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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 38771 matches for " Ahmad Z "
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Contribution of the Rhizobium Inoculation on Plant Growth and Productivity of Two Cultivars of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in Saline Soil
S. Agarwal,Z. Ahmad
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken on the interactive effect of Rhizobium seed culture treatment and saline irrigation on the plant growth and productivity (fodder/biological yield) in two cultivars (WARDAN and BB 2) of berseem. The experiment was conducted following completely randomized block design method considering three replicates and data were subjected to statistical analysis of variance using three factorial randomized design method. Two sets of plots were maintained in which one set contained non-inoculated while another set contained inoculated seeds with Rhizobium culture, which were irrigated with saline waters of different electrical conductivities (0, 3, 6, 7.2, 10, 12 and 14 dS m-1). The observations were recorded at two durations i.e., 90 and 120 DAS. The plant growth has been enhanced at lower levels of salinity (3 to 7.2 dS m-1) and invariably inhibited at 10 dS m-1 and beyond. Inoculation with Rhizobium culture had expressed synergistic effects on growth and productivity at both durations particularly at lower EC levels and also minimized the deleterious effect of salinity at 10 to 14 dS m-1 to some extent. The yield characteristics (biological and fodder yield) had been differentially affected in berseem. Cv. WARDAN had registered maximum yield at the final harvest in Rhizobium inoculated sets at 3, 6 and 7.2 dS m-1. Similar findings were recorded for total green and dry weight fodder yield/plot (kg m-2). Our findings proves that cv. WARDAN might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass.
Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater with Various Molecular Weight of PolyDADMAC Induced Flocculation with Polyacrylamide in the Hybrid System  [PDF]
M. A. A. Razali, Z. Ahmad, A. Ariffin
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2012.24060
Abstract: Flocculation studies between dual polymers on pulp and paper mill wastewater are reported in this paper. The effects of different molecular weights of polyDADMAC and different dosages of Polyacrylamide (PAM) were studied. The molecular weights of polyDADMAC used were 8.8×104, 10.5×104 and 15.7×104 g/mol. The flocculation performance was analyzed in jar tests with PolyDADMAC and Polyacrylamide dosages ranging from 0.4-2.0 mg/L﹣1 and 0.4-8.0 mg/L﹣1 respectively. A higher molecular weight and a 6.0 mg/L﹣1 dosagepolyDADMAC gave the highest level of flocculation based on turbidity and TSS removal. In addition, increasing the molecular weight of PolyDADMAC increased ζ potential values approaching zero. This indicated that polyDADMAC acts as a destabilizer. Based on TSS, the addition of PAM will improve the size of microflocs created by polyDADMAC. It demonstrates that PAM acts as a bridger between microflocs.
Selection of a Suitable Wavelet for Cognitive Memory Using Electroencephalograph Signal  [PDF]
S. Z. Mohd Tumari, R. Sudirman, A. H. Ahmad
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55B004
Abstract: The aim of this study is to recognize the best and suitable wavelet family for analyzing cognitive memory using Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal. The participant was given some visual stimuli during the study phase, which were a sequence of pictures that had to be remembered to acquire the EEG signal. The Neurofax EEG 9200 was used to record the acquisition of cognitive memory at channel Fz. The raw EEG signals were analyzed using Wavelet Transform. A lot of mother wavelets can be used for analyzing the signal, but do not lose any information on the wavelet, some predictions must be made beforehand. The criteria of the EEG signal were narrowed down to the Daubechies, Symlets and Coiflets, and it is the final selection depending on their Mean Square Error (MSE). The best solution would have the least difference between the original and constructed signal. Results indicated that the Daubechies wavelet at a level of decomposition of 4 (db4) was the most suitable wavelet for pre-processing the raw EEG signal of cognitive memory. To conclude, choosing the suitable wavelet family is more important than relying on the MSE value alone to successfully perform a wavelet transformation.
Colonoscopically Assisted Laparoscopic Polypectomy–An Alternative to Right Hemicolectomy for Large Right-Sided Benign Polyps  [PDF]
A. Z. Kaleem, C. Strachan, L. Whittaker, S. M. Ahmad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.48069
Abstract:

