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Renata Ribeiro Alvarenga,Adriano Kaneo Nagata,Paulo Borges Rodrigues,Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and the pollutant excretion of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age fed diets with different levels of metabolizable energy (MEn), crude protein (CP) and available phosphorus (aP), supplemented with amino acids and phytase. To evaluate the performance, 1,350 Cobb broilers at one day of age (weight of 45.5 ± 0.9g) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 4x2+1 factorial arrangement (four levels of MEn – 2,850; 2,950; 3,050 and 3,150 kcal/kg – and two of CP and aP – 17 with 0.34% and 19 with 0.25%, respectively, all with phytase, and an additional treatment – control, without phytase, with 21% PB, 3,000 kcal/kg MEn and 0.46% aP), in six replications with 25 birds. To evaluate the excretion of pollutants, 270 broilers at 14 days of age were allotted in metabolic cages in groups of five during seven days, using the same statistical design. Although the use of phytase reduced phosphorus and copper excretion, it decreased weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in all studied nutritional plans. In phytase-diets, the energetic levels linearly reduced feed intake and improved feed conversion ratio and calcium and potassium excretion. Energy reduced the nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc excretion only in 17% CP and 0.34% aP diets. Crude protein reduction in phytase-diets improved feed conversion ratio and reduced nitrogen and potassium excretion. It was concluded that phytase decreases broiler performance until the third week of age when combined with reduced levels of CP and aP in diets.
Energia metabolizável de alguns alimentos energéticos para frangos de corte, determinada por ensaios metabólicos e por equa??es de predi??o
Nagata, Adriano Kaneo;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de;Bertechini, Ant?nio Gilberto;Fialho, Elias Tadeu;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542004000300025
Abstract: two metabolism assays were carried out with chicks in growth (traditional method of total collection of excreta) in the animal science department of ufla, lavras - mg, to determinate of the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (amen) of some feedstuffs, as well as the determination of the energy values by prediction equations presented in the national and international literature. in the assay i, it was determined amen of some energy alternative feedstuffs to the corn (corn germ, corn quirera, ground and grain millet and ground and grain sorghum) and, in the second, amen of the seven corn hybrids. at same time to the experiments, it were realized laboratory analyses for determination centesimal composition of the tested feedstuffs. the food composition it was used in the prediction amen by equations. the calculated values were, then, compared with observed, using the spearman correlation and scott-knott test. in addition, confidence intervals were obtained by the metabolic assays. ground millet amen was similar to amen grain millet (3223 and 3279 kcal/kg dm respectively), being the same observed for the sorghum (3529 and 3573 kcal/kg dm, ground and grain, respectively). the amen for the corn germ was 3503 kcal/kg dm, while, for the corn quirera, it was 3351 kcal/kg dm. the corn hybrids energy values varied from 3665 to 3804 kcal/kg dm. among the studied equations, the 4021.8 - 227.55ash equation only correlated (p<0,01) with amen mean value observed in vivo, estimating the largest number of energy values inside of calculated confidence intervals. the other equations were not correlated (p<0,01) with the amen values. the results obtained in this assays, allow concluded that the 4021.8 - 227.55ash equation should be used to predict eman values of the studied feedstuffs.
Carcass characteristics of broilers at 42 days receiving diets with phytase in different energy and crude protein levels
Nagata, Adriano Kaneo;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro;Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto;Donato, Daniella Carolina Zanardo;Silva, José Humberto Vilar da;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542011000300020
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics and quality of breast meat after the inclusion of phytase in broiler diets with different levels of apparent metabolizable energy (amen) corrected for nitrogen and reduced crude protein (cp) supplemented with essential amino acids following the concept of ideal protein. a total of 1,500 cobb broilers from 22 to 42 days (initial weight of 833 ± 7 g and final weight of 2741 ± 48 g) were distributed in completely randomized design in a factorial 3x3+1 experiment (three levels of amen - 2,950; 3,100 and 3,250 kcal/kg - and three levels of cp - 14, 16 and 18% - and an additional treatment - control without phytase, with 3,100 kcal/kg eman, 19.2% pb and 0.4% available phosphorus), in six replications of 25 birds each. at the end of the trial, two birds of each experimental unit were slaughtered in order to measure carcass yield and yields of parts and to determine the chemical composition of the breast meat. the levels of amen and cp of diets with phytase influenced (p<0.05) the carcass, breast and abdominal fat yield and humidity, protein and fat percentage in the pectoralis major muscle of the birds. the levels of 3,100 kcal amen/kg and 18% cp showed higher carcass and breast yield and lower abdominal fat deposition, although with higher fat percentage in the breast meat. it was concluded that the manipulation of the energy levels of diets with reduced crude protein supplemented with amino acids and phytase influenced the yields of parts of carcass and the breast meat quality of the broilers at 42 days.
