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The goal of this study was to examine potential deficits in working memory capacity for college students that had a diagnosis of ADHD. College students with ADHD may be a particularly vulnerable group of individuals, given that success on academic work required focus and working memory for a variety of problem solving activities. Performance on these assessments involved controlled processing with simultaneous memory load. Both verbal and visual complex span tasks were used to assess working memory. Additionally, students were all administered with the Brown ADD scale in order to examine self-reported issues with distractibility. Results revealed that ADHD students performed significantly lower on the verbal complex span measure of working memory. No differences in reported inattentiveness were found. Findings were discussed in context of varying task demands in working memory and executive function measures.
This paper compares Brian Cambourne’s Conditions of Learning (1988), APA’s Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (1997), and Malcolm Knowles’ Adult Learning Theory (2011). These theories embrace the natural learning process and not the traditional view of learning. The traditional view suggests that the teacher has the knowledge, the learner is dependent on the teacher to disseminate the knowledge and the learner has nothing to contribute. In the natural learning process, knowledge is distributed in a circular and reciprocal way through a collaborative sharing of experiences, centered on real life situations, and learners are responsible for their own learning. In the 21st century knowledge is constantly changing and expanding exponentially. The natural learning process facilitates the life-long learning that is needed to remain a valuable contributor in society where learning has become a collaborative experience.
Background and Objective: Asthma is a major
health problem and a high-burden disease in the world. Unfortunately the prevalence
of asthma in adult populations in Iran is not determined precisely. The aim
of this study was to assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms and it’s relation
with ages, gender and smoking behaviour in city of Tehran. Methods: A telephone interview survey was conducted among 7150 randomly selected telephone numbers in city of Tehran. A questionnaire adapted from The
European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) with additional two
questions about smoking behaviour and hookah. Results: From 7150 eligible telephone numbers dialled there were
5500 responses (76.92%). The
study populations included 3412 female (62%), 2088 men (38%) and the mean age of responder were 31.15 ± 7.33.
Their smoking behaviour were; 71.6% non smoker, 11.9% active smoker, 16.5%
passive smoker and 7.8% used hookah. The prevalence of “wheezing in the last 12
months”, “dyspnea with wheezing” and “wheezing and two nocturnal symptoms” were
24%, 10.8% and 5% respectively. Prevalence of asthma symptoms was significantly
greater in smokers than non-smokers groups. Conclusion: In this study by using symptom based questionnaire
(ECRHS), we concluded the prevalence of asthma in Tehran adult population was between
5% to 10%. Also this study may made cross-national comparison of our findings
with other ECRHS studies possible; rates of “wheezing in the last 12 months”, “dyspnea
with wheezing” and “nocturnal dyspnea” were higher than the European Community Respiratory Health Survey median.
Role of air pollution, smoking and other risk factors for asthma should be considered.
Taking into consideration the pedagogical potential of images, we
proposed to analyze the contribution documentaries produced for educational
purposes, the understanding of concepts related to entomology. Therefore, we
organized a sequence of biology teaching. In our work, we developed diversified
activities that were planned and organized in advance, but to create teaching
situations where students could analyze their previous knowledge. The teaching sequence was subdivided into
three meetings, which were used insect images, text problem situation and
documentaries produced for educational purposes. All activities were audio recorded. Participated in the
activities of high school students involved in a program of Adult Education.
After analyzing the data generated, it can be concluded that these documentaries supported the development of more complex
representations, which leads us to infer that this type of teaching resource is
an important additional resource of learning, since it is widely considered by