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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2204 matches for " Africa "
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The Constitutionalization of Local Government in Developing Countries—Analysis of African Experiences in Global Perspective  [PDF]
Dele Olowu
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.32006
Abstract: The constitutionalization of local government is a distinctive contribution of developing countries to governance reform and the policy and practice of modern public administration. Local governments in most western and industrialized societies are creatures of the national government and are essentially statutory bodies-created, modified and suspended or eliminated at will by the state statutes. In fact, in the Anglo Saxon tradition, these institutions are referred to as local authorities and never local government. In seeking to enhance the capacity of sub-national entities against overbearing central authorities countries as disparate as Brazil, India, Philippines, Bolivia, Colombia, South Korea to mention only a few constitutionalized their local governments. This boosted the status and role of these entities in terms of the policy processes for local level development, services delivery and citizen participation. There have also been a number of challenges—local elite capture or corruption, capacity, coordination, equity and stability issues. However, a consistent overall consequence when properly implemented has been a positive impact on service delivery and the enhancement of the interface between local government and local governance as well as the strengthening of intergovernmental relations. A number of African countries have followed this global good governance practice but the results have been mixed. This paper reviews the experiences of Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Ghana that have all constitutionalized local governments and seek to explain the differential outcomes in each country context. This is an important issue as a number of other countries that have recently initiated fundamental governance changes have incorporated local government reform as a part of the constitutional reform process. These countries include Kenya while a number of other countries in eastern, southern and especially northern parts of the continent are likely to follow this example as they engage the constitutional reform process.
Patterns of salivary tumours at a university teaching hospital in Kenya  [PDF]
Jyoti Bahra, Fawzia Butt, Elizabeth Dimba, Francis Macigo
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.24049
Abstract: Salivary gland tumours (SGT) are rare, comprising about 5% of head and neck tumours with a higher incidence reported in the western compared with the African centres. There are few studies on SGTs that have been conducted in Africa. A descriptive retrospective study was done to describe the demographic characteristics, site distribution and histological patterns of SGT at a University teaching hospital in Kenya over a 12-year-duration. There were 132 SGTs out of 2426 biopsies of head and neck tumours, the age range was between 8 to 80 years (mean = 43.6 yrs) and the modal age was 50 yrs. The percentage of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (MiSG) (67%) were twice than that from the major salivary glands (MaSG) (33%). The sites most affected for the Misg was the palate and for the MaSG was the submandibular gland. Pleomorphic salivary adenoma (PSA) (40.2%) was the most common benign SGT while adenoid cystic carcinoma) (ACC) (20.5%) was the most frequent amongst the malignant type. The overall male: female ratio was almost 1:1. However, there were more females than males with benign SGTs, whereas an equal gender distribution was noted in malignant SGT. Benign and malignant SGT occur at a younger age. MiSGs of the palate were most frequent site of tumour and the least frequent is the sublingual gland. More than 50% of SGT were malignant and hence any SGT should raise a high index of suspicion.
From Traditionalism to Modernism: A Study of the Problem of Environment in Africa  [PDF]
Okoye A. Chuka
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.24040
Abstract: The history of the environmental philosophy carries with it the effort to overcome the medieval anthropocentric morality. Here, nature is seen from the instrumental value which they give. The instrumental value here shows the existence of things as important only as they are useful to man. The contemporary environmental ethics bring a novelty showing these environmental bodies as possessing an intrinsic value showing that they have an ethical value. The medieval ethical system which denies intrinsic value to the environment and thus posits man as being at the center of any moral system leads to the over possession of the environment by man. This over possession by man has led to the destruction of environment by man who exploits the environment in his service. This work looks at the African scenario which seems to be facing more environmental degradation in the contemporary times. The reason for this is surmised by this paper as a damaging evolution of the African history from traditionalism which seems to respect the environment to modernism which demystifies the mysteries accorded the environment and hence putting the environment into excessive use through some actions like deforestation, burning of fossil fuels and so on. This paper suggests a crusade against these damaging effects of modernism for a better preservation of the environment.
African Metaphysics and Theocracy: A Case Study of Theocratic Politics in Ogba Land, Rivers State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Uche A. Dike
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A013
Abstract: The modus operandi of this paper is centered on governance and the metaphysical forces in Ogba Land. In other words the main focus of the article is that theocracy is concomitant with Ogba metaphysics. The salient points discussed include Maduabuchi Dukor’s reflection on African cosmic environment as posited in Dukor’s four great works on African philosophy. Others include Jewish theocratic tradition, Islamic theocratic tradition and Ogba theocracy and metaphysics in the light of Dukor’s philosophy. The researcher adopted the literature approach to achieve the aforementioned objectives.