Efeito da peletiza??o e adi??o de enzimas e vitaminas sobre o desempenho e aproveitamento da energia e nutrientes em frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade
Leite, José Laureano Barbosa;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Fialho, Elias Tadeu;Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de;Nagata, Adriano Kaneo;Cantarelli, Vinícius de Souza;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542008000400039
Abstract: it was carried out an experiment to evaluate the effect of pelleting and addition of enzymes and vitamins on the performance and advantage of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days old. a total of 350 broiler chickens, cobb, males, were used ( (47g ± 2.5g) in a completely randomized design, with the treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (three diets with or without enzymes) and (two diets based on corn and soybean one meal two pelleted , with or without addition of vitamins and minerals after pelleting and the other with addition of vitamins and minerals before pelleting. the time and temperature of pelleting ranged from 5 to 9 minutes and 58oc to 62oc, respectively. after this process, the pelleted rations were ground with the same particle size similar to meal rations. in the performance assay were utilized 10 replicates and the of metabolism assay it was with 5 replicates in each treatment with density of 5 chickens per plot (cage). the diets were formulated with 95% of the nutritional recommendations and the chickens were fed with in a feed restriction of 10% from ad libitum intake, which was calculated daily from the average intake of a group of chickens control , which were submitted to ad libitum intake of a diet formulated with 100% of the nutritional levels recommended. the enzyme complex utilized was allzyme vegpro?, containing the enzymes protease, amylase and cellulase, which were added to the treatments following the manufacturer's recommendations, of 0.5 kg per ton of ration. at final of 21 days old, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated. the excreta were collected by the methodology of total collection in the 20, 21 and 22 days to determination of the energetics values of the diets and as well as the ether extract and protein digestibility coefficients. the weight gain, feed conversion, corrected apparent metabolizable energy and coefficient of digestibility of ether extract showed a significant interaction (p<0.01)
Uso do conceito de proteína ideal em ra??es com diferentes níveis energéticos, suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte de 1a 21 dias de idade
Nagata, Adriano Kaneo;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Rodrigues, Kênia Ferreira;Frietas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de;Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira;Fialho, Elias Tadeu;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542009000200037
Abstract: an experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and nutrients digestibility by broiler chickens in the period of 1 to 21 days of age. the experimental design was completely randomized, where t1 was the control treatment constituted by 21.1% of crude protein (cp), 3000 kcal of apparent metabolizable energy (amen)/kg, 0.46% of available phosphorus (ap) and 1.0% of calcium (ca). t2 was the diet with 17.0% of cp and 3000 kcal of amen/kg, t3 the diet with 19.0% of cp and 2900 kcal of amen/kg, t4 the diet with 19.0% of cp and 3000 kcal of amen/kg, and t5 the diet with 19.0% of cp and 3100 kcal of amen/kg. except for the control diet, the diets were formulated with 0.34% of ap, 0.80% of ca and supplemented with phytase. the weight gains of the chickens were similar (p>0.05), independently of the experimental diets. however, the worst feed conversion was observed for the birds fed with 17.0% of cp. the birds which were fed diets with 19.0% of cp and 3000 or 3100 kcal of amen/kg showed performance similar to those fed with the control diet. the excretion of n and p reduced, on average, 16.5% and 22.0%, respectively, and there was increase in the p retention for the birds that were fed the experimental rations. the retention of ca and n was smaller and similar, respectively, for the birds that consumed experimental rations. from these results, it is concluded that the diet with 19.0% of cp and 3000 kcal of amen/kg, supplemented with phytase, does not affect the 1-to-21-day-old broiler chickens and enables to decrease the environmental impact of the nutrients.
Qualidade da carne de peito de frangos de corte recebendo ra??es com diferentes rela??es lisina digestível: proteína bruta
Rodrigues, Kênia Ferreira;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Bressan, Maria Cristina;Nagata, Adriano Kaneo;Silva, José Humberto Vilar da;Silva, Edson Lindolfo da;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982008000600011
Abstract: one hundred cobb male broiler chickens with 42 days old were used to study the effect of different digestible lysine and crude proteins ratios on chemical composition and physical composition of the breast muscle meat. a completely randomized design and two hierarquic criteries of classification was used. the birds were raised and fed a basal diet until 21 days old and, from 22 to 42 days, they were fed a diet formulated with two crude protein (cp) levels (17.0 and 19.5%) and five digestible lysine and cp ratios, 5.9, 6.4, 6.9, 7.4 and 7.9% for ration with 17.0% cp and 5.3, 5.7, 6.1, 6.5, and 6.9% for ration with 19.5% cp, totaling 10 treatments with six replications. at 42 age days, two birds of each replicate were slaughtered for breast muscle meat sample collections. no effects were observed on breast muscle meat for the physical characteristics. in the chemical characteristics, effect in the 19.5% cp level was observed, in a way that the protein of the breast meat meat llinearly increased as the digestible lysine and cp ratio increases, not being evidenced differences for the others evaluated characteristic. the best ratio for protein deposition in the breast muscle meat in the 17.0% cp level was 5.9% (1.34% digestible lysine), and the worse in the 19.5% cp level was 5.3% (1.03% digestible lysine). however, as the others characteristic was not affected, the option to increase the digestible lysine content to improve the breast muscle meat protein deposition will depend on the cost of this operation. the protein level in the diet of broiler chickens in growth phase can be reduced up to 17.0% cp, with no effect on breast muscle meat quality of broiler chickens, by using an ideal protein concept.
