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Conhecimento da anatomia da orelha de cobaias e ratos e sua aplica??o na pesquisa otológica básica
Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli;Rossato, Maria;Oliveira, José Antonio Apparecido de;Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo;
Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-72992009000100007
Abstract: the use of animal samples is important in otologic research and understanding the anatomy of their ears help make proper use of them in research projects. aim: to study guinea pig's and rat's ears under light microscopy(lm) and scanning electron microscopy(sem) and understand their anatomical advantages in basic otologic research. materials and methods: the temporal bones, tympanic bullas and cochleas from three albino guinea pigs and rats were photographed and analyzed under lm and sem. results: rats aren't as simple to handle as guinea pigs, and often present with otitis media. rats have a fragile junction of the tympanic bulla, two and half turns in the cochlea, and their tympanic membranes do not seal off the entire external auditory canal. guinea pigs have full bullas, their incus and malleus are fused and they have three and half cochlear turns. under sem, guinea pigs and rats have tectori membrane, raissner's membrane and the organ of corti. only guinea pigs have hensen's cells. conclusion: guinea pigs were considered easy to handle for microdissection purposes because of the size and robustness of their temporal bones, and for surgical experiments involving the stapes, the oval window and the tympanic membrane. under sem there are similarities guinea pigs and rats, and both can be used in inner ear studies.
Methylene blue administration in the compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock: hemodynamic study in pigs
Menardi, Antonio Carlos;Capellini, Verena Kise;Celotto, Andrea Carla;Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli;Viaro, Fernanda;Vicente, Walter Vilella A.;Rodrigues, Alfredo José;Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa;
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-86502011000600013
Abstract: purpose: to verify if the methylene blue (mb) administration prevents and/or reverses the compound 48/80 (c48/80)-induced anaphylactic shock in pigs. methods: female dalland pigs were anesthetized and had the hemodynamic parameters recorded during the necessary time to administer some drugs and observe their effect. the animals were randomly assigned to one of the five groups: 1) control; 2) mb: the animals received a bolus injection of mb (2 mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion of mb (2.66 mg/kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump); 3) c48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of c48/80 (4 mg/kg); 4) c48/80+mb: the animals received a bolus injection of c48/80 (4 mg/kg) and 10 minutes after the c48/80 administration the animals received a bolus injection of mb (2 mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion of mb (2.66 mg/kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump); 5) mb+c48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of mb (2 mg/kg) and 3 minutes later they received a bolus injection of c48/80 (4 mg/kg). results: the intravenous infusion of mb alone caused no changes in the mean arterial pressure (map) showing that the administered mb dose was safe in this experimental model. the c48/80 was effective in producing experimental anaphylactic shock since it was observed a decrease in both map and cardiac output (co) after its administration. the mb did not prevent or reverse the c48/80-induced anaphylactic shock in this model. in fact, the map of the animals with anaphylactic shock treated with mb decreased even more than the map of the animals from the c48/80 group. on the other hand, the c48/80-induced epidermal alterations disappeared after the mb infusion. conclusion: despite our data, the clinical manifestations improvement brings some optimism and does not allow excluding the mb as a possible therapeutic option in the anaphylactic shock.
Absence of arteriosclerosis in intramyocardial coronary arteries: a mystery to be solved?
