situation is completely reversed in the early 1990s (93–95).
Geometric version of mixed mean inequalities
Yuan Jun,Li Aijun
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.40.2009.129-137
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the mixed mean of star bodies and give geometric version of mixed mean inequalities.
Leukocyte infiltration as a surrogate marker for diagnosis of invasion
Aijun Liu, Lixin Wei
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Dr. YG Man's hypothesis that breast tumor invasion is triggered by the aberrant leukocyte infiltration induced by degeneration of myoepithelial cells holds a lot of truth in our clinical practice, and leukocyte infiltration may be regarded as a surrogate marker for diagnosis of invasion.
Existence of non-oscillatory solutions for second-order advanced half-linear differential equations
Aijun Cheng,Zhiting Xu
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2013,
Abstract: In this article, we establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of non-oscillatory solutions for the second-order advanced half-linear differential equation $$ ig(r(t)|x'(t)|^{alpha-1}x'(t)ig)'+p(t)|x(h(t)ig)|^{alpha-1}x(h(t))=0, quad tgeq t_0. $$ The obtained results generalize some well-known theorems in the literature
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