Desempenho e rendimento de carca?a de frangos de corte no período de 22 a 42 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes rela??es lisina digestível: proteína bruta
Rodrigues, Kênia Ferreira;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de;Fialho, Elias Tadeu;Bertechini, Ant?nio Gilberto;Nagata, Adriano Kaneo;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982008000400009
Abstract: this paper was developed to evaluate the performance and the carcass characteristics of broiler chickens over the period from 22 to 42 days, fed with diets formulated with different digestible lysine: crude protein (cp) ratio. a completely randomized experimental design was used, according to a model with two criteria of hierarchical rank. a total of 1,200 male broiler chicks of the cobb strain, raised upy to 21 days of age, when the birds were uniformized with average weight of 879 ± 17 g and distributed into the experimental plots. the diets were isonutrient, except for the levels of cp and digestible lysine, formulated with two levels of cp 17.0 and 19.5%, and five digestible lysine : cp ratios, corresponding to 5.9; 6.4; 6.9; 7.4 and 7.9% within the diet of 17.0% cp and 5.3; 5.7; 6.1; 6.5 and 6.9% on the diet with 19.5% cp. each experimental diet was supplied to 20 birds in each one of the six replicates. at 42 days, the performance characteristics (weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion) were evaluated, and two birds from each plot were slaughtered for determination of carcass yield, cuts and abdominal fat. feed consumption was reduced feed conversion improved linearly according to the ratios evaluated within the level of 17.0% cp. there was no significant effect of the two levels of cp used, on weight gain, characteristic carcass and cuts yield. abdominal fat linearly reduced in the level of 19.5% cp. the ideal ratio was of 5.9% for 17.0% cp and 5.3% for 19.5% cp. the cp level of the diet can be reduced for 17.0%, with no effect on bird performance.
Energy and protein levels in diets containing phytase for broilers from 22 to 42 days of age: performance and nutrient excretion
Nagata, Adriano Kaneo;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro;Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto;Rodrigues, Kênia Ferreira;Lima, Gustavo Freire Resende;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000800014
Abstract: this study was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of different levels of metabolizable energy and crude protein in diets formulated according to the ideal protein concept with phytase supplementation on performance and nutrient excretion of broilers from 22 to 42 days age. it was used 1,500 coob lineage broilers at 22 days of age and with initial weight of 833 ± 7g, distributed in completely randomized design in a 3 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme composed of three levels of correct apparent metabolizable energy (2,950; 3,100 and 3,250 kcal/kg), three levels of crude protein (14, 16 and 18%) and a control treatment, totaling ten treatments with six repetitions of 25 birds each. all diets, with the exception of the control, were supplemented with phytase. for determination of excretion of pollutants, it was used 180 broilers from the same lineage at 35 days of age,placed in metabolic cages, with ten treatments each one with six repetitions and three birds per experimental unit. the protein and energy levels in diets containing phytase influenced feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, copper and zinc by the birds. the corrected apparent metabolizable energy level in the diets for broilers in the studied period must be increased up to 3,250 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy and the levels of crude protein, calcium and phosphorus must be reduced down to 18, 0.70 and 0.31%, respectively, provided that supplemented with amino acids and phytase to improve the performance and to reduce excretion of pollutants by birds.
Time-integrated North Atlantic Oscillation as a proxy for climatic change  [PDF]
Adriano Mazzarella
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51A023

The time-integrated yearly values of North Atlantic Oscillation (INAO) are found to be well correlated to the sea surface temperature. The results give the feasibility of using INAO as a good proxy for climate change and contribute to a more complete picture of the full range of variability inherent in the climate system. Moreover, the extrapolation in the future of the well identified 65-year harmonic in INAO suggests a gradual decline in global warming starting from 2005.

Pulse-Driven Magnetoimpedance Sensor Detection of Cardiac Magnetic Activity
Shinsuke Nakayama, Kenta Sawamura, Kaneo Mohri, Tsuyoshi Uchiyama
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025834
Abstract: This study sought to establish a convenient method for detecting biomagnetic activity in the heart. Electrical activity of the heart simultaneously induces a magnetic field. Detection of this magnetic activity will enable non-contact, noninvasive evaluation to be made. We improved the sensitivity of a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI) sensor, which is used as an electric compass in mobile phones and as a motion sensor of the operation handle in computer games, toward a pico-Tesla (pT) level, and measured magnetic fields on the surface of the thoracic wall in humans. The changes in magnetic field detected by this sensor synchronized with the electric activity of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The shape of the magnetic wave was largely altered by shifting the sensor position within 20 mm in parallel and/or perpendicular to the thoracic wall. The magnetic activity was maximal in the 4th intercostals near the center of the sterna. Furthermore, averaging the magnetic activity at 15 mm in the distance between the thoracic wall and the sensor demonstrated magnetic waves mimicking the P wave and QRS complex. The present study shows the application of PMI sensor in detecting cardiac magnetic activity in several healthy subjects, and suggests future applications of this technology in medicine and biology.
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