Ramalli Jr, Edvaldo Luiz;Braga, Leonardo Henrique;Evora, Patricia Martinez;Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli;Celotto, Andrea Carla;Mota, André Lupp;Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa;
Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular , 2011, DOI: 10.5935/1678-9741.20110020
Abstract: several studies show that portions of intramyocardial coronary arteries are spared of arteriosclerosis, involving morphological, embryological, biochemical and pathophysiological aspects. endothelial function is significantly affected in the segment of transition, as estimated by the vasoactive response to ach. these findings suggest that myocardial bridge can provide protection against arteriosclerosis by counteracting the negative effects of endothelial dysfunction. the intramyocardial portion's protection phenomenon deserves further scientific research on all research fronts. improved morphological, biomechanical and especially physiological and embryological knowledge may be the key to a future window of opportunity for chronic arterial disease therapy and prevention. in addition, this review discusses possible therapeutic approaches for symptomatic coronary ischemia caused by myocardial bridges
Metabolic Acidosis Treatment as Part of a Strategy to Curb Inflammation
Tales Rubens de Nadai,Mariane Nunes de Nadai,Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli Albuquerque,Marco Tulio Menezes de Carvalho,Andrea Carla Celotto,Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora
International Journal of Inflammation , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/601424
Abstract: Abnormalities in systemic acid-base balance may induce significant changes in the immune response, and they may play a significant role in the development or maintenance of immune dysfunction. Different forms of acidosis (metabolic and respiratory) and even different types of metabolic acidosis (hyperchloremic and lactic) may produce different effects on immune function. If alkalization has, or not, some effect on inflammation control is still a matter of speculation. Studies concerning these subjects are limited justifying this paper. 1. Introduction Abnormalities in systemic acid-base balance may cause significant changes in the immune response. The clinical significance of these changes is not yet fully known, but its magnitude suggests that they may play a significant role in the development or maintenance of immune dysfunction. Thus, they represent attractive targets for curbing inflammation. Metabolic acidosis is one of the most common abnormalities in patients suffering from serious diseases. There have numerous etiologies and treatment of the underlying disease is the basis of therapy. However, there is a growing evidence suggesting that acidosis itself has profound effects on the host, particularly in immune function. Given the critical importance of immune function for the outcome of the illness, there is an overriding interest in elucidating the effects of this condition. In fact, recent evidence suggests that the different forms of acidosis (metabolic and respiratory) and even different types of metabolic acidosis (hyperchloremic and lactic) may produce different effects on immune function. The ways in which these effects are applied to the clinical conditions have not been determined. Therefore, since acidosis is an extremely common problem in intensive care units and that immune function is of vital importance, efforts to explain these relations are fully justified [1]. However, it is necessary to note that the publications linking acidosis with the inflammatory response are limited, and studies on the alkalosis are virtually nonexistent, justifying the current paper, at least as an open discussion (Figure 1). Figure 1: Metabolic acidosis and inflammation (Web of Science data). 2. Pathophysiology The literature has reported in vitro experiments where researchers reduced intracellular pH (pHo) using different types of acids. Notably, different patterns of expression of mediator of inflammation occurred at different acids, despite the normalization of samples to the same pHo [1]. Kellum et al. [2] demonstrated that different degrees of
Curbing Inflammation in the Ischemic Heart Disease
Paulo Roberto B. Evora,Julio Nather,Paulo Victor Tubino,Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque,Andrea Carla Celotto,Alfredo J. Rodrigues
International Journal of Inflammation , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/183061
Abstract: A modern concept considers acute coronary syndrome as an autoinflammatory disorder. From the onset to the healing stage, an endless inflammation has been presented with complex, multiple cross-talk mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction has been well documented since the 1940s and 1950s, including increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the C-reactive protein analysis, and the determination of serum complement. It is surprising to note, based on a wide literature overview including the following 30 years (decades of 1960, 1970, and 1980), that the inflammatory acute myocardium infarction lost its focus, virtually disappearing from the literature reports. The reversal of this historical process occurs in the 1990s with the explosion of studies involving cytokines. Considering the importance of inflammation in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease, the aim of this paper is to present a conceptual overview in order to explore the possibility of curbing this inflammatory process. 1. Introduction Inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been documented since the 1940s and 1950s, including increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), the C-reactive protein analysis (CRP), and the determination of serum complement ( ). Boltax and Fischel (1956) using serial assay of the ESR, , and CRP in sixty-one AMI episodes observed that such tests were positive in over 90% of patients by the third day from the onset of the disease [1]. In 1943, Lofstrom reported that patients with myocardial infarction also presented the “non-specific capsular swelling in pneumococci,” later associated with the presence of the “C-reactive protein” [2]. Since then, a number of studies have confirmed the occurrence of CRP in myocardial infarction and other noninfectious inflammatory conditions [3, 4]. Surprisingly, an extensive literature overview including publications from 1960s to the 1980s revealed that the role of the inflammation in the AMI lost relevance, virtually disappearing from the literature reports. The reversal of this historical process occurred in the 1990s with the upsurge of investigations involving cytokines (Figure 1). Figure 1: Web of Science timespan references (1940–2012). Therefore, considering the importance of inflammation in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease (IHD), the aim of this review is to present an overview of concepts in order to explore the possibilities for curbing the inflammatory process associated with myocardial
Modelling Visible Foliar Injury Effects on Canopy Photosynthesis and Potential Crop Yield Losses Resulting from Fluoride Exposure  [PDF]
David Doley, Laurence Rossato
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.39113
Abstract: Crop production models are highly developed to account for different nitrogen, light, temperature and water availability conditions and, in some species, disease or air pollutant effects. There is very limited knowledge on responses of many tropical crops, such as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), to air pollutants although predictions of these effects are essential for industrial planning in several countries. In the absence of limitations due to water supply, the effects of leaf area loss due to necrosis and chlorosis are much more important to canopy photosynthesis than are changes in the physiological attributes that influence the efficiency of light use. Therefore, potential losses of crop production due to air pollutants such as fluoride can be inferred usefully from the extent of visible injury to foliage that may be associated with different levels of pollutant exposure.
