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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3931 matches for " Adrian Lambourne "
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Consultant Input in Acute Medical Admissions and Patient Outcomes in Hospitals in England: A Multivariate Analysis
Derek Bell, Adrian Lambourne, Frances Percival, Anthony A. Laverty, David K. Ward
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061476
Abstract: Recent recommendations for physicians in the UK outline key aspects of care that should improve patient outcomes and experience in acute hospital care. Included in these recommendations are Consultant patterns of work to improve timeliness of clinical review and improve continuity of care. This study used a contemporaneous validated survey compared with clinical outcomes derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, between April 2009 and March 2010 from 91 acute hospital sites in England to evaluate systems of consultant cover for acute medical admissions. Clinical outcomes studied included adjusted case fatality rates (aCFR), including the ratio of weekend to weekday mortality, length of stay and readmission rates. Hospitals that had an admitting Consultant presence within the Acute Medicine Unit (AMU, or equivalent) for a minimum of 4 hours per day (65% of study group) had a lower aCFR compared with hospitals that had Consultant presence for less than 4 hours per day (p<0.01) and also had a lower 28 day re-admission rate (p<0.01). An ‘all inclusive’ pattern of Consultant working, incorporating all the guideline recommendations and which included the minimum Consultant presence of 4 hours per day (29%) was associated with reduced excess weekend mortality (p<0.05). Hospitals with >40 acute medical admissions per day had a lower aCFR compared to hospitals with fewer than 40 admissions per day (p<0.03) and had a lower 7 day re-admission rate (p<0.02). This study is the first large study to explore the potential relationships between systems of providing acute medical care and clinical outcomes. The results show an association between well-designed systems of Consultant working practices, which promote increased patient contact, and improved patient outcomes in the acute hospital setting.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY RATES IN YOUNG ADULTS
Kate Lambourne
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function in younger adults. It was hypothesized that there would be a relationship between the exercise rates of adults (aged 19-30) and working memory capacity. Participants were 42 male and female college students who were divided into groups based on self-reported physical activity level. The participants in one group (n = 23) met the physical activity requirements specified by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and participants in the other group (n = 19) did not, and therefore acted as the control. A reading span task was used to assess the participant's working memory capacity. Analysis of variance results demonstrated that exercise was associated with enhanced memory (F = 9.06, p = 0.005, η = 0.21). Differences in working memory capacity as a function of gender and department were not statistically significant, nor were any interactions between these variables. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that exercise is related to working memory capacity in younger adults
Boosted $hh \rightarrow b\bar{b}b\bar{b}$: a new topology in searches for TeV-scale resonances at the LHC
Ben Cooper,Nikos Konstantinidis,Luke Lambourne,David Wardrope
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.114005
Abstract: It is widely believed that fully hadronic final states are not competitive in searches for new physics at the Large Hadron Collider due to the overwhelming QCD backgrounds. In this letter, we present a particle-level study of the topology arising when a TeV-scale resonance decays to two Higgs bosons and these subsequently decay to $b\bar{b}$, leading to two back-to-back boosted dijet systems. We show that selecting events with this topology dramatically reduces all backgrounds, thus enabling very competitive searches for new physics in a variety of models. For a resonance with mass 1 TeV and width around 60 GeV, we find that ATLAS or CMS could have a sensitivity to a $\sigma \times BR$ as small as a few fb with the LHC data collected in 2012. These conclusions are also relevant to the boosted $Zh\rightarrow b\bar{b}b\bar{b}$ and $ZZ\rightarrow b\bar{b}b\bar{b}$ final states, which would further increase the potential sensitivity to new physics as well as to Standard Model processes like longitudinal vector boson scattering.
What Is a Good Legislative Definition?  [PDF]
Adrian Sgarbi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.41004
Abstract:

When normative authorities (that is to say, “Legislators”) assume the task of assigning the meaning of normative texts, they use, fundamentally, two techniques: these are called “interpretative laws” and “legislative definitions”. In this study, relating to the research “problems of production and normative performance”, we deal with the analysis of definitions in the legal field.

