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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461910 matches for " Adriaan A. Voors "
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Renal effects of vasodilators in acute heart failure  [PDF]
Mattia A. E. Valente, Adriaan A. Voors
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.32A002

Vasodilator therapy is common in acute heart failure (AHF) patients, although evidence for morbidity and mortality benefits is limited for many of these drugs. AHF is frequently accompanied by renal dysfunction, which is a strong, independent predictor for poor prognosis. Several hemodynamic and neurohormonal effects of vasodilators—including preload and afterload reduction, activation or inhibition of neurohormonal and inflammatory cascades—have the potential to modulate cardiorenal interaction and impact renal function. However, the effect of vasodilators on renal function in acute heart failure is often poorly described. In this review, we provide an overview of the known cardiorenal effects of traditional and novel vasodilators in patients with acute heart failure.

Statins in the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure: A Systematic Review
Pim van der Harst ,Adriaan A Voors,Wiek H van Gilst,Michael B?hm,Dirk J van Veldhuisen
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030333
Abstract: Background The efficacy of statin therapy in patients with established chronic heart failure (CHF) is a subject of much debate. Methods and Findings We conducted three systematic literature searches to assess the evidence supporting the prescription of statins in CHF. First, we investigated the participation of CHF patients in randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of statins in reducing major cardiovascular events and mortality. Second, we assessed the association between serum cholesterol and outcome in CHF. Finally, we evaluated the ability of statin treatment to modify surrogate endpoint parameters in CHF. Using validated search strategies, we systematically searched PubMed for our three queries. In addition, we searched the reference lists from eligible studies, used the “see related articles” feature for key publications in PubMed, consulted the Cochrane Library, and searched the ISI Web of Knowledge for papers citing key publications. Search 1 resulted in the retrieval of 47 placebo-controlled clinical statin trials involving more than 100,000 patients. CHF patients had, however, been systematically excluded from these trials. Search 2 resulted in the retrieval of eight studies assessing the relationship between cholesterol levels and outcome in CHF patients. Lower serum cholesterol was consistently associated with increased mortality. Search 3 resulted in the retrieval of 18 studies on the efficacy of statin treatment in CHF. On the whole, these studies reported favorable outcomes for almost all surrogate endpoints. Conclusions Since CHF patients have been systematically excluded from randomized, controlled clinical cholesterol-lowering trials, the effect of statin therapy in these patients remains to be established. Currently, two large, randomized, placebo-controlled statin trials are under way to evaluate the efficacy of statin treatment in terms of reducing clinical endpoints in CHF patients in particular.
Proton, Electron, and Ion Heating in the Fast Solar Wind from Nonlinear Coupling Between Alfvenic and Fast-Mode Turbulence
Steven R. Cranmer,Adriaan A. van Ballegooijen
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/92
Abstract: In the parts of the solar corona and solar wind that experience the fewest Coulomb collisions, the component proton, electron, and heavy ion populations are not in thermal equilibrium with one another. Observed differences in temperatures, outflow speeds, and velocity distribution anisotropies are useful constraints on proposed explanations for how the plasma is heated and accelerated. This paper presents new predictions of the rates of collisionless heating for each particle species, in which the energy input is assumed to come from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We first created an empirical description of the radial evolution of Alfven, fast-mode, and slow-mode MHD waves. This model provides the total wave power in each mode as a function of distance along an expanding flux tube in the high-speed solar wind. Next we solved a set of cascade advection-diffusion equations that give the time-steady wavenumber spectra at each distance. An approximate term for nonlinear coupling between the Alfven and fast-mode fluctuations is included. For reasonable choices of the parameters, our model contains enough energy transfer from the fast mode to the Alfven mode to excite the high-frequency ion cyclotron resonance. This resonance is efficient at heating protons and other ions in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field, and our model predicts heating rates for these species that agree well with both spectroscopic and in situ measurements. Nonetheless, the high-frequency waves comprise only a small part of the total Alfvenic fluctuation spectrum, which remains highly two-dimensional as is observed in interplanetary space.
