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Cultivated Mushrooms in Malawi: A Look at the Present Situation  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.41002

This paper presents the status of mushroom cultivation in Malawi. This is a developing country located in southeastern Africa between latitudes 9°25' South and 17°08' South and longitudes 33° East and 36°East. Almost all the mushroom cultivators in the country are growing Pleurotus ostreatus. This species is most preferred because of its easiness to cultivate using the low-cost cultivation method being practiced in the country. On average, the annual P. ostreatus production is estimated at 240 kg per grower. Mushroom cultivators are selling their produce at prices ranging from MK800 (USD2.04) to MK2000 (USD5.10) per kg. At present, there are four institutions that are producing spawn namely Bunda College (Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural resources), Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station, Natural Resources College and the Biology Department at Chancellor College, University of Malawi. Currently, a total of about 1307 bottles (330 ml each) of P. ostreatus spawn are sold by these four spawn producers per month. Mushroom cultivation is not that popular in Malawi. This may be, partly, attributed to lack of know-how and awareness on the economic, nutritive and medicinal benefits of cultivated mushrooms. Some of the major supermarkets do sell Agaricus bisporus mushrooms which are imported from the Republic of South Africa. They also sell Pleurotus ostreatus

Effects of Arterially Infused Hydroalcoholic Agaricus blazei Extracts on Perfusion Pressure and Oxygen Uptake in the Bivascularly Perfused Rat Liver  [PDF]
Andrea Luiza de Oliveira Valoto, Jorgete Constantin, Fabrício Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.310010
Abstract: In a preceding work we have reported experiments showing that an hydroalcoholic exctract of Agaricus blazei is able to exert purinergic effects in the isolated perfused rat liver when it is infused into the portal vein in monovascular perfusion (entry: portal vein; exit: hepatic vein). In the present communication we are presenting and discussing experiments done with the bivascularly perfused rat liver (entry: portal vein + hepatic artery; exit: hepatic vein) in order to verify if the hemodynamic effects also occur in the arterial bed. It was found that the A. blazei extract is also active when infused into the hepatic arterial bed, with differences in both sensitivity and nature of the effects on either perfusion pressure or oxygen consumption. Constriction of the arterial bed required much higher concentrations of the extract than the portal bed. The kinetics of the response was also different, with a biphasic instead of a monophasic response. These results provide a promising starting point for future studies aiming to bring to light more mechanistic details about these and possibly other effects.
Management of mushroom pathogens through botanicals
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Anti-fungal activities of leaf extracts of 26 angiospermic plants and two most popular chemical fungicides sporgon and bavistin were tested against the pathogenic fungi Mycogone perniciosa, Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and Fusarium moniliforme causing wet bubble, dry bubble and wilt diseases, respectively in white button mushroom. Leaf extracts from the Aegle marmelos, Berberis aristata, Cannabis sativa, Cleome viscosa, Erigeron karvinskianus and Leonotis nepetaefolia were found effective against tested pathogenic fungi. Among them Erigeron karvinskianus was highly effective against all the three pathogens.
Effect of Hot Water Extract from Agaricus Blazei Murill on Chemotaxis of Neutrophils  [PDF]
Mayuko Miyagawa, Yuriko Hirono, Ayaka Kawazoe, Eri Shigeyoshi, Masahito Nose, Masaaki Sakura, K. E. Pinkerton, Minoru Takeuchi
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.31A003

Hot water extract from the edible Brazilian mushroom, Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM), is used for both traditional and alternative medicine. ABM is reported to stimulate anti-tumor, anti-infection, and immune activity. However, there are few reports of how ABM affects neutrophils. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effect of hot water ABM extract on neutrophil migration, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production using neutrophils from guinea pig. Migratory direction and velocity as indicators of chemotactic activity of neutrophils were significantly (p < 0.001) increased at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/ml in ABM extract compared with control. Phagocytic activity of neutrophil was significantly (p < 0.01) increased at concentration of 5 mg/ml in ABM extract compared with control. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2 or ) by neutrophils was significantly (p < 0.01) increased at concentration of 5 mg/ml in ABM extract compared with control. These results suggest that enhancement in neutrophil chemotactic activity, phagocytic activity and ROS production are mechanisms by which ABM extract inhibits bacterial infection in the skin and dermatitis.

Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers
Colauto, Nelson Barros;Silveira, Adriano Reis da;Eira, Augusto Ferreira da;Linde, Giani Andrea;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000200026
Abstract: this study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (vcs), lime schist (lsc), s?o paulo peat (spp) and santa catarina peat (scp); and two genetically distant a. blazei strains. the fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. the biological efficiency (be) was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. the production flushes were also determined over time production. the be and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. the abl26 and lsc produced the best be of 60.4%. although vcs is the most used casing layer in brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. the strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. in average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. the casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with abl26, and better porosity to lsc and scp casing layers.
Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Agaricus blazei methanolic extract fractions assessed using gene and chromosomal mutation assays
Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira;Cabrioti, Leonardo Neves;Terezan, Ana Paula;Jord?o, Berenice Quinzani;Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina;Mantovani, Mário Sérgio;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572008000100021
Abstract: functional food investigations have demonstrated the presence of substances that could be beneficial to human health when consumed. however, the toxic effects of some substances contained in foods have been determined. reported medicinal and nutritive properties have led to the extensive commercialization of the basidiomycete fungi agaricus blazei murrill (sensu heinemann), also known as agaricus brasiliensis wasser et al., agaricus subrufescens peck or the brazilian medical mushroom (bmm). different methanolic extract fractions (me) of this mushroom were submitted to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (cbmn) clastogenic assay and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (hgprt) assay for gene mutation, both using chinese hamster ovary cells clone k1 (cho-k1). the results suggest that all the fractions tested possess cytotoxic and mutagenic potential but no clastogenic effects. further information is needed on the biochemical components of the a. blazei methanol fractions to identify any substances with cytotoxic and/or mutagenicity potential. these findings indicate that a. blazei methanolic extract should not be used due to their genotoxicity and care should be taken in the use of a. blazei by the general population until further biochemical characterization of this fungi is completed.
Variabilidade genética de isolados do cogumelo Agaricus blazei por meio de marcadores RAPD
Tomizawa, Márcia Mayumi;Dias, Eustáquio Souza;Assis, Leandro José de;Gomide, Plínio Henrique Oliveira;Santos, Jo?o Bosco dos;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542007000400045
Abstract: agaricus blazei (murrill) ss. heinem. is a brazilian native mushroom which has called the attention of several researchers all over the world due to its nutritional and pharmacological properties. the objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of some isolates commercially used, using rapd markers. nine isolates of a. blazei were analyzed, from different regions in the country, and two isolates of the a. bisporus, which served as control group. all of them are part of the collection of mushroom of the edible and medicinal mushroom laboratory of dbi/ufla. for rapd analysis, different random primers were used, generating 139 polymorphic bands. the genetic similarity evaluation was proceeded between the isolates by means of dice coefficient and grouping analysis through the upgma method. the results showed that from the 9 isolates of a. blazei, 6 (cs1, cs3, cs4, cs6, cs8 e cs9) have shown a high genetic similarity and these were considered isolates of the same origin or clones. the cs2 was the isolate which showed the higher genetic divergence in relation to the others, followed by the cs5 and cs7, with averages of 60.6%, 88.7% and 91.3% genetic similarity, respectively.
Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom
Ivana Poto?nik
Pesticidi i Fitomedicina , 2009,
Abstract: Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach) in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white oryellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. However, inefficiency of prochloraz-Mn has been noted at a level of spotting symptoms of cobweb disease. With regard to cases of resistance evolution and a general threat to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on good programmes of hygiene, and inventing and developing alternative methods of disease control.
The effect of vegetable materials on the yield and productivity of agaricus bisporus
Polat,Ersin; Erler,Fedai; Demir,Halil; Cetin,Huseyin; Erdemir,Tugba;
Interciencia , 2008,
Abstract: to produce high yield, quality crops of mushrooms is an important component of the mushroom industry. the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seven vegetable materials (two commercial neem-based products, neemazal-t/s? and greeneem oil?, containing azadirachtin-a, and five hot water extracts from plants: inula viscosa l., ononis natrix l., origanum onites l., pimpinella anisum l. and teucrium divericatum sieber) on the yield and productivity of white button mushroom, agaricus bisporus (lange) imbach. the concentration used was 5ml·l-1 water for the neem products, and 50g·l-1 dried material in water for the plant extracts tested. dilute sprays of all the materials tested (150ml per bag, corresponding to 1200ml·m-2) were applied by soil drench to the casing layer using handgun sprayers. the effect of the test materials was evaluated by yield (kg per bag) and productivity (relation between fresh mushroom weight and fresh compost weight, as %). the applications of vegetable materials by soil drench to the casing layer had a stimulatory effect on mushroom yields. yield increased with all vegetable treatments over the water-treated control. with the exception of o. natrix and o. onites extracts, significant productivity increases (7.7 to 21.9%) compared to the control were observed as a result of plant extract applications. the results suggest that plant materials may play an important role on the yield and productivity of a. bisporus, and may also be used in organic mushroom cultivation.
Supplementation at casing to improve yield and quality of white button mushroom  [PDF]
Yaqvob Mami, Gholamali Peyvast, Mahmood Ghasemnezhad, Farhood Ziaie
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.41005
Abstract: Supplementation of substrate at casing to increase the yield and quality of mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing] is an important practice in commercial production of white button mushroom. This project was done to study the effects of supplementing the compost at casing with ground corn and soybean seed applied at: 0 gas control, 17, 34 and51 gper17 kgcompost on production and harvest quality of A. bisporus. There were significant differences between supplemented and non-supplemented substrates. The34 gsoybean and51 gcorn treatments had the highest yield. There were significant differences in quality indices of mushroom due to the type and amount of the supplement. The51 gsoybean supplement produced higher protein compared with other substrates. The highest vitamin C, total phenol, total soluble solids and antioxidant capacity obtained of 34 and51 gsoybeans or 34 and51 gcorn, respectively. Increased production and quality of A. bisporus may be achieved by addition of suitable amounts of supplements.
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