Introduction: Laparoscopic assisted colonoscopic polypectomies have been well described in the literature and are well established in surgical practice, for removal of large, inaccessible, or flat based polyps. Laparoscope allows the endoscopist a serosal viewpoint and thus clear indication of perforation, in addition to enhancing endoscopic positioning through colonic mobilisation, facilitating polypectomy. We describe a previously rarely published technique, in which the colonoscope directs the surgeon to polyps and laparoscopy enables wedge resection of benign polyps using Endo GIA staplers. Using this method, the colonoscope provides an intra-luminal view ensuring adequate excision with margins whilst the laparoscope provides intra-peritoneal access for the wedge resection. Methods: This is a case series of 12 patients with large tubulovillous adenomas, found and biopsied at colonoscopy. Under a general anaesthetic, an on table colonoscopy was performed to identify and reassess the polyp, whilst a laparoscopy was performed to excise the polyp via wedge resection, using the endoscopic view as guidance. Results: The polyp was identified and completely resected in our 12 patients. All patients were discharged on the first post-operative day. Of the polyps excised, a focus of adenocarcinoma was detected in one and an adjacent endocrine tumour was found in another patient in histology along with tubulovillous adenoma. Rest were all tubulovillous adenomas only. Conclusion: We propose that this technique should be regarded as an alternative to Right hemicolectomies and difficult endoscopic mucosal resections for large adenomas, and be regarded as a definitive and safe procedure in its own right.

An Investigation of Scaled-FLC Using PSO for Multi-area Power System Load Frequency Control  [PDF]
Aqeel S. Jaber, A.Z. Ahmad, Ahmed N Abdalla
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B088
Abstract:

Load Frequency Control (LFC) is one of power systems important requirements which maintain the zero steady-state errors in the frequency changing and restoring the natural frequency to its normal position. Many problems are subject to LFC such as suddenly large load or suddenly disconnecting generating unit by the protection device. In this paper, multi-area Frequency Control by using the combination of PSO and fuzzy logic control (FLC) technique. PSO optimization method is used to tuning the fuzzy controller input and output gains. Four of an interconnected electrical power system used as a testing the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to a conventional PI controller and scaled-fuzzy controller. The simulation result has been shown that the controller can generate the best dynamic response in multi-load conditions.

 

