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This paper present the effect of the lower gate lip on the coefficient of contraction, velocity and discharge which have been made in a rectangular flume with four gates opening from (2 to 4.5) cm, five different discharges from (6.2 to 18.15) l/s and five different gate cases (vertical and inclined vertically) by angle (45)° with and opposite flow direction with horizontal and sharp lower lip. The values of coefficients of contraction (Cc) and discharge (Cd) increases when gate slope increases with flow direction and the lower lip is horizontal, these increases are (16)% and (18)% respecttively, while these values decreases when gate slope increases opposite flow direction and the lower lip is horizontal these decreases are (13)% and (11)% respectively. The values of coefficient of velocity (Cv) remain constant and don’t effect with changes of gate slope or gate lip.
A discrete insulin infusion based on long-time interval measurement is the classic technique for diabetes treatment. Nevertheless, in this research, a closed-loop control system was proposed for continuous drug infusion to overcome the drawbacks of these typical discrete methods and develop more practical diabetes therapy systems. A blood glucose-insulin system was implemented relying on continuous insulin injection model. Based on this model, two controllers were designed to deal with the control dilemma of the resulting highly nonlinear plant. The controllers designed in this paper are: proportional integral derivative (PID), and sliding table controllers. Simulation results have shown that the sliding table controller can outperform the PID controller even with severe circumstances of disturbance in glucose, such as exercise, delay or noise in glucose sensor and nutrition mixed meal absorption at meal times.
Diabetes therapy is normally based on discrete insulin infusion that uses long-time interval measurements. Nevertheless, in this paper, a continuous drug infusion closed-loop control system was proposed to avoid the traditional discrete approaches by automating diabetes therapy. Based on a continuous insulin injection model, two controllers were designed to deal with this plant. The controllers designed in this paper are: proportional integral derivative (PID), and fuzzy logic controllers (FLC). Simulation results have illustrated that the fuzzy logic controller outperformed the PID controller. These results were based on serious disturbances to glucose, such as exercise, delay or noise in glucose sensor and nutrition mixed meal absorption at meal time.