Epidemiology, Clinical Presentations and In-Hospital Mortality of Venous Thromboembolism at the Douala General Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cameroon, Sub-Saharan Africa
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD)
To？study the in-hospital prevalence of VTE, describe the socio-demographic characteristics of patients, determine the frequency of risk factors, describe the clinical presentations, and determine the short term outcome of VTE in hospitalized patients in a low-income tertiary hospital setting.？Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive retrospective study over a period of 6 years and 4 months (January 2008 to April 2014) in the Douala General Hospital—Cameroon. Patients were cases of confirmed venous thromboembolic disease (VTE).？Results: A total of 78 case files were retained for this study, giving an in-hospital prevalence of 4.4 per 1000 admissions. There were 42 (53.8%) males and 36 (46.1%) females. Their ages ranged from 18 to 89 years (median: 53 years, [IQR: 40？-？61]).？There were 37 (47.4%) cases of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), 31 (39.7%) cases of Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and 10 (12.8%) cases of PE associated with DVT (12.8%). The main risk factors were obesity (44.9%), hypertension (37.2%), immobility (20.5%), and long-haul travel (17.9%). The most frequent clinical presentations in PE were dyspnea (80.5%) and chest pain (65.9%). There were 8 (10%) in-hospital deaths. Conclusion: About twelve cases of VTE are seen yearly at the DGH, with an in-hospital mortality of ten percent. Obesity and hypertension were the main risk factors, with dyspnea and chest pain being the main clinical manifestations in PE, and lower limb swelling the main symptom in DVT.