Lay Knowledge of Dyslexia  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412136
Abstract:

This study looks at the extent to which lay people believe many myths associated with dyslexia. It examined attitudes and beliefs about the causes, manifestations and treatments for dyslexia in a British population sample. A community sample of 380 participants (158 Male; 212 Female) completed a 62-item questionnaire on their attitudes to, and beliefs about, dyslexia. The statements were derived from various “dyslexia facts and myths” websites set up to help people understand dyslexia; academic research papers; and in-depth exploratory interviews with non-specialist people regarding their understanding of dyslexia. Item analysis showed participants were poorly informed about many aspects of dyslexia. Factor analysis returned a structure of latent attitudes in five factors (Characteristics, Biological and Social Causes, Treatment and Prevention). Regression analysis revealed that participant political orientation and education (formal and informal acquaintances with dyslexia sufferers) were the best predictors of attitudes concerning the behavioural manifestations, aetiology and treatments of dyslexia. Limitations and implications of this research were considered.

The Mystery of Freedom and Neurolaw  [PDF]
Adrian Sgarbi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.62014
Abstract: In the case of Steward Mach. Co. v. Davis, Judge Benjamin Nathan Cardozo said that “Till now the law has been guided by a robust common sense which assumes the freedom of the will as a working hypothesis in the solution of its problems”. This hypothesis, which has previously been defended almost wholly within the confines of philosophical reflections on human responsibility, now seems to be undergoing a new wave of considerations. This is because neuroscience has been brought to bear in court proceedings in order to challenge the existence of human free will, in cases of both civil and criminal law. In the media, to a greater or lesser degree, various specialists have published the results of all kinds of experiments along with diagrams and graphs, technical advice and new machines to back up their claims. Currently, the use of some of these techniques in court and their lack of sustainability in many situations has, in turn, been emphasized, especially in the context of judicial proof (and reasonable doubt). In this sense, we can say that the issue of free will has been considered, but not always clearly, on three different levels: as a problem of description, of substance or of prescription. At the descriptive level is the question of what exactly we mean when we talk about free will. On the substantive level is the question of whether or not human beings actually possess this quality called free will. And finally, on the prescriptive level is the question of what we do with this knowledge. In this article, we offer an analysis of the problematic relationships between these three levels, beginning with a critical look at certain descriptive positions. In the end, it is suggested that these isolated descriptions, whether in the field of neuroscience, or philosophy, have led to an impasse whose effect is that the assertion that freedom in human behaviour is an illusion, and free will, a great mystery. As a possible way out, we present three modifications to the debate in order to extend its intelligibility beyond the boundaries of the legal profession.
What You Can and Can’t Change: Lay Perspectives on Seligman’s Guide  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.612142
Abstract: Seligman (2007) reported 10 facts about what psychological processes and problems can be changed, and those that cannot be changed. Over 250 participants completed a questionnaire where they indicated the extent to which they agreed with Seligman, as well as a measure of the Big Five personality traits, CORE self-beliefs and a measure of Dweck’s (2012) “Change Mindset” questionnaire. Lay people did not agree with Seligman and factor analysis did not confirm his grouping. Regressions indicated that age, sex, religiousness and Mindset were related to beliefs about change. Limitations are noted.
Personality, Emotional and Self-Assessed Intelligence and Right Wing Authoritarianism  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.616207
Abstract: Two studies examined correlates of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In the first study (N = 260), lower self-assessments of intelligence were associated with higher RWA scores. In the second study (N = 328), personality traits and emotional intelligence but not self-assessed intelligence were related to RWA beliefs. Higher RWA scorers tended to be Closed-to-Experience, Conscientious, and Neurotics with higher trait emotional intelligence. Together these accounted for 20% of the variance.
The Relationship between Cognitive Ability, Emotional Intelligence and Creativity  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.72021
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between IQ, EQ and creativity. In all 158 British adults completed a cognitive ability, creativity and emotional intelligence test. Cognitive ability was positively but not significantly correlated with divergent thinking (creativity) but significantly negatively with both facet and domain emotional intelligence scores.
Airway Characteristics and Safe Management of Spontaneously Breathing Patients: Risks of Sedation and Analgesia and Changes in Wakefulness  [PDF]
Adrian Reber
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.711079
Abstract: The goal of safe airway management is to maintain a patent airway. Lack of knowledge of the anatomical morphology and changes that may occur in the upper airway during sedation and unconsciousness may lead to critical incidents and hazardous complications. This review focuses on the risks of sedation and analgesia and changes in wakefulness on airway patency in spontaneously breathing patients. Furthermore, key elements of airway management are presented and discussed.
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