Can the Solar Wind be Driven by Magnetic Reconnection in the Sun's Magnetic Carpet?
Steven R. Cranmer,Adriaan A. van Ballegooijen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/720/1/824
Abstract: The physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind remain unknown after many years of study. Some have suggested that the wind is driven by waves and turbulence in open magnetic flux tubes, and others have suggested that plasma is injected into the open tubes by magnetic reconnection with closed loops. In order to test the latter idea, we developed Monte Carlo simulations of the photospheric "magnetic carpet" and extrapolated the time-varying coronal field. These models were constructed for a range of different magnetic flux imbalance ratios. Completely balanced models represent quiet regions on the Sun and source regions of slow solar wind streams. Highly imbalanced models represent coronal holes and source regions of fast wind streams. The models agree with observed emergence rates, surface flux densities, and number distributions of magnetic elements. Despite having no imposed supergranular motions, a realistic network of magnetic "funnels" appeared spontaneously. We computed the rate at which closed field lines open up (i.e., recycling times for open flux), and we estimated the energy flux released in reconnection events involving the opening up of closed flux tubes. For quiet regions and mixed-polarity coronal holes, these energy fluxes were found to be much lower than required to accelerate the solar wind. For the most imbalanced coronal holes, the energy fluxes may be large enough to power the solar wind, but the recycling times are far longer than the time it takes the solar wind to accelerate into the low corona. Thus, it is unlikely that either the slow or fast solar wind is driven by reconnection and loop-opening processes in the magnetic carpet.
Connecting the Sun's High-Resolution Magnetic Carpet to the Turbulent Heliosphere
Steven R. Cranmer,Adriaan A. van Ballegooijen,Lauren N. Woolsey
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/125
Abstract: The solar wind is connected to the Sun's atmosphere by flux tubes that are rooted in an ever-changing pattern of positive and negative magnetic polarities on the surface. Observations indicate that the magnetic field is filamentary and intermittent across a wide range of spatial scales. However, we do not know to what extent the complex flux tube topology seen near the Sun survives as the wind expands into interplanetary space. In order to study the possible long-distance connections between the corona and the heliosphere, we developed new models of turbulence-driven solar wind acceleration along empirically constrained field lines. We used a potential-field model of the Quiet Sun to trace field lines into the ecliptic plane with unprecedented spatial resolution at their footpoints. For each flux tube, a one-dimensional model was created with an existing wave/turbulence code that solves equations of mass, momentum, and energy conservation from the photosphere to 4 AU. To take account of stream-stream interactions between flux tubes, we used those models as inner boundary conditions for a time-steady MHD description of radial and longitudinal structure in the ecliptic. Corotating stream interactions smear out much of the smallest-scale variability, making it difficult to see how individual flux tubes on granular or supergranular scales can survive out to 1 AU. However, our models help clarify the level of "background" variability with which waves and turbulent eddies should be expected to interact. Also, the modeled fluctuations in magnetic field magnitude were seen to match measured power spectra quite well.
The Large-Scale Distribution and Motions of Older Stars in Orion
Anthony G. A. Brown,Fredrick M. Walter,Adriaan Blaauw
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We review the current knowledge of the population of `older' stars in the Orion OB1 association, specifically those in subgroups 1a and 1b. We briefly outline the history of the subject and then continue with a summary of the present state of knowledge of the early-type stars in Orion OB1. New results from the Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions will be presented. The main result is that subgroup 1a is located at about 330 pc from the Sun, much closer than the previously determined distance, and about 100 pc distant from the other subgroups of the association and the Orion molecular clouds. Unfortunately, due to the unfavorable kinematics of the association with respect to the Galactic background, Hipparcos proper motions do not allow a clear kinematic separation of the association from the field. For this purpose accurate and homogeneous radial velocities are needed. Traditionally, the massive O and B stars have received most of the attention in the studies of OB associations. However, we will present results showing that significant numbers of low-mass stars are associated with Orion OB1. Unbiased, optically complete, spectroscopic and photometric surveys of areas within subgroups 1a and 1b have the potential to determine the complete low-mass stellar population, down to the brown dwarf limit. This will provide much insight into the overall initial mass function and studies of the kinematics of the low-mass stars will yield insights into the dispersal of the association.
