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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 42357 matches for " Africa's third largest country "
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The context and dynamics of the war in Congo-Kinshasa since August 1998
Heinrich Matthee
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/28-2-215
Abstract: Thousands of fighters from at least eight African states and several insurgent groups are involved in a war in Congo-Kinshasa since 1998. This article investigates the context and dynamics of the war to determine the reasons for the conflict. The outcome of the conflict is still unpredictable at the time of writing and the article tentatively explores the chance for stability in Africa's third largest country. The article begins with an analysis of the country's political order, the economic framework, regional dynamics, the impact of the rebellion of 1996-1997, Kabila's rule and the volatile security situation by 1998. The rebellions of 1996-1997 and 1998 are compared and the escalation of the 1998 rebellion into a regional war is traced. Finally, the article looks at the prospects for regional peace and stability in Congo-Kinshasa.
The Importance of a Country Brand in the International Tourism Promotion
Anca Gabriela Turtureanu,Cornelia Tureac,Rodica Pripoaie,Alina Nuta
EIRP Proceedings , 2012,
Abstract: The authors aim at highlighting the role of tourism destination image in creating its own brand,identifying the main steps needed to ensure success. A brand has no borders and should fight to have a word,symbol image in the minds of consumers. But the branding, it becomes difficult to apply in practice. Tourismproduct is a special case, especially since it’s like the service, intangible. Country brand is organized aroundthe tourism and the economical potential of that country. So the country brand is organized around tourismand economic potential of that country. Brand means ideas, feelings, values, combinations of words orimages. If you could choose one word to explain the term "brand", it would be "identity". Just try this withwhat the nation wants to be the brand: the discovery of a country's identity.
Case of Unusual Abscess Localization in Lumbar Pott’s Disease  [PDF]
Atchi Walla, Anthony K. Beketi, Ibrahim Tine, Faré Gnandi-Piou, Komi Amakoutou, Assang Dossim
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2018.811043
Abstract: In Pott’s disease, cold abscesses usually sit and spread along the psoas muscle. This case concerned a 60 years old man who came to us with bilateral lomboradicular pain and a swelling of inguinal area and the anterior part of the left thigh. We found a 2 years long lasting story of low back pain complaint. Physical examination showed good general health status, stiffness of lumber spine, a left psoitis and no neurological deficit. CT scan going downward from the lumbar spine to the pelvic region and femoral limb with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a huge disco-vertebral destruction of L2-L3 with translation, and bilateral paramedian psoas abscess migrating subfascially toward Scarpa triangle and cleaving anteriorly mainly muscles of the left thigh. After 12 months medical treatment, the evolution has been favorable with clinical cure. The localization of the cold abscess in the left thigh anterior muscles compatment is uncommon. It is why we report this case.
How to Implement Change in Asthma Management in a Developing Country  [PDF]
Uchenna Onubogu
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2019.91003
Abstract: The goal of asthma management is to control symptoms, reduce the need for short acting beta agonist, and maintain optimal pulmonary function, and normal physical activities. Uncontrolled asthma can lead to obesity, suboptimal pulmonary function, poor quality of life and mortality. Children with bronchial asthma in River State University Teaching Hospital were just receiving acute care in the emergency room with no concrete plan for a follow up care for their chronic asthma; as a result most of the patients had uncontrolled asthma. In the hospital, the situation led to increased emergency hospitalization, resulting in decreased bed availability, increased burden on manpower and health resource utilization thereby putting more pressure on the limited health resources. Using the Kotter’s model for change management, transformational and situational leadership style, the change in the desired quality and scope of health service rendered to asthmatic patients was successfully implemented; as a result there was a decrease in emergency room visit for acute asthma by 57.5% and an increase in the uptake of scheduled clinic visits for asthma control services. The effect of these changes was an improvement in the control of asthma and quality of life of our patient cohort. Implementation of change in health service delivery is a delicate process that needs a stepwise approach in order to successfully implement and sustain the desired change.
Privatization and Employment in Post-Communist Countries  [PDF]
Chang Liu, Yasunori Ishii
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.47073

In this study, by establishing a third-country trade model of an international duopoly where two state firms from different post-communist countries compete against each other, we analyze the effects of a change in the degree of privatization on firms’ labor inputs and on the optimal privatization policy in post-communist countries. We show that a rise in the degree of privatization in a country raises labor input, output and exports of that country’s firm, while reducing those of the rival firm. Furthermore, we find that either full or partial privatization of state firms could be optimal in post-communist countries.