The Social and Economic Impacts of Ruaha National Park Expansion  [PDF]
Agnes Sirima
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.46001
Abstract: Displacement of people to allow expansion of protected areas involves removing people from their ancestral land or excluding people from undertaking livelihood activities in their usual areas. The approach perpetuates the human-nature dichotomy, where protected areas are regarded as pristine lands that need to be separated from human activities. Beyond material loss, displaced communities suffer loss of symbolic representation and identity that is attached to the place. The aim of this paper was to assess impacts of Ruaha National Park expansions to the adjoining communities. Five villages were surveyed: Ikoga Mpya, Igomelo, Nyeregete, Mahango and Luhango. All participants were victims of the eviction to expand the park borders. Based on the conceptual analysis, major themes generated were: loss of access to livelihood resources, change in resource ownership, conservation costs, resource use conflict, place identity, and the role of power. Similar to previous studies, results show that local communities suffered both symbolic and material loss as a result of park expansion. Furthermore, it has shown that conflicts related to land use changes have roots within (pastoralist vs. farmers; Sangu vs. Sukuma) as well as from the outside. Hence, to better understand resource access and ownership, a deeper understanding of community characteristics/composition and their local interaction is important. Further, park expansion needs to take into consideration human livelihood need.
Imagens de Santa Catarina: arte e ciência na obra do artista viajante Louis Choris
Rossato, Luciana;
Revista Brasileira de História , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-01882005000100009
Abstract: the purpose of this article is to look into the artwork that has the santa catarina island as its main theme produced by the traveling artist louis choris from his passage by the region in 1815. the scientific expeditions had artists whose function was reproducing the specimens collected and also the landscapes of the regions visited. these images insert themselves in a long-time tradition of pictorial productions which mixed art and knowledge.
Management Consulting in Human Resource Management: Central and Eastern European Perspectives in Light of Empirical Experiences  [PDF]
Jozsef Poor, Agnes Milovecz
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.43036
Abstract: We analyze the evolution of management consulting in the field of human resources (HR) for the past 20 years in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Our framework for HR consultancy is based on extensive professional experience in the region, several sets of multiyear surveys, and a review of the literature. We focus on the evolving HR theory and the current HR practice in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. Our paper relies on three major sets of multiyear surveys, conducted by the authors’ direct or indirect involvement. Special attention is paid to HR consulting in multinational firms and public sector organizations.
The European Regional Integration in the IR Literature:A Review of Scholarly Support and Opposition  [PDF]
Agnes Katalin Koos
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.12015
Abstract: Most of what has been written on the ECSC/ EEC/ EC/ EU, has not been done by international relations (IR) theorists, but by comparativists, sociologists, historians, anthropologists, legal scholars, and many others. These writings are in general classified as intergovernmentalist, federalist, and supranationalist (functionalist and neo- functionalist) in most accounts of the theoretical perspectives on the EU (Webb 1983, Rosamond 2000). Wiener and Diez 2004 add a rational choice institutional category, as well, as they think that the policy analysis within the polity developed into an autonomous brand of literature. It is only Andrew Hurrell in his chapter in Fawcett and Hurrell 1995, who makes an attempt to present the EU, as a regional integration, from the point of view of diverse IR approaches. Drawing on his classification scheme, I conduct an inquiry of the IR theories about European unification from the point of view of whether they allow for the iteration of the European experience in other parts of the world or not. The basic conclusion is that almost all IR work on Europe falls in the inter- governmentalist category, which tends to conceptualize the European Union as representing an n of 1. (Inter- governmentalism is the choice of realism and neo-realism, English School, and neoliberal institutionalism.) Within the liberal IR paradigm, there is a tension between law-focused and security-focused approaches, on the one hand, and economic approaches, on the other. The first believe in the possibility of multiple integrations, while the latter does not think that they are desirable. Critical theories are also hindered by divergent normative commitments, though the class-based theorizing is very clear about pursuing the social control of markets.
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