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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3202 matches for " Adult "
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Self-Directed Learners or Not? Delivering Agroforestry Technology to Farmers in the Philippines  [PDF]
Jack Baynes, John Herbohn
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2011.11001
Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the usefulness of a participatory approach and adult learning principles for agroforestry extension in the Philippines. Visual observations and analysis of interviews with farmers during an extension program found that their ability to act as self-directed adult learners changed according to the situations with which they were faced. Farmers used a self-directed approach to their selection of inputs for the establishment of woodlots. However, when propagating seedlings, lack of technical knowledge caused them to shift to a state of dependency on ‘top-down’ didactic instruction. Farmers’ familiarity with agricultural crops, e.g. rice and coconuts, did not provide them with the skills to raise tree seedlings. A consequence of farmers applying their own interpretation of woodlot establishment procedures was that some sites were destroyed and seedling growth on other sites was poor. These failed woodlots are likely to present a negative image of the program in the future. Contributing influences to farmers’ limited uptake of technology may have been a lack of other sources of support and information and the difficulty of interacting and sharing ideas with their peers. The practical implications of this research are that farmers in developing countries may lack the education, support services and peer-to-peer interaction to behave similarly to self-directed learners in developed countries. A totally participatory approach to program delivery may maintain participants’ enthusiasm and commitment but may result in unforseen outcomes. Hence, a flexible approach to the use of adult learning principles may be necessary.
Unique Screener of Reading Fluency and Comprehension for Adolescents and Adults  [PDF]
Sherry Mee Bell, Kelli Caldwell Miller, Ralph Steve McCallum, Michael Hopkins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31007
Abstract: Because there are few brief reading fluency screeners available for older adolescents and adults we developed one, then investigated its psychometric properties, obtained for 161 college students. Two experimental versions of this unique, silent, group-administered screener of reading fluency and comprehension require adolescents and adults either to read and identify ideas or words (i.e., word chaining) within connected text of increasing difficulty. Both instruments and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993) were administered in counterbalanced order. Results indicate moderately strong relationships (r values ranged from .52 to .63) between both versions of the screener and Nelson-Denny comprehension and rate scores. These data provide preliminary evidence of validity for these screeners for this population. The format requiring examinees to identify ideas produced slightly higher correlations with Nelson-Denny comprehension scores than did the word chain format. Both may be useful because they can be created from existing curriculum materials and are efficient (i.e., group administered) and quick (requiring only 5 minutes).
Working Memory and Distraction: Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD  [PDF]
Tabitha W. Payne, Noah B. Z. Steege
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2007

The goal of this study was to examine potential deficits in working memory capacity for college students that had a diagnosis of ADHD. College students with ADHD may be a particularly vulnerable group of individuals, given that success on academic work required focus and working memory for a variety of problem solving activities. Performance on these assessments involved controlled processing with simultaneous memory load. Both verbal and visual complex span tasks were used to assess working memory. Additionally, students were all administered with the Brown ADD scale in order to examine self-reported issues with distractibility. Results revealed that ADHD students performed significantly lower on the verbal complex span measure of working memory. No differences in reported inattentiveness were found. Findings were discussed in context of varying task demands in working memory and executive function measures.