Non-Tumor Obstructive Hydrocephalus Treated with Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Cameroon  [PDF]
Aurélien Ndoumbe, Chantal Simeu, Mathieu Motah
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2015.54022
Abstract: Objective: In Sub-Saharan Africa, shunt dependence is a real threat for patients. For this reason, any method allowing shunt independence such as endoscopic third ventriculostomy should be promoted. The goal of this study was to show the advantages of neuroendoscopy in treating non-tumor obstructive hydrocephalus in Cameroon. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of non-tumor obstructive hydrocephalus treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy in our hospital. Results: Twenty patients (15 males, 5 females) underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy as first choice treatment for non-tumor obstructive hydrocephalus. Their ages ranged from six months to 41 years (mean 11.96 years, median 20.75 years). Fourteen patients (70%) were children (≤18 years old), 6 were adults, 7 were under age of two years and 3 were below one. Computed tomography scan was the radiological tool used in all cases. None did a magnetic resonance imaging scan. Etiology of hydrocephalus was aqueductal stenosis in 18 cases and stenosis of the foramina of Luschka & Magendie in two. Aqueductal stenosis was associated with myelomeningocele in one case and shunt failure in another one. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was successful in alleviating clinical symptoms with shunt independence in 19 cases (95%), but failed in one case. ETV success was not related to patient age. Cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred in two patients as post-operative complication (10%). Overall, ETV diminished treatment cost by 600 USD. Conclusion: Even in areas with limited medical equipment like in Sub-Saharan Africa where shunt dependence is a real danger, ETV can be routinely used to successfully treat non-tumor obstructive hydrocephalus.
Migration and Integration. The Immigration Phenomenon and the Impact of Integration Programs on the Third - Country Nationals in Romania
Daniela Cervinschi
Sfera Politicii , 2011,
Abstract: The paper analyze the impact of Integration programs on Third Country Nationals in Romania taking into consideration especially the integration programs implemented by civil society trough European Integration Fund. Following the analysis, there are a few specific problems in the integration programs implementation such as: unclear procedures, unrealistic indicators, the relationship between NGOs and the fund management authority is hierarchical, but the TCNs participants have in general a positive opinion about the utility of this specific integration programs.
The externalisation of migration control in the European Union: first steps towards the external dimension of the space of freedom, security and justice
Ryabov Yu. A.
Baltic Region , 2012, DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2012-1-5
Abstract: The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is one of the most rapidly developing aspects of European integration. It this paper, we take a look at the foreign policies involved in this process — aside from the internal development of the European Union, they concern a significant number of third countries, including Russia. In our view, the efforts to manage the flow of migrants and asylum seekers constitute a viable part of the external dimension within the AFSJ policies. Much of this article is based on the theoretical postulates introduced by the scholars of the Paris School, a school within the discipline of security studies that conceptualized the connection between migration, terrorism, asylum, crime and ethnic clashes, and its role as a major threat facing the European Union. Externalization of this complex threat (that is, externalization in relation to the European Union) is thus seen as one of the key prerequisites to advancement of migration management activities beyond the EU (i. e. externalization of migration management). In this article, we analyze the role the EU plays at the international scene and categorize the actions it took to manage the influx of migrants and asylum seekers from the 1980s until the time when supranational administrative bodies were granted mandates in the spheres of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) of the EU Member States. We conclude that it was as early as the 1990-s that the EU launched the policy which later allowed to transfer part of its security concerns to third countries.
Country image determinants: Canada’s image in the Republic of Croatia
?ur?ana Ozreti? Do?en,Vatroslav ?kare,Zoran Krupka
Tr?i?te/Market , 2007,
Abstract: Country image has been a challenging area of interest to scientists and marketing professionals for years. Results of a number of comprehensive research projects support assumptions on the importance of the impact that country image has on the decisions of consumers and businessmen with respect to the choice of products, services, business partners, markets, as well as tourist and foreign investment destinations. Knowledge of the determinants of the country image construct, their nature, intensity, direction and of the possibilities of their effective management is necessary indeed for strategic marketing reflection and action.The first part of the paper provides an overview of some international and local theoretical contributions. It was compiled in the chronological order to include the most interesting of such contributions, in the authors’ opinion, in which research objectives focus predominantly on identifying the source, nature, content, number and interdependence of different country image construct determinants. The second part describes research on Canada’s image that was conducted among the student population. Canada’s overall image was assessed on the basis of applied methodology. The estimated values of individual dimensions of Canada’s image were also determined in comparison to the estimated importance of individual country image dimensions in general. The level of the respondents’ active knowledge of Canada was analyzed by examining the content of their associations. Two hypotheses were tested. Despite limitations, results support the findings of previous research that had proven the multidimensionality of the country image construct, and the dependence of the value of its dimensions on the level of consumers’ and businessmen’s knowledge on and experience of a specific country.
Improving Water Supply Systems for Domestic Uses in Urban Togo: The Case of a Suburb in Lomé
Laurent Ahiablame,Bernard Engel,Taisha Venort
Water , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/w4010123
Abstract: The rapid urbanization facing developing countries is increasing pressure on public institutions to provide adequate supplies of clean water to populations. In most developing countries, the general public is not involved in strategies and policies regarding enhancement, conservation, and management of water supply systems. To assist governments and decision makers in providing potable water to meet the increasing demand due to the rapid urbanization, this study sought to characterize existing water supply systems and obtain public opinion for identifying a community water supply system model for households in a residential neighborhood in Lomé, Togo. Existing water supply systems in the study area consist of bucket-drawn water wells, mini water tower systems, rainwater harvesting, and public piped water. Daily domestic water consumption in the study area compared well with findings on water uses per capita from Sub-Saharan Africa, but was well below daily water usage in developed nations. Based on the surveys, participants thought highly of a large scale community water tower and expressed interest in maintaining it. Even though people rely on water sources deemed convenient for drinking, they also reported limited confidence in the quality of these sources.
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