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Improving bambara groundnut productivity using gamma irradiation and in vitro techniques
HK Adu-Dapaah, RS Sangwan
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: In recent times efforts are being made to improve the productivity of bambara groundnut. Studies were initiated (i) to characterise and evaluate landraces and to select superior ones for irradiation, (ii) to induce genetic variation through gamma irradiation and (iii) to use biotechnological approaches to shorten the generation cycle. The results of the study indicated that gamma irradiation induced higher genetic variation of up to four times within the varieties used in the study compared to the unirradiated control. Bambara groundnut yield could be increased through selection for number of pods per plant. Using the in vitro plus in vivo system and embryo axis explants, over four generations per year were obtained compared to 1 or 2 in the field. All the plants were morphologically normal and fertile. The shorter duration, high efficiency and genotype independency makes this system well suited for wider biotechnological applications in bambara groundnut. This novel approach is being applied to the variants/mutants obtained from gamma irradiation.
Genetic diversity within Ghanaian cowpea germplasm based on SDS-page of seed proteins
EYR Oppong-Konadu, HK Akromah, Adu Dapaah, E Okai
African Crop Science Journal , 2005,
Determination of some mineral components of wowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Using instrumental neutron activation analysis.
IK Asante, H Adu-Dapaah, AO Acheampong
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2007,
Abstract: Some mineral elements in the seeds of the cowpea were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The cowpea cultivars were made up of improved varieties (Soronko, Gbeho, Ayiyi, Asontem, Asontem1, Bengpla, Asetenapa and Adom), farmers’ accessions (87/7, 87/1, 87/27, 87/147, 87/34, 87/49, 87/83, 87/157, 87/149, 87/30, 87/153, 96/046, 87/137, 96/129, BTB 96/091, OAA 96/30, BTB 96/054), and experimental materials (IT870-677-2, Caroni, Kaase Market, 1977 and 1239). A total of 14 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Br, Cl, K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ta, Si and In) were detected in the seeds of the 30 cowpea cultivars. Five of the elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) identified are classified as major elements in the human body, while four (Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and I) are trace elements. The major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg and Cl were detected in high concentration in cultivars 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34 and 87/49, respectively. The trace elements Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and Al were detected in high concentration in cultivars 87/34, 87/27, 87/34, Bengpla, 87/34 and 87/34, respectively. From the results the following accessions could be selected and incorporated into a cowpea mineral nutritional improvement programme: 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34, 87/49 and 87/27. The presence of the five major elements and the trace elements indicates that cowpea has a rich source of mineral elements and, therefore, can be used to improve the diet of both humans and livestock.
Informed Consent under the Ghana Health Service Patients Charter: Practice and Awareness  [PDF]
Alexander Acheampong Oti, Ernest Owusu-Dapaah, Chris Adomako-Kwaakye, Daniel Kwesi Sabbah, Solomon Obiri-Yeboah, Ama Amuasi, Adu Tutu Amankwa, Ebenezer Adjei-Bediako, Eva Adu-Boakye
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.44009
Abstract: Background: Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to determine what shall be done with his/her own body. Patient autonomy and the practice of informed patient consent are now pivotal in medical practice. Aim: To assess patient’s knowledge of Patients’ Rights Charter and whether patients receive adequate information to enable them make an informed consent to a particular treatment. Methodology: Patients who were undergoing elective surgery from selected surgical departments of Komfo Anokye teaching hospital in Kumasi were randomly selected and assisted to answer structured questionnaire without the knowledge of their doctors. The study period was in June to December (2014). Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS (II) of the results. Results: 84.7% (144) had no idea about the Patients’ Rights Charter of the Ghana Health Service. 75% (128) did not know or had not heard of informed patient consent. Of those who knew of the charter, 85% (37) had ever stayed in a developed country. 60% (102) did not know of their diagnosis. 79% (134) said the doctor only asked them to either sign or thumb print the consent document without giving them treatment options or possible complications. Conclusion: Most of respondents undergoing various surgical procedures at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital were not aware of the existence of the Patients’ Rights Charter of the Ghana Health Service. Again, practitioners did not provide sufficient information to patients for them to make an informed decision about their health.
Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut
AJ Yaw, A Richard, O Safo-Kantanka, HK Adu-Dapaah, S Ohemeng-Dapaah, A Agyeman
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Pre-harvest sprouting in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) seeds belonging to sub species fastigiata is undesirable since it leads to substantial loss of seeds, both in quantity and quality. A short period of dormancy is therefore desirable in this sub-species to reduce such losses. This study was conducted to determine the heritability of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut and to transfer this trait from exotic lines (ICGV 86158 and ICGV 87378) known to posses dormancy, into the genetic background of two groundnut varieties (Shitaochi and Aprewa) widely grown in Ghana but lack dormancy. Freshly harvested seeds of mature pods from parents, F1, F2 and the backcross populations were assessed for their dormancy by incubating in petri dishes in the laboratory. The F1 progenies from crosses between dormant and non-dormant parents were dormant. The F2 progenies fitted the expected 3 dormant to 1 non-dormant ratio. The study showed that seed dormancy is controlled by monogenic inheritance with dormancy dominant over non-dormant.
Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces
JY Asibuo, R Akromah, Osei Safo-Kantanka, HK Adu-Dapaah, S Ohemeng-Dapaah, A Agyeman
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Groundnut production and utilization in Ghana has tripled in the last decade due to its high nutritive value and the number of uses it can be put into. The chemical quality of seeds of Ghanaian groundnut are different from those of other countries, however, no previous studies has been done. This study was initiated to examine the nutritional quality of 20 groundnut varieties grown in Ghana. Dry samples were examined for oil content, crude protein, total carbohydrate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, iron and manganese. Results from these analyses showed significant variation between the parameters measured. Virginia cultivars which belong to subspecies hypogaea had higher oil content (49.7%) than the Spanish and Valencia market types, which belong to subspecies fastigiata (47.3%). The mean protein content of subspecies fastigiata was however higher (25.69%) than subspecies hypogaea (22.78%). The mineral elements examined were substantial in reducing malnutrition especially in young and growing children. Broni fufuo, a Spanish market type had the highest crude protein content (30.53%) and the least oil content (33.60%) and is idea for products which require more protein and less oil. Substantial genetic variability exists for chemical composition and nutritional traits which could be utilised for various food preparations and selection for breeding purpose.
Evaluation of nutritional quality of groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) from Ghana.
J Asibuo, R Akromah, HK Adu-Dapaah, O Safo-Kantanka
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2008,
Abstract: Groundnut is the most important legume in Ghana. The crop is grown in all the agroecologies in the country; from the dry savannah regions to the moist forest areas. Several food preparations incorporate groundnut to improve the protein level, taste and flavour. Despite the importance of the crop, the chemical compositions of the varieties grown by farmers have not been analyzed according to their nutritional quality. Oil, fatty acids, protein, oleic/linoleic (O/L) acid ratio, iodine value and free soluble sugars were studied in 20 groundnut varieties grown in Ghana to determine their nutritional quality and to inform endusers which variety to choose for maximum benefit. Results indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in oil content among the varieties. Oil content ranged from 33.60 to 54.95%. Mean oil content of the subspecies hypogaea (49.7%) was higher than in subspecies fastigiata (47.3%). The major fatty acids were oleic and linoleic which accounted for 77.89% of the total fatty acids. The subspecies hypogaea had significantly higher (p<0.01) content of oleic acid (55.9%) than the subspecies fastigiata (43.3%). The sum of three fatty acids oleic, linoleic and palmitic acid constitute 89.35% of the total fatty acids of the seeds. The mean O/L ratio ranged from 1.14 to 3.66; the mean for subspecies hypogaea was 2.59 as compared to 1.28 for subspecies fastigiata. There was high correlation between oleic and O/L acid ratio (r2=0.983) and negative correlation between oleic acid and linoleic acid (r2=-0.996). The iodine value ranged from 85.77 to 98.43% and total soluble sugars from 9.20 to 13.30%. Protein of defatted portion ranged from 39.65 to 53.45%. Subspecies fastigiata had higher mean protein content than subspecies hypogaea. Generally, there were significant variations in the parameters measured in the groundnut varieties. Five varieties with O/L ratio more than 2.0 were identified and their oils would be further tested for their stability.