African Culture of Communication in the Global Village: The Experience of Ogba People in Rivers State Nigeria  [PDF]
Uche A. Dike
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A020

The contemporary world today has evolved into a global village. This civilization owes its existence to fast means of communication systems. Thus the global world is knighted into one political economy. Distances are reached under seconds. Notwithstanding the fast means of communication gadgets in our time, African traditional means of communication has survived the test of time. What then has been the connection of Africa traditional means of communication and politics? The answer to this question, specifically as operative in Ogba land is the main thrust of this paper. The issues in discourse includes communication and the socio-political sphere, the town crier and Ogba socio-political culture using the literature approach.

Outcomes of Trabeculectomy in Africa  [PDF]
Joella Eldie Soatiana, Marce-Amara Kpoghoumou, Fatch W. Kalembo, Huyi Huyi Zhen
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.33019

Purpose: To determine the outcome of trabeculectomy in African countries. Design: This is a review of literature for trabeculectomy conducted in Africa from 2000 to December 2012. Methods: We conducted an electronic search from the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google, and Google scholar websites for the articles of original studies on trabeculectomy conducted in Africa. Results: A total of 109 articles, published from 2000 to December 2012 were retrieved. Only 12 articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The follow-up duration ranged from 6 months to 60 months. The post-trabeculectomy IOP range was 10 mmHg to 22 mmHg with rates varying from 61.8% to 90%. The visual acuity was unchanged among 19% to 30% of the participants in the last follow-up, and the improvement rate was 36% to 81.5% while those whose condition worsened ranged from 8.9% to 30.8%. The cup-disc ratio was ≤0.5 in 13% and ≥0.8 in 83% of the participants. The failure rate of the c/d ratio was 0.9 and it increased by 0.027 units. There was a follow-up of only one study on the visual field. Conclusion: Trabeculectomy with or without application of antimetabolite appears to be a good way to lowering the IOP in Africa. In addition, the combined effect of trabeculectomy and cataract surgery produces visual benefits for the patients.

Aetiology and Demographic Attributes of Common Pleural Collections in an African Population  [PDF]
Ezekiel O. Ogunleye, Martins O. Thomas, Olugbenga O. Olusoji
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.47066

Background: Fluids collect in the pleural space under different conditions and they are of different types. Detailed study of demographic attributes and aetiology of pleural collections has not been well reported in Africa. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the demographic attributes and aetiology of common pleural space fluid collections. Methods: The sample population consisted of referrals received via clinics, admission through the emergency centre and wards. We noted their biodata, hospital identification numbers, ages and gender and other relevant parameters. Data analysis was done with special interest in gender-based diseases like ovarian carcinoma prostatic carcinoma and the like. Results: There were 372 patients over a 55-month period. The M:F ratio was 1:1 approximately. The combined mean age was 37.8 ± 0.92 years at 95% confidence interval. Their distribution was negatively skewed and it was leptokurtic. The age bracket of 20 - 49 had 65.6% of cases. There was gender based disparity in ages. Discussion: Malignant effusions constituted majority of sample size and the right side was consistently affected more often than the left side. Conclusion: Advanced malignancies are the commonest causes of pleural effusion. There is ongoing epidemiologic transition of diseases as the burden of non-communicable diseases is now juxtaposed with that of communicable diseases in Africa.