Algunas tesis para la crítica de Emmanuel Levinas a Heidegger
Adriaan Peperzak
Signos filosóficos , 2011,
Solar Magnetic Carpet I: Simulation of Synthetic Magnetograms
Karen A. Meyer,Duncan H. Mackay,Adriaan A. van Ballegooijen,Clare E. Parnell
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-011-9809-3
Abstract: This paper describes a new 2D model for the photospheric evolution of the magnetic carpet. It is the first in a series of papers working towards constructing a realistic 3D non-potential model for the interaction of small-scale solar magnetic fields. In the model, the basic evolution of the magnetic elements is governed by a supergranular flow profile. In addition, magnetic elements may evolve through the processes of emergence, cancellation, coalescence and fragmentation. Model parameters for the emergence of bipoles are based upon the results of observational studies. Using this model, several simulations are considered, where the range of flux with which bipoles may emerge is varied. In all cases the model quickly reaches a steady state where the rates of emergence and cancellation balance. Analysis of the resulting magnetic field shows that we reproduce observed quantities such as the flux distribution, mean field, cancellation rates, photospheric recycle time and a magnetic network. As expected, the simulation matches observations more closely when a larger, and consequently more realistic, range of emerging flux values is allowed (4e16 - 1e19 Mx). The model best reproduces the current observed properties of the magnetic carpet when we take the minimum absolute flux for emerging bipoles to be 4e16 Mx. In future, this 2D model will be used as an evolving photospheric boundary condition for 3D non-potential modeling.
Extended Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration Over the Solar Cycle
Steven R. Cranmer,John L. Kohl,Mari Paz Miralles,Adriaan A. van Ballegooijen
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: This paper reviews our growing understanding of the physics behind coronal heating (in open-field regions) and the acceleration of the solar wind. Many new insights have come from the last solar cycle's worth of observations and theoretical work. Measurements of the plasma properties in the extended corona, where the primary solar wind acceleration occurs, have been key to discriminating between competing theories. We describe how UVCS/SOHO measurements of coronal holes and streamers over the last 14 years have provided clues about the detailed kinetic processes that energize both fast and slow wind regions. We also present a brief survey of current ideas involving the coronal source regions of fast and slow wind streams, and how these change over the solar cycle. These source regions are discussed in the context of recent theoretical models (based on Alfven waves and MHD turbulence) that have begun to successfully predict both the heating and acceleration in fast and slow wind regions with essentially no free parameters. Some new results regarding these models - including a quantitative prediction of the lower density and temperature at 1 AU seen during the present solar minimum in comparison to the prior minimum - are also shown.
UV spectra of benzene isotopomers and dimers in helium nanodroplets
Roman Schmied,Pierre Carcabal,Adriaan M. Dokter,Vincent P. A. Lonij,Kevin K. Lehmann,Giacinto Scoles
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1063/1.1767515
Abstract: We report spectra of various benzene isotopomers and their dimers in helium nanodroplets in the region of the first Herzberg-Teller allowed vibronic transition 610 1B2u<-1A1g (the A00 transition) at ~260 nm. Excitation spectra have been recorded using both beam depletion detection and laser-induced fluorescence. Unlike for many larger aromatic molecules, the monomer spectra consist of a single "zero-phonon" line, blueshifted by ~30 cm-1 from the gas phase position. Rotational band simulations show that the moments of inertia of C6H6 in the nanodroplets are at least 6 times larger than in the gas phase. The dimer spectra present the same vibronic fine structure (though modestly compressed) as previously observed in the gas phase. The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of the dimer are found to be equal to those of the monomer, implying substantial inhibition of excimer formation in the dimer in helium.
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