Evaluation of medium-maturing soybean (Glycine max (L) Merrill) lines for their nitrogen fixation potentials
J Sarkodie-Addo, HK Adu-Dapaah, N Ewusi-Mensah, E Asare
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2006,
Abstract: br> A field experiment was carried out to determine the nitrogen fixation ability of some soybean experimental lines and to determine the amount of residual nitrogen that could be made available to a succeeding arable crop. The study was undertaken at the Crops Research Institute, Fumesua, Kumasi. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Each replication consisted of 10 plots which were randomly sown to a soybean line. The seeds were sown at a spacing of 75 cm between rows and 5 cm between plants. Data collected were nodule number per plant and nodule dry weight, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, total seed yield, seed, residue and total nitrogen fixed by the soybean lines. The Total Nitrogen Difference method was used in determining the amount of N2 fixed. The results showed that all the lines nodulated freely with the naturalized rhizobia in the soil. There were significant differences, however, in the nodulation abilities of the lines. Number of nodules was negatively correlated with nodule dry weight (r=- 0.45). The amount of nitrogen fixed was positively correlated with total seed yield (r= 0.65). Line GMX 92-16-2M produced the greatest number of nodules but did not fix the greatest amount of nitrogen. Line GMX 92-6-10M left the greatest amount of nitrogen (10 kg N ha-1) in its residue. The results indicate that if farmers would grow this line, an amount of 10 kg N ha-1 would be made available to subsequent arable crop following harvesting.
Yield Evaluation of Three Early Maturing Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) Landraces at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Fumesua-Kumasi, Ghana
J.N. Berchie,J. Sarkodie-Addo,H. Adu-Dapaah,A. Agyemang
Journal of Agronomy , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the field performance of three early maturing bambara groundnut landraces which were identified in a controlled environment study by the lead author at the University of Guelph, Guelph-Ontario, Canada between October 2008 and March, 2009. Bambara groundnut is an indigenous African grain legume which is cultivated for food especially in the dry areas with short and erratic rainfall. Three bambara groundnut landraces; Burkina, Zebra coloured and Mottled Cream were evaluated for yield at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi-Ghana. The trial was sown on the 1st of April, 2009. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Plants were sown at a spacing of 50 by 20 cm at two seeds per hill and thinned to one seedling per hill at 20 DAS. Zebra coloured took the least number of days to mature (89.5 days) followed by Mottled Cream (98.2 days) and Burkina (112.5 days). Zebra coloured produced the greatest pod yield per plant (23.6 g) followed by Burkina (17.7 g) and Mottled Cream (12.5 g). The base colour of the three landraces which is cream has been identified to be the preference of bambara groundnut growers and consumers. In areas with erratic rainfall and the lower latitudes where long daylength can negatively affect bambara groundnut yields, these early maturing landraces have the potential to reduce variation in bambara groundnut yields.
Effect of Seed Priming on Seedling Emergence and Establishment of Four Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) Landraces
J.N. Berchie,H. Adu-Dapaah,J. Sarkodie-Addo,E. Asare
Journal of Agronomy , 2010,
Abstract: Bambara groundnut is an indigenous African legume which is cultivated for human consumption. Mature seeds have hard coat which prolongs seedling emergence especially under drought. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed priming on seedling emergence and establishment of four bambara groundnut landraces. Two hundred seedlot of bambara groundnut landraces; Burkina, NAV 4, NAV Red and Black eye were soaked separately in tap water for 24 and 48 h. The control was not soaked in water. Seeds were sown on the field at a spacing of 20x10 cm at approximately 5 cm depth using a measured dipper. Treatments were arranged in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates of each treatment. Days to 50% emergence were significantly different among the three treatments. No significant difference was however, observed among the landraces with respect to 50% emergence. Final seedling establishment was significantly different among the landraces (p = 0.02). Soaking bambara groundnut seeds in water for 24 h significantly enhanced final seedling establishment (p = 0.001). Seedling emergence was delayed under the control treatment. Percentage seedling establishment was also significantly lowest under the control treatment. Seed priming also significantly affected the final percentage seedling establishment. Results from this study provide farmers a cheap and easy technology which can improve on the final plant stand and yield of bambara groundnut.
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