Adolescent and Adult Circadian Rhythm Activity Modulated Differently Following Chronic Methylphenidate Administration  [PDF]
Simon Kayyal, Tan Trinh, Nachum Dafny
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.52005
Abstract: Methylphenidate is one of the most common pharmaceutical treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). It is also gaining popularity as a cognitive enhancement and recreational substance. The current study assesses the long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPD) on the circadian rhythm activity pattern of adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The experiment lasted for 11 days of non-stop recording, the evaluation was divided into 4 phases: acute, induction, washout, and expression phases. Circadian rhythm changes in each phase were compared between the adolescent and adult rats using the following parameters MESOR (midline estimating statistic of rhythm) or average activity, amplitude (distance from MESOR to the peak activity), and acrophase (time at which peak amplitude occurs). Overall, more significant changes in circadian rhythm pattern among adult rats were observed as compared to adolescent rats. As the circadian rhythm governs the diurnal locomotor activity pattern, changes in the locomotor pattern induced by chronic treatment MPD indicate that the drug exerts a long-term effect on the circadian rhythm.
Undescended Testis in Adult: Epidemiology and Therapeutic Aspects. About 23 Cases in HKM University Teaching Hospital of Cotonou  [PDF]
Josué Avakoudjo, Fred Hodonou, Edoé Viyomé Sewa, Yannick Tandje, Jean Sossa, Magloire Yevi, Michel Agounkpe, Gilles Natchagande
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2018.87023
Abstract: Introduction: Undescended testis is a genital pathology of pediatric age. But it is not rare that the diagnosis of this pathology is made in adults, especially in low income countries with management problems as Benin Republic. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology and therapeutic aspects of this congenital malformation in adults, in HKM University Teaching Hospital of Cotonou. Material and Method: It was a retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study, conducted from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2016. Patient files served as data collecting support. All the patients aged 16 years and older were included in this study, treated and followed in the urology clinic department for undescended testis. Results: Twenty-three files were selected. The most represented age group was 16 to 20 years of age. The average consultation time from the observation of the anomaly was 213.6 months. The vacuity of the scrotum was the main reason for consultation. The absence of an intra-scrotal testis was the most clinical finding. The testis was found in the inguinal canal in 15 patients. Surgical re-positioning testis in scrotal location had been conducted for all patients and the open surgery was the only modality. Orchiectomy was performed in presence of atrophic testis. Any complication was reported in postoperative time. Later, two retractions of the testis and two testicular hypotrophies were seen. Semen control (spermograms) revealed persistence of azoospermia in three patients and astheno-zoospermia in another. Conclusion: Cryptorchidism is a pathology of the child but can still be seen in adults in our context. The main reason for consultation is the vacuity of scrotum but also paternity desire. Surgical lowering is the rule. In adults, its main purpose is the surveillance for the easy and early detection of a testicular tumor.
Undernutrition in Adults Hospitalized Patients: Magnitude and Associated Factors at the University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso  [PDF]
Léon G. Blaise Savadogo, Seydou Traoré, Clément Z. Meda, Joseph Bamouni
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2019.91003
Abstract: Background: Despite numerous advances in medicine and clinical care, in developing countries, adult undernutrition is overlooked and not considered as a sufficient medical priority. The objective of this study was to identify the magnitude of adult undernutrition and its associated factors in hospitalized patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study, performed in the university hospital in Bobo-Dioulasso, from August to September 2016, in a sample of 244 adult individuals. Patients were included in the study consecutively to their admission. A structured questionnaire was applied consisting of anthropometric, clinical and dietary data. The patients were evaluated and dichotomized into undernourished and non-undernourished. The rate of undernutrtion was reported using and associated factors were tested using the unadjusted crude Odds ratios (COR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and the Chi-square test. Results: Undernutrition occurred in 32.4% of the sample and at the univariate analysis, the variables associated with undernutrition were: recent and involuntary weight loss (COR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.45 - 4.59, p < 0.001); disease chronic evolution (COR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.23 - 4.23, p = 0.008) and females (COR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02 - 6.06, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Adult undernutrition is common in hospitalized patients. A proper early diagnosis and therapy need to be considered as medical priority of the entire healthcare team that treats adult’s inpatients.
Similarities and Differences between Adult and Child Learners as Participants in the Natural Learning Process  [PDF]
Darlene McDonough
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A050

This paper compares Brian Cambourne’s Conditions of Learning (1988), APA’s Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (1997), and Malcolm Knowles’ Adult Learning Theory (2011). These theories embrace the natural learning process and not the traditional view of learning. The traditional view suggests that the teacher has the knowledge, the learner is dependent on the teacher to disseminate the knowledge and the learner has nothing to contribute. In the natural learning process, knowledge is distributed in a circular and reciprocal way through a collaborative sharing of experiences, centered on real life situations, and learners are responsible for their own learning. In the 21st century knowledge is constantly changing and expanding exponentially. The natural learning process facilitates the life-long learning that is needed to remain a valuable contributor in society where learning has become a collaborative experience.