Injury Outcomes in Elderly Patients Admitted at an Urban African Hospital  [PDF]
Hassan Saidi, Benson Mutiso
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.46057

Background: Elderly patients have worse outcomes for similar severity when compared to younger trauma patients. Elderly patients form smaller proportions of the trauma population in the developing world in comparison to high income countries. Due to limited data capabilities, elderly trauma has been infrequently studied. Objective: To describe the common injuries that afflict elderly trauma patients associated resource utilization and the determinants of outcome in Kenyan urban hospital. Methods: Seventy two patients aged 60 years and older admitted for trauma from diverse mechanisms, were recruited over a period of one year (November 2009-December 2010). Data on the specific mechanism and type of injury, age, sex, intensive care unit (ICU) use, hospital length of stay, and cost were recorded. Survivors and those who died during admission were compared to determine associated factors. Elderly patients were also compared to younger trauma patients to determine significant group peculiarities using X2 analysis or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. Results: Elderly trauma cases (mean age 70.5 + 9.1 years) formed 4.5% of all trauma admissions during the study period. The intent was accidental in 84.7% of cases. The predominant mechanisms of injury were traffic (44.4%) and falls (41.7%). Females comprised 41.7% of all patients and lower limb fractures predominated (54.9%). The average injury severity score was 7.82 + 4.4. (median 9.0). The proportion admitted to the ICU was 6%. The median length of hospital stay was 24 days, cost of treatment Kshs. 27,153 Kenya shillings and overall hospital mortality rate was 13.9% (25% for ISS > 15). Only gender and head injury were predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Traffic and falls are the predominant mechanisms in geriatric trauma in Kenya. Unique features of geriatric trauma are higher female involvement, prolonged length of hospital stay and fewer predictors of mortality compared to younger patients.

Utility of the Abdominometer: A Novel Contribution to Cardiovascular Anthropometry  [PDF]
Basil N. Okeahialam, Udochukwu M. Diala, Jones Uwakwe, Ijeoma Ejeh, Ugochi Ozoilo
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.613126
Abstract: Obesity is a CVD risk factor that can be modulated for massive reduction in morbi-mortality. Traditional indices measuring it have been inconsistent and the most commonly used; BMI has proved inappropriate for Africans, not attending specifically to body fat and its distribution. With the consensus that intra-abdominal fat is the most critical for cardio-metabolic diseases, various attempts were made to measure it for risk estimation. These however require costly equipments not easily amenable for population studies. The abdominometer conceptualized by BNO has shown promise in isolated cases. This pilot study was undertaken in this restricted population to compare its utility with existing anthropometric measures of cardiovascular disease.
Profile of Malignant Bone Tumors among Rheumatology Inpatients in Lome (Togo)  [PDF]
Kodjo Kakpovi, Prénam Houzou, Eyram Fianyo, Messanvi Kpoti, Viwalé E. S. Koffi-Tessio, Komi C. Tagbor, Owonayo Oniankitan, Moustafa Mijiyawa
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2016.63009
Abstract: Background: The reel impact of malignant bone tumors in adults seems unclear in Black Africa. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological and the semiological profile of malignant bone tumors in rheumatology inpatients at Hospital University Center Sylvanus Olympio in Lome. Methods: It was a retrospective study of recorded cases conducted over a period of 19 years in the rheumatology department at Hospital University center Sylvanus Olympio in Lome, Togo. Results: One hundred and sixty-six patients (68 women and 98 men) suffered from a bone tumor. The average age of patients was 55 years old with some extremes cases of 14 and 98 years old. The most affected age group was the one between 46 and 55 years old (40 cases, 24.1%). The disease’s average duration was 17 months. These tumors were primary in 43 cases (26%) and secondary in 123 (74%). Metastases were those of prostate (44 cases, 35.7%), breast (12 cases, 9.7%), bronchus (7 cases, 5.7%), cervix (5.7%), and liver (2 cases, 1.6%). Myeloma (34 cases; 79.0%) and osteosarcoma (9 cases; 20.9%) were the main primary malignant bone tumors. However, 41 cases (33.3%) of malignant bone tumors had not been able to label. The spine was the predilection part for all above-mentioned tumors. Conclusion: This study shows the significant part occupied by malignant bone tumors in musculoskeletal diseases within the sub-Saharan population in general and Togo in particular.
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