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Information & Communication Technology (ICT) usage in Pakistan is growing trend. However, while there is expanded concern of knowledge about how ICT is in usage in low income countries, there is information lacking on how ICT is used by the university teachers in low income countries. This research studied perception of university teachers about use of ICT, in Pakistani universities. The research through purposive sampling was drawn on 57 teachers, belonging to the public sector universities of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. This survey consisted of 29 males and 28 females. Their ages vary from 26 to 50 years. Open-ended questionnaire was used for this survey. It also showed that respondents have availability of internet at office. The association between different variables was calculated from chi-square test, and the strength of association was measured by gamma. The result showed the moderate negative association between level of age and quantity of daily time spent on computer. It also showed that no association exists between category of teacher’s gender and quantity of daily time spent on computer. For enhancement of ICT integration into education, it was recommended that teachers must have access to infrastructure relating ICT and there should be provision of sufficient training to teachers.
A major challenge for analysis of data from
observational and survey studies is dealing with model mis-specification. A common reason for model
mis-specification is the violation of the independence assumption. Model mis-specification is frequently due to the
inclusion of variables that
are correlated with the error terms (serial correlation) or due to variables
omitted from the study. The application
of standard regression models to such data could lead to over inflated results, i.e. erroneous results, and misleading conclusions.
Longitudinally designed studies make substantial improvements and provide an additional handle to control omitted variables.
However, even with longitudinal data, model mis-specification could occur because of the
nature of observations, i.e. surveys
often include objectively as well as subjectively measured variables.
Subjective variables are respon
Objective: To estimate the impact of patient’s age on surgical
outcomes in patients undergoing robotic hysterectomy. Methods: A retrospective
review of prospectively collected cohort data for a consecutive series of
patients undergoing gynecologic robotic surgery. Patient’s age and
perioperative variables were collected from the database, charts, and other
hospital records of all patients undergoing robotic hysterectomy. Results: 399
patients underwent robotic surgery for gynecologic disease. 370 patients who
were under age 70 were compared with 29 patients who were over age 70. When
comparing all patients under age 70 with patients over age 70, the mean age was
48.4 and 77 (P < 0.05), mean BMI was 32.1 and 28.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.05), mean procedure time was 185 and 211 minutes (min)
(P = 0.09), mean console time was 123 and 148 min
(P = 0.056), mean OR (Operating room) time was 237 and 273,
mean EBL (Estimated blood loss) was 71 and 65 ml (P = 0.74), Hb
(Hemoglobin) drop was 1.4 and 1.2 (P = 0.45), uterine
weight was 212 and 95 gm (P = 0.98), and length of stay was 1.4 and 1.6
days (P = 0.33) (Table 1). The patients over age 70, when procedures were combined, had a
statistically significant lower mean BMI, uterine weight and longer Operating
room (OR) time. However, when stratified by the type of procedure performed,
there was no difference in surgery times among those under 70 and over 70 years
of age. The elderly patients were more likely to have cancer, which was in
almost half the elderly patients, and thus necessitate staging. Thus adding the
performance of lymph node dissection likely resulted in the increased length of
the surgery time that was noted in the combined group (Tables 1,
Background: This study was
undertaken to address the controversy regarding immunologic response to
combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among older patients. Methods: In a
cross-sectional study all patients attending the HIV Clinic at Imam Khomeini
Hospital (Tehran) from 2010 to 2011 were evaluated. Immunologic response was
investigated using consecutive CD4+ T-cell counts in a one-year interval and
outcomes were analyzed for older (>=50 yrs) and younger (<50 yrs)
patients using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 714 patients were
actively enrolled in the clinic while 24 were 50 years or older, and had initiated
ART; a similar random group of younger patients was selected as the control.
Hepatitis C was the most prevalent co-infection in both groups. Patients with
no serologic evidence of hepatitis B and C had significantly higher CD4+ T-cell
counts than HIV/HBV co-infected patients after 12 months (p = 0.04). The average
increased CD4+ T-cell counts in 6, 9, and 12 months of cART initiation were
lower among older patients but the difference was not significant (50.75 vs.
123.08; p = 0.37, 132.87 vs. 710.58; p = 0.25, 271.27 vs. 500; p = 0.65). Conclusion:
About 11% of the registered HIV-positive patients at our clinic were 50 years
or older while their immunologic response to cART showed to be different.
Specific needs of older HIV infected patients are highly recommended to be
addressed in future treatment and care programs.