Building the Profession of Adult Education: The Case of the University of Botswana’s Department of Adult Education  [PDF]
Oitshepile MmaB Modise
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.623255
Abstract: A study was carried out with former graduates of the University of Botswana, Department of Adult Education to explore the issues related to professionalisation of adult education careers in Botswana. An underlying goal was to explore the unique characteristics of the Department of Adult Education (DAE) at the University of Botswana. This study took a case study approach by focusing only on the Department of Adult Education graduates. Participants’ involvement was solicited using purposive sampling. However, snowballing also was applied to help the researcher locate more former students. The methodology used was basically qualitative relying on the phenomenological paradigm. As the researcher was interested in perceptions, opinions and experience of participants as they were related to what constitutes professionalisation in the field of adult education as practised by the Department of Adult Education (DAE) at the University of Botswana. The findings indicate that adult educators acquire a set of “flexible” skills that would allow them to adapt to a changing employment situation and to develop new avenues for adult education in varied institutional settings. Stakeholders concurred that professional associations are presently weak in Botswana and made suggestions for more vigorous activity for adult education on their part. With regard to institutional support, there was broad consensus that Botswana possesses already an admirable structure for training and institutional assistance in the Department of Adult Education.
Prevalence of asthma symptoms and smoking behavior among 20 - 44 years old adults in Tehran: A telephone survey  [PDF]
Behnaz Tazesh, Azadeh Shaabani, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Abbas Entezari, Raheleh Dashti, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53064

Background and Objective: Asthma is a major health problem and a high-burden disease in the world. Unfortunately the prevalence of asthma in adult populations in Iran is not determined precisely. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms and it’s relation with ages, gender and smoking behaviour in city of Tehran. Methods: A telephone interview survey was conducted among 7150 randomly selected telephone numbers in city of Tehran. A questionnaire adapted from The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) with additional two questions about smoking behaviour and hookah. Results: From 7150 eligible telephone numbers dialled there were 5500 responses (76.92%). The study populations included 3412 female (62%), 2088 men (38%) and the mean age of responder were 31.15 ± 7.33. Their smoking behaviour were; 71.6% non smoker, 11.9% active smoker, 16.5% passive smoker and 7.8% used hookah. The prevalence of “wheezing in the last 12 months”, “dyspnea with wheezing” and “wheezing and two nocturnal symptoms” were 24%, 10.8% and 5% respectively. Prevalence of asthma symptoms was significantly greater in smokers than non-smokers groups. Conclusion: In this study by using symptom based questionnaire (ECRHS), we concluded the prevalence of asthma in Tehran adult population was between 5% to 10%. Also this study may made cross-national comparison of our findings with other ECRHS studies possible; rates of “wheezing in the last 12 months”, “dyspnea with wheezing” and “nocturnal dyspnea” were higher than the European Community Respiratory Health Survey median. Role of air pollution, smoking and other risk factors for asthma should be considered.

The Role of Moving Images in the Teaching of Biology in Adult Education  [PDF]
Simone Paix?o Araújo Pereira, Maria Helena da Silva Carneiro
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.53019

Taking into consideration the pedagogical potential of images, we proposed to analyze the contribution documentaries produced for educational purposes, the understanding of concepts related to entomology. Therefore, we organized a sequence of biology teaching. In our work, we developed diversified activities that were planned and organized in advance, but to create teaching situations where students could analyze their previous knowledge. The teaching sequence was subdivided into three meetings, which were used insect images, text problem situation and documentaries produced for educational purposes. All activities were audio recorded. Participated in the activities of high school students involved in a program of Adult Education. After analyzing the data generated, it can be concluded that these documentaries supported the development of more complex representations, which leads us to infer that this type of teaching resource is an important additional resource of learning, since it is widely considered by students.

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