Narrow Band Imaging Can Be Used for Anastomotic Assessment  [PDF]
Ahmed Z. Kaleem, Nabish Naheed, Syed M. Ahmad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.72017
Abstract: Background: Anastomotic leak is the most dreaded complication and it accounts for one third of post-operative deaths in colorectal surgery. There is strong need of research in this field in order to reduce anastomotic leak rate. If there was a test available to signify probability of leak at the time of surgery, it would potentially avoid a leak at a later date. Aim: We propose that intra operative use of narrow band imaging colonoscopy in left sided colonic anastomosis can predict and detect anastomosis related problems, problems i.e. vascularity, anastomotic lumen patency and rigidness of anastomosis which in turn lead to correction at the time of surgery resulting in significant decrease in anastomotic leak rate associated with morbidity and mortality. Methodology: A pilot, single blind, prospective, randomised controlled trial. Aim is to divide patient in 2 groups, containing 15 patients in each group. One group will be assessed by intra-operative NBI colonoscopy and other with standard technique. Analysis: This will be performed using SPSS with the help of statistician. Significance: This area of research is particularly important because it improves survival by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with anastomotic leak. If a leak is avoided then it does not only mean early recovery but it also saves NHS in terms of ICU care, NHS bed, inpatient nursing care and home help, unfortunately all required if leak is to occur. As a result, this research will have better financial implication with significantly improve patient care.
Evidencing Personal & Professional Development, Perspective of a Surgical Trainee  [PDF]
A. Z. Kaleem, N. Naheed, S. M. Ahmad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.73021
Abstract: Introduction: The author strongly believes that there is a continuous need for personal and professional development in order to keep and improve an individual career path way. It is also imperative to provide evidence of these acquired skills and attributes. According to General medical council, it is a responsibility of every doctor to be competent and up to date. This should be achieved by regularly taking part in activities that maintain and further develop competence and performance. This in turn ensures safety and care to patients [1]. Methodology: The author has had excellent opportunities in his career to participate in diverse personal and professional development programmes. It was important to participate in these programmes to achieve career progression. He would like to share three recent activities from his curriculum vitae which resulted in his significant personal and professional development. The author also had his revalidation last year and found to be fit to practice for next 5 years till next revalidation. The author followed an agreed action plan with his supervisor to accomplish this work. Realistic goals and time frame was set with the help of supervisor. Subsequently, the author had a chance to critically analyse below mentioned three different activities, in order to explore all the achieved learning themes behind these events. The author was fortunate enough to be involved into three different personal and professional development programmes. Firstly, he managed a regional colorectal conference and attained an excellent management experience from that conference. He learnt a lot about better time management. He came to know about different management theories and models and is now able to use these theories for his future management responsibilities. Then he had a communication challenge and difficulty in theatre. He was able to resolve that issue with his strong communication skills. He developed his communication skills and assertiveness with the help of this first-hand experience and different communication models. Lastly, the author had a wonderful opportunity to demonstrate and develop his leadership and team working skills in an International Conference. He realized that leader needs to be a role model for his team and should be leaded by his example. He observed and demonstrated different roles of a leader according to needs of his team. He also learnt about different leadership theories and models. He also acquired a good understanding of a team development. Conclusion: It is extremely important for every health care
Colonoscopy a True Therapeutic Icon  [PDF]
Ahmed. Z. Kaleem, Nabish Naheed, Syed M. Ahmad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.87031
Abstract: Colonic polypectomy remained the first colonoscopic therapeutic intervention which was successfully accomplished with the help of an early snare. This therapeutic procedure was executed by Dehyle in Europe and Shinya in USA in 1971 [1]. Thus, these two colonoscopists acquired the pioneer’s position of therapeutic colonoscopy. Now the colonoscopy has achieved a special status in treating colorectal diseases because of its unique therapeutic aspect. The common uses of therapeutic colonoscopy are broadly classified in to the four major categories because of its unique therapeutic properties. These uses include resection and ablation, hemostasis, decompression with or without recanalization and foreign body extraction. Colonic perforation remained an absolute contraindication to therapeutic colonoscopy which is analogous to diagnostic colonoscopy. Good Communication plays a vital role in accomplishment of successful therapy with the help of colonoscopy. Consent process remained a complex process which should be well organized and tailored as per patient’s needs. There are lot of advancements in colonoscopy in recent years and many new procedures and treatment modalities have become available to treat colorectal diseases with the help of colonoscope. The recent advancement in colonoscopy has led to having many novel techniques. This therapeutic colonoscopy has made a significant change in current colorectal cancer management as polyps can be treated in the early stage, thus reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer. This is the basis of the United Kingdom existing bowel screening program, which is only feasible because of colonoscopy-induced interventions. The successful uses of these techniques obviate the need for a major surgical operation and colorectal disease can be treated with minimally invasive colonoscopic methods. These attributes make colonoscopy a true therapeutic icon.
Colonoscopy a Real Diagnostic Paragon  [PDF]
A. Z. Kaleem, N. Naheed, S. M. Ahmad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.86028
Abstract: Diagnostic colonoscopy acquires the status of gold standard investigation for evaluation of colonic problems. Formally, colonoscopy was first initiated in June 1969 in America. Colonoscopic history can be traced back to 1958. Matsunaga from Japan was the pioneer as he used a gastrocamera which was the start of colonoscopic era. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was later introduced in 1963. Existing colonic perforation and refusal of a fully compos mentis patient, remain absolute contraindications to diagnostic colonoscopy. Bowel Perforation, although less common, is a disastrous complication of colonoscopy. It is a basic right of any patient who has been offered a colonoscopic procedure to have appropriate, clear and concise information about colonoscopy. Consent literally means permission or an agreement which is granted by a patient to a health care individual to receive examination, test, treatment or intervention. Colonoscopic consent process should be valid and has voluntary, fully informed and capacity aspects as its integral components. There were a lot of oppositions against colonoscopy at that time. It was believed to be dangerous and unnecessary exercise by many surgeons. Time has proved that to be a wrong perception. It is now believed to be an extremely useful diagnostic modality. It is safe procedure in experienced hands and provides valuable clinical information. Colonoscopy is not a pleasant investigation as it is usually related with pain and discomfort by patients; fortunately, good analgesia and safe conscious sedation make this hostile but worthwhile procedure tolerable to patients.Today colonoscopy has kept its status of the gold standard investigation in diagnosing bowel cancer and has prime role in the assessment of majority of large bowel symptoms. Colonoscopy also retains the status of being an investigation with highest sensitivity and specificity, out of all available diagnostic modalities, for identifying adenomatous polyps and now it has acquired a unique status of being a diagnostic paragon.
Screening of Factors Affecting Biological Delignification Process of Oil Palm Trunk Using Local Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Ostreatus)
Z. Ahmad Khushairi,N. Zainol
International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Oil palm trunk, a lignocellulosic waste, contains high cellulose content. The removal of lignin is essential as lignin inhibits almost all reactions occur on cellulose. This study is about the usage of a local oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as an agent of delignification and the screening of various factors in order to achieve the highest amount of lignin removal. The software Design-Expert version 6.08 is used to determine the most relevant design for the screening process which leads to the method of two-level factorial design with seven parameters at 1/8 fraction. Sixteen runs were done for the purpose of studying the effect of temperature (20°C and 30°C), pH value (5 and 8), humidity (controlled by the presence of silica gel), light exposure, moisture (controlled by the volume of water added, which varies from 0.5 mL to 5.0 mL), the ratio of fungi to medium (1:2 and 1:10) and contact time (from 2 and 10 days) in which all the respective values were obtained from literature study. From the analysis, the main effects of the process are temperature, which contributes up to 32.20%, pH value, which contributes up to 10.08%, fungi to the medium ratio which contributes up to 8.82% and moisture content, which contributes up to 7.63%. This study also found that there are interactions between main effects, which are between temperature and pH value, and temperature and fungi to the medium ratio. These findings proved that each of the factors may affect one and another during the process.
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